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Prose Models

by
Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780155064041

ISBN10:
0155064045
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/18/2001
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $135.95

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Summary

Containing over 110 selections by contemporary and classic writers, PROSE MODELS is a rhetorical reader that covers the major elements of paragraph, essay and methods of development with an emphasis on Argument and Persuasive writing.

Table of Contents

Preface
Preface to the Student: How to Use this Book Contents by Theme
Part I: Organizing the Essay 1(80)
Introduction
1(4)
Topic Sentence, Thesis, and Unity
5(29)
Topic Sentence and Unity in the Paragraph
5(8)
Obituary
7(1)
Gretel Ehrlich
``A big ranch is a miniature society.''
About Men
8(3)
Gretel Ehrlich
The cowboy is not the man we see in cigarette ads.
The Shape of the River
11(2)
Mark Twain
A cub pilot learns to navigate a riverboat on the Mississippi
Thesis and Unity in the Essay
13(21)
Shooting an Elephant
14(9)
George Orwell
A British Police inspector in Burma makes a discovery about colonial governments
A well in India
23(5)
Peggy
Pierre Streit
A woman challenges tradition in a rural Indian village
Velva, North Dakota
28(6)
Eric Sevareid
The author discovers that his midwestern hometown has changed
Main and Subordinate Ideas
34(13)
The Paragraph
34(4)
Queen Victoria at the End of Her Life
35(3)
Lytton Strachey
Queen Victoria mourned her dead husband in unusual ways
The Essay
38(9)
The Blast Furnace
39(4)
Sally Carrighar
The author learned truths about life on Sunday afternoon walks with her father
Why Did I Ever Play Football?
43(4)
David Holahan
The author explains why he enjoyed playing college football
Order of Ideas
47(13)
The Paragraph
47(3)
In an Elevator
48(2)
E. B. White
``In an elevator, ascending with strangers to familiar heights, the breath congeals, the body stiffens, the spirit marks time.''
The Essay
50(10)
The Purpose of Lifting
51(4)
Leonard Kriegel
A man crippled by polio explains why he lifts weights
Marrying Absurd
55(5)
Joan Didion
Young people who marry in Las Vegas have strange expectations
Beginning, Middle, and End
60(11)
Mountain Day
62(4)
Susan Allen Toth
On a fall holiday students at a New English college bike in the countryside
Ben & Jerry's
66(5)
Calvin Trillin
A popular ice cream has an unusual history
Transitions
71(10)
Communication
72(3)
Lewis Thomas
Human language is different from that of other species
Mary
75(6)
Mary E. Mebane
The author remembers her mother and her North Carolina childhood
Part II: Description, Narration, Exposition 81(142)
Introduction
81(2)
Description
83(23)
The World's Largest Pile of Scrap Tires
84(4)
John McPhee
Scrap tires border a California valley half a mile
The Buick
88(4)
W. S. Merwin
``The Buick started up, waking huge echoes, and the tail lights moved toward us with the smoke rising around them.''
Hoyt Street
92(6)
Mary Helen Ponce
``The barrio was laid out like a huge square. The streets ran up and down with nary a curve or dead end.''
The Barrio
98(8)
Ronald Takaki
Chicanos create a Mexican-American world in the barrios of the United States
Narration
106(17)
Flying
107(5)
James Salter
``The winds aloft had been incorrectly forecast. Unknown to us, they were from a different direction and stronger. Alone and confident we headed west.''
Learning to See
112(4)
Eudora Welty
``Riding behind my father I could see that the road had him by the shoulders, by the hair under his driving cap. It took my mother to make him stop.''
The American Invasion of Macun
116(7)
Esmeralda Santiago
Experts come to a rural Puerto Rican community to give instructions on healthy living
Example
123(10)
New York
123(2)
E. B. White
New York is too implausible a city to work, and yet it does
