9780789018410

Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780789018410

  • ISBN10:

    0789018411

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2006-04-05
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Summary

A thorough, user-friendly guide of basic knowledge and group interventions for psychological trauma from terrorist attacks and other catastrophic disasters There is relatively little literature on the psychological trauma caused by catastrophic disasters, including terrorist attacks and the impending threats of terrorism. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment fills that gap by comprehensively discussing ways to minimize the psychological damage resulting from catastrophic disasters as well as the trauma developed from the threat of future terrorist attacks. The book provides thorough presentations of almost manualized group methods for the prevention and treatment of the acute and longer-term psychological effects for children, adolescents, and adults. Appropriate treatment immediately after a catastrophe can diminish harmful psychological effects, enhance an individual's quality of life, decrease psychosomatic illnesses and the exacerbation of chronic medical conditions, increase the effective utilization of medical facilities, and decrease medical expenses. In this book, internationally renowned authorities provide practical expert suggestions and helpful examples to illustrate the interventions and provide a quick reference for professionals facing the aftermath of prospective terrorist disasters and other catastrophic events. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment is divided into four sections. The first section provides an overview of the book; the second discusses the foundations and broad issues which potentially affect the outcome of group treatment; the third section presents group models which address the particular needs of children, adolescents, parents, emergency service personnel, and mental health practitioners; and the fourth part considers future directions of treatment. Designed to be used as a comprehensive single source for professionals working with victims of trauma caused by terrorism or catastrophic disaster, this book can be read and used in its entirety, or specific chapters detailing treatments can be chosen and used independently as needed. Extensive references allow opportunities for further research. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment presents unique first-person accounts of September 11th and examines: the neurobiological effects of a traumatic disaster the effective use of psychotropic medication the implications of living with ongoing terrorist threats a new framework for preparedness and response to disasters and trauma for children and families cultural, religious, and ethnic differences related to the prevention and treatment of psychological sequelae the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic grief retraumatization, distressing reminders, and their effects on post-traumatic adjustment the knowledge trauma therapists need to integrate small group principles the diagnosis and group treatment of acute and long-term effects with adults and children the use of spiritual principles after a terrorist disaster or catastrophic event nine types of groups appropriate for specific populations Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment is a timely, comprehensive reference for social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, health professionals, mental health professionals, educators, and students. The royalties from this book shall be donated to organizations which provide direct services to those who continue to be affected by the events of September 11th, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina (August 29th, 2005).

