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Psychological Testing : Principles, Applications, and Issues

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534633066

ISBN10:
0534633064
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/15/2004
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $172.66

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Summary

Part I: PRINCIPLES. 1. Introduction. 2. Norms and Basic Statistics for Testing. 3. Correlation and Regression. 4. Reliability. 5. Validity. 6. Writing and Evaluating Test Items. 7. Test Administration. Part II: APPLICATIONS. 8. Interviewing Techniques. 9. Theories of Intelligence and the Binet Scales. 10. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales: WAIS-III, WISC-IV, and WPPSI-III. 11. Testing in Education: Tests of Ability in Education and Special Education. 12. Standardized Tests in Education, Civil Service and the Military. 13. Applications in Clinical and Counseling Settings. 14. Projective Personality Tests. 15. Tests Based on Psychological Science and the New Age of Computers. 16. Testing in Counseling Psychology. 17. Testing in Health Psychology and Health Care. 18. Testing in Industrial and Business Settings. Part III: ISSUES. 19. Test Bias. 20. Testing in Forensic Settings. 21. Ethics and the Future of Psychological Testing.

Author Biography

Robert M. Kaplan University of California, Los Angeles Dennis P. Saccuzzo San Diego State University

Table of Contents

Part I Principles
Introduction
1(24)
Basic Concepts
6(4)
What a Test Is
6(1)
Types of Tests
7(3)
Overview of the Book
10(1)
Principles of Psychological Testing
10(1)
Applications of Psychological Testing
10(1)
Issues of Psychological Testing
11(1)
Historical Perspective
11(12)
Early Antecedents
12(1)
Charles Darwin and Individual Differences
12(1)
Experimental Psychology and Psychophysical Measurement
13(1)
The Evolution of Intelligence and Standardized Achievement Tests
14(3)
Personality Tests: 1920--1940
17(3)
The Emergence of New Approaches to Personality Testing
20(1)
The Period of Rapid Changes in the Status of Testing
20(2)
The Current Environment
22(1)
Summary
23(1)
Web Activity
24(1)
Norms and Basic Statistics for Testing
25(37)
Why We Need Statistics
26(1)
Scales of Measurement
27(4)
Properties of Scales
27(2)
Types of Scales
29(2)
Permissible Operations
31(1)
Frequency Distributions
31(3)
Percentile Ranks
34(4)
Percentiles
38(1)
Describing Distributions
39(14)
Mean
39(1)
Standard Deviation
40(2)
Z Score
42(3)
Standard Normal Deviation
45(5)
McCall's T
50(1)
Quartiles and Deciles
51(2)
Norms
53(7)
Age-Related Norms
54(1)
Tracking
54(5)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
59(1)
Summary
60(1)
Web Activity
61(1)
Correlation and Regression
62(37)
The Scatter Diagram
63(2)
Correlation
65(1)
Regression
66(13)
The Regression Line
66(2)
The Best-Fitting Line
68(2)
Testing the Statistical Significance of a Correlation Coefficient
70(5)
How to Interpret a Regression Plot
75(4)
Other Correlation Coefficients
79(1)
Terms and Issues in the Use of Correlation
80(6)
Residual
80(2)
Standard Error of Estimate
82(1)
Coefficient of Determination
82(1)
Coefficient of Alienation
83(1)
Shrinkage
83(1)
Cross Validation
84(1)
The Correlation-Causation Problem
84(1)
Third Variable Explanation
84(1)
Restricted Range
84(2)
Multivariate Analysis (Optional)
86(6)
General Approach
87(1)
An Example Using Multiple Regression
87(1)
Discriminant Analysis
88(1)
Factor Analysis
89(3)
Summary
92(1)
Calculation of a Regression Equation and a Correlation Coefficient
93(5)
Calculation of a Regression Equation (Data from Table 3-5)
94(2)
Calculation of a Correlation Coefficient (Data from Table 3-5)
96(2)
Web Activity
98(1)
Reliability
99(33)
History and Theory of Reliability
100(3)
Conceptualization of Error
100(1)
Spearman's Early Studies
101(1)
Basics of Test Score Theory
101(2)
The Domain Sampling Model
103(2)
Models of Reliability
105(12)
Sources of Error
106(1)
Time Sampling: The Test--Retest Method
107(1)
Item Sampling: Parallel Forms Method
108(1)
Split-Half Method
109(2)
KR20 Formula
111(2)
Coefficient Alpha
113(1)
Reliability of a Difference Score
114(3)
Reliability in Behavioral Observation Studies
117(2)
Connecting Sources of Error with Reliability Assessment Method
119(1)
Using Reliability Information
120(8)
Standard Errors of Measurement and the Rubber Yardstick
120(3)
How Reliable Is Reliable?
123(1)
What to Do About Low Reliability
124(4)
Summary
128(1)
Using Coefficient Alpha to Estimate Split-Half Reliability When the Variances for the Two Halves of the Test Are Unequal
129(1)
The Calculation of Reliability Using KR20
129(2)
Web Activity
131(1)
Validity
132(25)
Defining Validity
134(1)
Aspects of Validity
134(21)