Thursday Morning in a New York Subway Station
125(3)
Tom Wolfe
Young lovers embrace during morning rush hour at a New York City subway station
Discipline---To What End?
128(5)
Margaret Mead
Rhoda Metraux
Two anthropologists investigate how children are disciplined in different cultures
Classification and Division
133(12)
Kinds of Discipline
134(5)
John Holt
Children learn from the disciplines of Superior Force, Culture, and Nature
The Newspaper
139(3)
Allan Nevins
The accuracy of a newspaper depends on the kind of information it reports
Hoppers
142(3)
Garrison Keillor
People hop over water on a New York City street
Definition
145(23)
Monkeying
146(3)
Carol Bly
The word monkeying has special meaning in farm life
Crime
149(3)
Lawrence M. Friedman
Not all harmful or evil acts are crimes
The Sooners
152(2)
Philip Hamburger
The word Sooner reflects the history and values of present-day Oklahoma
``Manly'' and ``Womanly''
154(5)
Casey Miller
Kate Swift
Dictionary definitions reveal differing American attitudes toward men and women
The Underclass
159(3)
Herbert L. Gans
The term underclass encourages us to blame people for their poverty
Newspapers
162(6)
Irving Lewis Allen
Slang words for nineteenth-century newspapers had various origins
Comparison and Contrast
168(16)
Televisions and Reading
169(3)
Marie Winn
Television controls the experience of the viewer
City People and Country People
172(3)
Edward Hoagland
Attitudes vary among city people and country people
the English and the Americans
175(4)
Edward T. Hall
The English and Americans have different attitudes toward privacy
Digital Literacy
179(5)
Richard Lanham
The two kinds of literacy existing today work in different ways
Analogy
184(13)
What Makes a Writer
187(1)
Loren Eiseley
The writer's brain resembles the artist's hidden storehouse of pictures
The Cosmic Prison
187(4)
Loren Eiseley
Time and space limit our exploration of the universe
The Education of a Physicist
191(6)
Michio Kaku
Early experiences encouraged the author to become a theoretical physicist
Process
197(11)
Sounding
197(3)
Marx Twain
A cub pilot learns to ``sound'' the river at low stages
Outdoor Cooking
200(5)
Jearl Walker
There are several ways to cook outdoors
How the Spider Spins Its Web
205(3)
John Richards
Orb-webs are intricate in construction
Cause and Effect
208(15)
The Telephone
209(2)
John Brooks
The telephone is a paradoxical invention
Why Nothing Works
211(3)
Marvin Harris
Modern industrial society is responsible for why nothing works
The Growth of Cities
214(9)
James Trefil
New kinds of transportation influenced the growth of cities
Part III: Matters of Style: Diction 223(62)
Introduction
223(2)
Usage
225(12)
In the Land of ``Coke-Cola''
227(3)
William Lest Heat Moon
A traveller orders the $4.50 special in a rural Georgia restaurant
Newsweek, Being Cool
230(4)
A young man becomes the ``guru of cool'' in 1950s Ohio
A Memo from Dad
234(3)
Robert Sullivan
``As your father, I am happy to report that our family had a marvellously successful first quarter this year.''
Tone
237(9)
Osu!
238(5)
Mark Singer
Eight-year-old Joshua Feldman has a karate-birthday-party
Surfing
243(3)
William Finnegan
``It's a clean takeoff: a sudden sense of height fusing with a deep surge of speed.''
Imagery
246(5)
The Rocky Shores
246(5)
Rachel Carson
Walking through an evergreen forest to a rocky seacoast has a special enchantment
Figurative Language
251(9)
Watching a Night Launch of the Space Shuttle
252(4)
Diane Ackerman
The space shuttle expresses a human aspiration
Time is Money
256(4)
George Lakoff
Mark Johnson
Metaphorical expressions structure how we think and act
Concreteness
260(10)
Mortality
261(1)
Bailey White
``So now I have two cars. I call them my new car and my real car. Most of the time I drive my new car. But on some days I go out to the barn and get in my real car.''
Fireworks
262(8)
George Plimpton