Table of Contents

About the Editors xvii
Contributors xix
Preface xxv
Acknowledgments xxix
PART I: OVERVIEW
Trauma, Terror, and Fear: Mental Health Professionals Respond to the Impact of 9/11---An Overview
3(16)
Terence M. Keane
Linda A. Piwowarczyk
Conceptual Models
4(2)
Levels of Intervention
6(2)
Controversies
8(2)
On-Site Roles for Mental Health Providers
10(1)
Clinician Self-Care
11(1)
Chapter Content
11(2)
Summary
13(6)
PART II: FOUNDATIONS
Images of Trauma: The Aftermath of Terrorism and Disasters
19(14)
Henry I. Spitz
Rebecca E. Spitz
Introduction
19(1)
Case Illustrations
20(11)
Summary
31(2)
Mental Health Issues and Implications of Living Under Ongoing Terrorist Threats
33(28)
Sara A. Freedman
Rivka Tuval-Mashiach
Introduction
33(1)
Historical Perspective
34(2)
Ongoing Terrorist Threats: What Is the Difference?
36(1)
Ongoing Terrorist Threats: Current Research on the Israeli Experience
37(5)
Mental Health Issues
42(2)
Treatment Implications
44(8)
Treatment During Ongoing Terrorist Threats
52(3)
Conclusions
55(6)
Neurobiology of Trauma
61(22)
Craig L. Katz
Rachel Yehuda
Introduction
61(1)
Impact of the Traumatic Event on Mind and Brain
61(4)
Role of the Mental Health Professional During the Recoil Phase
65(3)
A Neuroendocrine Perspective on the Posttraumatic Period
68(5)
A Neuroanatomical Perspective on the Posttraumatic Period
73(4)
Conclusion
77(6)
Children and Families: A New Framework for Preparedness and Response to Danger, Terrorism, and Trauma
83(30)
Robert S. Pynoos
Alan M. Steinberg
Merritt D. Schreiber
Melissa J. Brymer
Introduction
83(1)
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network
84(1)
Selected Literature Review on Children and Terrorism
85(2)
Unique Challenges Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction
87(2)
The Ecology of Terrorism and Danger
89(7)
The Ecology of Response
96(4)
Public Mental Health Strategies
100(2)
Research Issues for Children and Families in the Aftermath of Weapons of Mass Destruction
102(3)
Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research After Terrorism
105(8)
Traumatic Reactions to Terrorism: The Individual and Collective Experience
113(42)
K. Chase Stovall-McClough
Marylene Cloitre
Introduction
113(1)
Trauma and Attachment Theory
113(1)
The Nature and Impact of Traumatic Events
114(1)
Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
115(8)
Terrorism and Mental Health: Research Findings
123(16)
Traumatic Reactions to Terrorism: Special Considerations
139(4)
Conclusions and Implications for Recovery
143(12)
Clinical Issues in the Psychopharmacology of PTSD
155(48)
Steven B. Rudin
Serena Y. Volpp
Randall D. Marshall
Introduction
155(1)
Rationale for Pharmacotherapy
156(2)
Clinical Issues Related to Pharmacotherapy of PTSD
158(4)
Overview of the Literature on Pharmacotherapy
162(5)
Classes of Medication: Antidepressants
167(9)
Classes of Medication: Sedatives/Hypnotics
176(1)
Classes of Medication: Mood Stabilizers
177(5)
Classes of Medication: Antipsychotics
182(3)
Classes of Medication: Autonomic Nervous System Modulators
185(3)
Alternative Medications
188(1)
Summary
189(2)
Appendix: Index of Medications
191(12)
Respecting Cultural, Religious, and Ethnic Differences in the Prevention and Treatment of Psychological Sequelae
203(32)
Yael Danieli
Kathleen Nader
Introduction
203(2)
Learning About a Culture
205(1)
Identifying the Components of Culture
206(1)
Cultural Issues and Reactions to Trauma and Treatment
207(20)
Conclusions
227(8)
Contextual Influences on Posttraumatic Adjustment: Retraumatization and the Roles of Revictimization, Posttraumatic Adversities, and Distressing Reminders
235(52)
Christopher M. Layne
Jared S. Warren
William R. Saltzman
John B. Fulton
Alan M. Steinberg
Robert S. Pynoos
Introduction
235(3)
The Need for Terminological and Conceptual Clarity
238(5)
A Theoretical Framework of Posttraumatic Adjustment
243(16)
Empirical Tests of the Proposed Intervening Variables
259(7)
Summary and Directions for Future Research
266(8)
Conclusion
274(1)
Appendix: Glossary of Proposed Terms Relating to Posttraumatic Distress Reactivation
275(12)
The Syndrome of Traumatic Grief and Its Treatment
287(48)
M. Katherine Shear
Allan Zuckoff
Nadine Melhem
Bonnie J. Gorscak
Introduction
287(2)
Historical Perspectives
289(2)
Diagnosis of Bereavement-Related Syndromes
291(7)
Epidemiology
298(5)
Clinical Features of Traumatic Grief
303(2)
Traumatic Grief Treatment
305(20)
Components of a Potential Group Treatment Approach of TGT
325(3)
Research Evidence for Treatment of Traumatic Grief
328(1)
Conclusion
329(6)
Spirituality in the Face of Terrorist Disasters
335(50)
Kent D. Drescher
Introduction
335(2)
Definition of Terms
337(2)
Research on Spirituality and Health
339(4)
Non-Mental Health Resources for Spiritual Support
343(1)
Rationale for Incorporating Spiritual Themes into Group-Based Trauma Treatment
344(3)
Considerations Prior to Implementing Activities
347(7)
Components of Therapy
354(9)
Vignettes Demonstrating Interventions at Different Stages
363(12)
Summary
375(10)
PART III: GROUP MODELS
Integrating Small-Group Process Principles into Trauma-Focused Group Psychotherapy: What Should a Group Trauma Therapist Know?
385(40)
D. Rob Davies
Gary M. Burlingame
Christopher M. Layne
Introduction
385(2)
Why Should a Trauma Therapist Be Interested in Small-Group Process Principles?
387(2)
What Are the ``Active Ingredients'' in Groups That Produce Therapeutic Change?
389(5)
Group Development
394(4)
Interpersonal Feedback
398(7)
Integrating Small-Group Process Principles into Existing Group-Based Trauma Treatment Protocols: A Case Example