Face Validity
135(1)
Content-Related Evidence for Validity
135(2)
Criterion-Related Evidence for Validity
137(10)
Construct-Related Evidence for Validity
147(7)
Relationship Between Reliability and Validity
154(1)
Summary
155(1)
Web Activity
156(1)
Writing and Evaluating Test Items
157(26)
Item Writing
158(10)
Item Formats
159(8)
Other Possibilities
167(1)
Item Analysis
168(13)
Item Difficulty
168(2)
Discriminability
170(2)
Pictures of Item Characteristics
172(6)
Linking Uncommon Measures
178(1)
Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests
179(1)
Limitations of Item Analysis
180(1)
Summary
181(1)
Web Activity
182(1)
Test Administration
183(18)
The Examiner and the Subject
184(11)
The Relationship Between Examiner and Test Taker
184(1)
The Race of the Tester
185(3)
Language of Test Taker
188(1)
Training of Test Administrators
188(1)
Expectancy Effects
188(2)
Effects of Reinforcing Responses
190(3)
Computer-Assisted Test Administration
193(2)
Subject Variables
195(1)
Behavioral Assessment Methodology
195(4)
Reactivity
196(1)
Drift
197(1)
Expectancies
197(1)
Deception
198(1)
Statistical Control of Rating Errors
199(1)
Summary
199(1)
Web Activity
200(1)
Part II Applications
Interviewing Techniques
201(29)
The Interview as a Test
205(1)
Reciprocal Nature of Interviewing
206(1)
Principles of Effective Interviewing
207(9)
The Proper Attitudes
207(1)
Responses to Avoid
207(2)
Effective Responses
209(1)
Responses to Keep the Interaction Flowing
210(4)
Measuring Understanding
214(2)
Types of Interviews
216(8)
Evaluation Interview
216(1)
Structured Clinical Interviews
217(4)
Case History Interview
221(1)
Mental Status Examination
222(1)
Developing Interviewing Skills
223(1)
Sources of Error in the Interview
224(3)
Interview Validity
224(3)
Interview Reliability
227(1)
Summary
227(2)
Web Activity
229(1)
Theories of Intelligence and the Binet Scales
230(22)
The Problem of Defining Intelligence
231(2)
Binet's Principles of Test Construction
233(1)
Principle 1: Age Differentiation
233(1)
Principle 2: General Mental Ability
234(1)
Spearman's Model of General Mental Ability
234(2)
Implications of General Mental Intelligence (g)
235(1)
The gf-gc Theory of Intelligence
236(1)
The Early Binet Scales
236(3)
The 1905 Binet-Simon Scale
236(1)
The 1908 Scale
237(2)
Terman's Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
239(5)
The 1916 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
239(1)
The Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
240(1)
The 1937 Scale
241(2)
The 1960 Stanford-Binet Revision and Deviation IQ (SB-LM)
243(1)
The Modern Binet Scale
244(6)
Model for the Fourth and Fifth Editions of the Binet Scale
244(2)
Characteristics of the 1986 Revision
246(1)
Characteristics of the 2003 Fifth Edition
247(2)
Psychometric Properties of the 2003 Fifth Edition
249(1)
Median Validity
250(1)
Summary
250(1)
Web Activity
251(1)
The Wechsler Intelligence Scales: WAIS-III, WISC-IV, and WPPSI-III
252(26)
The Wechsler Intelligence Scales
254(2)
Point and Performance Scale Concepts
254(2)
From the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale to the WAIS-III
256(1)
Scales, Subtests, and Indexes of the WAIS-III
256(9)
The Verbal Subtests
258(3)
Raw Scores, Scaled Scores, and the Verbal IQ
261(1)
The Performance Subtests
262(2)
Performance IQs
264(1)
Full-Scale IQs
264(1)
Index Scores
264(1)
Interpretive Features of the Wechsler Tests
265(3)
Verbal-Performance IQ Comparisons
265(1)
Pattern Analysis
266(1)
Hypothetical Case Studies
266(2)
Psychometric Properties of the Wechsler Adult Scale
268(2)
Standardization
268(1)
Reliability
269(1)
Validity
270(1)
Evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Scales
270(1)
Downward Extensions of the WAIS-III: The WISC-IV and the WPPSI-III
270(5)
The WISC-IV
271(3)
The WPPSI-III
274(1)
Summary
275(2)
Web Activity
277(1)
Other Individual Tests of Ability in Education and Special Education
278(33)
Alternative Individual Ability Tests Compared with the Binet and Wechsler Scales
279(2)
Alternatives Compared with One Another
281(2)
Specific Individual Ability Tests
283(16)
Infant Scales
283(6)
Major Tests for Young Children
289(6)
General Individual Ability Tests for Handicapped and Special Populations
295(4)
Testing Learning Disabilities
299(9)
Visiographic Tests
303(3)
Creativity: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)
306(1)
Individual Achievement Tests: Wide Range Achievement Test--3 (WRAT-3)
307(1)
Legal Issues in Special Education
308(1)
Schools Are Required by Law to Identify Students with Disabilities
308(1)
Enforcing a Child's Right Under IDEA
308(1)
Summary
309(1)
Web Activity
310(1)
Standardized Tests in Education, Civil Service, and the Military
311(36)
Comparison of Group and Individual Ability Tests