Fireworks made the Fourth of July the best day of the year
Euphemism and Jargon
270(15)
Learning the Language
271(4)
Perri Klass
Her first months working in a hospital, a medical student learns the special language of doctors
Nipping Cliches in the Bud
275(3)
Sydney J. Harris
``I should like to read or hear, just once, about an apology that is not abject, a void that is not aching, a test that is not acid, and a swoop that isn't fell.''
Little Red Riding Hood Revisited
278(3)
Russell Baker
A classic tale translated into the ``modern American language.''
More on Faulty Diction
281(4)
Part IV: Matters Of Style: The Sentence 285(48)
Introduction
285(2)
Addition and Modification
287(7)
Hudson Street
288(6)
Jane Jacobs
A New York street has the qualities of a complex ballet
Emphasis
294(8)
The Steamboatman
296(6)
Mark Twain
A steamboat brings excitement to a nineteenth-century Missouri river town
Loose and Periodic Sentences
302(8)
The Turtle
303(3)
John Steinbeck
A turtle struggles up a steep embankment to reach the highway
At Tinker Creek
306(4)
Annie Dillard
A Virginia creek deepens the author's sense of time and space
Climax
310(3)
My Grandmother
310(3)
John Updike
An exuberant boy lifts his grandmother in his arms
Parallelism
313(6)
Boyhood in a Sacramento Barrio
314(5)
Ernesto Galarza
Traditional Hispanic values conflict with American ones in a Sacramento neighborhood
Antithesis
319(5)
Nonviolent Resistance
320(4)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
We can resist oppression without creating anarchy
Length
324(9)
On Matters of Doubt
325(8)
Lewis Thomas
``The sciences and the humanities are all of a piece, one and the same kind of work for the human brain . . . .''
Part V: Argument and Persuasion 333(232)
Inductive Reasoning
335(51)
Experience and Observation
336(24)
Max into Maximilian
337(2)
Vicki Hearne
A remarkable dog guides a blind and deaf woman
Revenge Theory
339(11)
Edward Tenner
``The world we have created seems to be getting even, twisting our cleverness against us.''
More Police, Less Crime? Wrong
350(2)
Richard Moran
The public holds mistaken ideas about policing and crime
The Right to Fail
352(5)
William Zinsser
Failure is an integral part of growing up and becoming educated
Wait a Minute
357(3)
Ellen Goodman
``In public, people swing beliefs at each other like fists. The audience is expected to identify a hero and a villain.''
Analogy
360(8)
The Warfare in the Forest Is Not Wanton
361(3)
Brooks Atkinson
Warfare in the forest is unlike human warfare
The End of Education
364(4)
John Henry Newman
Like bodily health, education is good for its own sake
Cause and Effect
368(18)
Who Killed Benny Paret?
369(3)
Norman Cousins
The death of a prizefighter raises questions about causes
Computer Viruses
372(4)
Stephen L. Carter
Computer viruses show what is uncivil in our society
Statistical Lives
376(3)
Alan Wertheimer
Must we turn out backs on needy people to meet the needs of people in the future?
Why save Tropical Rain Forests?
379(3)
Roger D. Stone
We must save tropical rain forests from destruction
Students and Drugs
382(4)
Herbert Hendin
Drug abuse is the most dramatic expression of student unhappiness
Deductive Reasoning
386(22)
Freedom and Security
389(3)
Sydney J. Harris
Freedom and Security are mutually sustaining
Reflections on War
392(5)
H. L. Mencken
War is difficult to eradicate because it serves human needs
The Limits of Relevance
397(3)
Kenneth B. Clark
Education is relevant to nothing but itself
Final Exams Discourage Learning
400(5)
Karl L. Schilling
Karen Maitland Schilling
``Many of our current testing practices, particularly final exams, encourage the development of academic bulimia: binge-and-purge learning:''
Who Deserves the Death Penalty?
405(3)
William Raspberry
Should a judge consider social advantage and disadvantage in sentencing criminals?
Controversy
408(63)
Internet Filtering
410(50)