405(3)
Application: Incorporating Small-Group Process Principles into TFGT
408(6)
Observations and Recommendations
414(1)
Directions in Future Research and Training
415(2)
Conclusion
417(8)
Critical Incident Stress Management in Terrorist Events and Disasters
425(56)
Jeffrey T. Mitchell
George S. Everly Jr.
Introduction
425(5)
Crisis Intervention
430(5)
Overview of the Four Main CISM Group Interventions
435(2)
Critical Incident Stress Management
437(2)
Large-Group Processes
439(10)
Small-Group Processes
449(11)
Follow-Up Groups
460(3)
Taking Care of the Team Members
463(2)
The Research
465(7)
Misconceptions Regarding Crisis Intervention and CISM
472(2)
Conclusion
474(7)
Group Intervention for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Initial Stress Reactions in Civilians
481(24)
Beverley Raphael
Sally Wooding
Introduction
481(2)
Rationale and Objectives of the Group
483(2)
Acute Initial Reaction Phase
485(3)
Criteria for Selection of Members for Group Intervention or Individual Programs
488(2)
Composition and Preparation for Group Interventions
490(1)
Group Intervention Approaches for Acute Reactions in Civilians: The Immediate Phase and Beyond
491(5)
After the Early Days and During the First Month
496(3)
Potential Problems
499(1)
Combined Individual and Group Treatment
500(1)
Conclusion
500(5)
Present-Centered Supportive Group Therapy for Trauma Survivors
505(76)
Melissa S. Wattenberg
William S. Unger
David W. Foy
Shirley M. Glynn
Introduction
505(4)
Purposes of Present-Centered Group Therapy
509(2)
Group Characteristics
511(5)
Challenges in PCGT
516(4)
Selection Criteria
520(3)
Composition of and Preparation for Entry into Group
523(5)
Phases of PCGT
528(16)
Clinical Interventions
544(29)
Uses and Staging of PCGT
573(1)
Conclusion
574(1)
Appendix
575(6)
Cognitive-Behavioral Groups for Traumatically Bereaved Children and Their Parents
581(48)
Karen Stubenbort
Judith A. Cohen
Introduction
581(1)
Evidenced-Based Framework
582(3)
Objective and Focus of Group
585(1)
Criteria and Selection of Members
586(4)
Group Composition and Preparation
590(1)
Role of the Therapists
591(1)
The Group
592(1)
The Cognitive-Behavioral Group Model
593(1)
Children's Trauma-Focused Interventions
593(16)
Children's Bereavement-Focused Interventions
609(4)
Parents' Trauma-Focused Interventions
613(7)
Parents' Bereavement-Focused Interventions
620(4)
Conclusion
624(5)
Combining Cognitive Processing Therapy with Panic Exposure and Management Techniques
629(40)
Sherry A. Falsetti
Heidi S. Resnick
Steven R. Lawyer
Introduction
629(1)
Rationale and Objective of the Group
630(5)
Description and Tasks to Be Accomplished
635(3)
Criteria for Selection of Members
638(3)
Composition and Preparation for Entry into Group
641(3)
Structural Considerations of the Group
644(2)
Components of Treatment
646(18)
Future Treatment Directions
664(5)
Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Psychotherapy with Adolescents
669(62)
William R. Saltzman
Christopher M. Layne
Alan M. Steinberg
Robert S. Pynoos
Rationale and Objective of the Group
669(5)
Theoretical Model
674(4)
Rationale for Group Treatment
678(1)
Criteria for Selection of Members and Preparation for Entry into the Group
679(6)
Group Composition
685(2)
Structural Considerations for Group Treatment
687(2)
Overview of Group Therapy Modules
689(3)
Module I: Group Cohesion, Psychoeducation, and Basic Coping Skills
692(12)
Module II: Constructing the Trauma Narrative
704(9)
Module III: Coping with Traumatic Loss and Grief
713(5)
Module IV: Refocusing on the Present and Looking to the Future
718(6)
Combining Individual and Family Interventions with Group Treatment
724(1)
Conclusion
725(6)
Trauma-Focus Group Therapy: An Evidence-Based Group Approach to Trauma with Adults
731(56)
William S. Unger
Melissa S. Wattenberg
David W. Foy
Shirley M. Glynn
Introduction
731(4)
Group Goals
735(2)
Leadership Issues
737(3)
Criteria for Selection of Members
740(2)
Composition and Preparation for Entry into Group
742(1)
Group
743(1)
Beginning Phase (Sessions 1 through 3)
744(15)
Middle Phase
759(12)
Final Phase (Termination)
771(1)
Situations That Members Experience As Difficult
772(4)
Variations of the Model
776(1)
Final Thoughts
776(3)
Appendix I: Journal Homework Form
779(1)
Appendix II: Coping Resources Self-Assessment
780(1)
Appendix III: Coping with Symptoms Record
781(1)
Appendix IV: Home-Based Therapy Self-Exposure
782(5)
Psychodynamic Group Treatment
787(54)
Daniel S. Weiss
Rationale and Objective of the Group
787(7)
Core Elements of Intervention
794(8)
Tasks to Be Accomplished
802(8)
Phase I
810(18)
Phase II
828(7)
Phase III
835(2)
Conclusion
837(4)
Groups for Mental Health Professionals Working with Survivors
841(38)
Yael Danieli
Training Professionals to Deal with Trauma
843(2)
Event Countertransference and Training
845(5)
Understanding the Process
850(6)
Some Principles of Self-Healing
856(1)
The ``Conspiracy of Silence'' Between Psychotherapists and Patients
857(1)
Countertransference Themes
858(11)
Comparisons Between SCS and NVH Groups
869(2)
Concluding Remarks
871(8)
PART IV: FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Future Directions
879(26)
David W. Foy
Daryl A. Schrock
Introduction
879(1)
Development of Trauma-Related Group Therapy
880(2)
Group Psychological Debriefing
882(1)
Review of Group Therapy for Trauma Studies
883(9)
From Current Status to Future Groups for Terrorist Disaster Survivors
892(6)
Strength of Evidence for Recommendations
898(1)
Future Research Directions
899(6)
Index 905

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