Supreme Court Ruling on the Communications Decency Act, ``Reno v. ACLU,'' June 26, 1997
The Supreme Court declares the Communications Decency Act unconstitutional
410(17)
from the majority opinion of Justice John Paul Stevens from the dissent of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor
Internet: The Lost Fight
427(3)
William F. Buckley, Jr.
The majority opinion declaring the Communications Decency Act unconstitutional was argued on the wrong grounds
Sex, Fat, and Responsibility
430(3)
George F. Will
``The law can do only so much in removing the burden of living vigilantly and responsibly, for our own sake and our children's
The New Censorship
433(6)
Patrick D. Maines
Recent laws and regulations imposr a new kind of censorship
Wal-Mart's Free Choice
439(2)
William J. Bennett
C. DeLores Tucker
In choosing not to stock certain compact discs, Wal-Mart is exercising quality control, not censorhip
Will Free Speech Get Tangled in the Web?
441(10)
Joshua Michah Marshall
``The new world of online media is inevitably changing the terms of debate about freedom of speech and of the press.``
In Praise of Censorship
451(9)
Stanley C. Brubaker
Moderate censorship has a place in a modern republic
Legalizing Drugs
460(11)
Prohibition and Drags
460(3)
Mark H. Moore
Prohibition is misunderstood in analogies with the drug war
The Case for Medicalizing Heroin
463(3)
Alan M. Dershowitz
Medicalizing heroin would cut drug-related crime and save lives without creating new addicts
Legalize Drugs?
466(5)
Charles B. Rangel
Legalizing drugs would neither reduce crime nor attack the root causes of drug use
Interpretation of Evidence
471(41)
What Columbus ``Saw''' in 1492
472(11)
I. Bernard Cohen
Columbus's view of Native Americans was shaped by the tales of earlier seafarers, by contemporary religious ideas, and by what he expected to find
Asymmetries
483(9)
Deborah Tannen
Men and women give different weight to status and connection
A New Look at the Homeless
492(20)
Leanne G. Rivlin
An environmental psychologist examines the causes of homelessness
Methods of Persuasion
512(53)
Order of Ideas in Persuasive Essays
513(52)
Homeless
514(3)
Anna Quindlen
``They are not the homeless. They are people who have no homes. No drawer that holds the spoons. No window to look out upon the world.''
``I Think I Will Not Forget This''
517(4)
Hilary De Vries
A journalist talks with a woman in a Boston shelter for the homeless
``Extreme Fighting'' and the Morals of the Marketplace
521(4)
George F. Will
`Extreme fighting' forces a commercial society to decide when the morals of the marketplace are insufficient
The Morality of Indian Hating
525(12)
N. Scott Momaday
The history of the American Indian is one of abuse and shame
For Indians, No Thanksgiving
537(4)
Michael Dorris
The first Thanksgiving if it did occur, was the last meeting of equals
Anonymous Who Am I?
541(13)
Most Americans are ignorant of the history of Mexican-Americans and their contribution to American society
A Modest Proposal
A patriot and friend of the Irish poor proposes a way to relieve poverty and reduce the surplus population
The Gettysburg Address
554(1)
Abraham Lincoln
The Gettysburg Address
555(10)
Garry Wills
For Lincoln words were ``weapons of peace in the midst of war.''
Part VI: Essays on Writing 565(28)
Introduction
565(28)
The Art of Composition
566(2)
Mark Twain
``Let us guess that whenever we read a sentence and like it, we unconsciously store it away in our model-chamber . . . .''
What Every Writer Must Learn
568(9)
John Ciardi
The last act of successful writers is to become readers of their own writing
Simplicity
577(5)
William Zinsser
To write effectively, we must learn to reduce the clutter of words
Stuffy Talk
582(11)
Walker Gibson
Writing becomes stuffy when it tries to be impersonal
Glossary 593(8)
Index 601(4)
Acknowledgement 605


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