313(2)
Advantages of Individual Tests
313(1)
Advantages of Group Tests
314(1)
Overview of Group Tests
315(2)
Characteristics of Group Tests
315(1)
Selecting Group Tests
315(1)
Using Group Tests
316(1)
Group Tests in the Schools: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade
317(6)
Achievement Tests Versus Aptitude Tests
317(1)
Group Achievement Tests
318(2)
Group Tests of Mental Abilities (Intelligence)
320(3)
College Entrance Tests
323(7)
The Scholastic Assessment Test
323(5)
Cooperative School and College Ability Tests
328(1)
The American College Test
328(2)
Graduate and Professional School Entrance Tests
330(9)
Graduate Record Examination Aptitude Test
330(6)
Miller Analogies Test
336(1)
The Law School Admission Test
337(2)
Nonverbal Group Ability Tests
339(6)
Raven Progressive Matrices
339(3)
Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test
342(1)
IPAT Culture Fair Intelligence Test
343(1)
Standardized Tests Used in the U.S. Civil Service System
344(1)
Standardized Tests in the U.S. Military: The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
344(1)
Summary
345(1)
Web Activity
346(1)
Applications in Clinical and Counseling Settings
347(43)
Strategies of Structured Personality-Test Construction
349(4)
Deductive Strategies
350(1)
Empirical Strategies
351(1)
Criteria Used in Selecting Tests for Discussion
352(1)
The Logical-Content Strategy
353(2)
Woodworth Personal Data Sheet
353(1)
Early Multidimensional Logical-Content Scales
354(1)
Mooney Problem Checklist
354(1)
Criticisms of the Logical-Content Approach
354(1)
The Criterion-Group Strategy
355(12)
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
355(11)
California Psychological Inventory--Third Edition
366(1)
The Factor Analytic Strategy
367(4)
Guilford's Pioneer Efforts
368(1)
Cattell's Contribution
368(3)
Problems with the Factor Analytic Strategy
371(1)
The Theoretical Strategy
371(7)
Edwards Personal Preference Schedule
372(3)
Personality Research Form and Jackson Personality Inventory
375(1)
Self-Concept
375(3)
Combination Strategies
378(4)
Positive Personality Measurement and the NEO-PI-R
378(1)
The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R)
378(4)
Frequently Used Measures of Positive Personality Traits
382(4)
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
382(1)
General Self-Efficacy Scale
382(1)
Ego Resiliency Scale
382(1)
Dispositional Resilience Scale
383(1)
Hope Scale
383(1)
Life Orientation Test--Revised (LOT-R)
383(1)
Satisfaction with Life Scale
384(1)
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
385(1)
Coping Intervention for Stressful Situations
385(1)
Core Self-Evaluations
385(1)
Future of Positive Personality Research
386(1)
Summary
387(2)
Web Activity
389(1)
Projective Personality Tests
390(31)
The Projective Hypothesis
392(1)
The Rorschach Inkblot Test
393(16)
Historical Antecedents
393(2)
Stimuli, Administration, and Interpretation
395(6)
Psychometric Properties
401(8)
An Alternative Inkblot Test: The Holtzman
409(1)
The Thematic Apperception Test
410(5)
Stimuli, Administration, and Interpretation
411(3)
Psychometric Properties
414(1)
Alternative Apperception Procedures
415(1)
Nonpictorial Projective Procedures
416(3)
Word Association Test
416(1)
Sentence Completion Tasks
417(1)
Figure Drawing Tests
418(1)
Summary
419(1)
Web Activity
420(1)
Tests Based on Psychological Science and the New Age of Computers
421(31)
Cognitive-Behavioral Assessment Procedures
423(12)
The Rationale for Cognitive-Behavioral Assessment
423(1)
Procedures Based on Operant Conditioning
424(3)
Self-Report Techniques
427(4)
Kanfer and Saslow's Functional Approach
431(1)
The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale
432(1)
Irrational Beliefs Test
433(1)
Cognitive Functional Analysis
434(1)
Psychophysiological Procedures
435(2)
Physiological Variables with Treatment Implications
436(1)
Evaluation of Psychophysiological Techniques
436(1)
Computers and Psychological Testing
437(12)
Computer-Assisted Interview
438(1)
Computer-Administered Tests
439(1)
Computer Diagnosis, Scoring, and Reporting of Results
440(2)
Internet Usage for Psychological Testing
442(1)
The Computerization of Cognitive-Behavioral Assessment
443(1)
Tests Possible Only by Computer
444(1)
Computer-Adaptive Testing
445(1)
Psychophysical and Signal-Detection Procedures
446(3)
Summary
449(1)
Web Activity
450(2)
Testing in Counseling Psychology
452(23)
Measuring Interests
453(16)
The Strong Vocational Interest Blank
454(1)
The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory
455(2)
The Campbell Interest and Skill Survey
457(5)
The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey
462(4)
The Jackson Vocational Interest Survey
466(1)
The Minnesota Vocational Interest Inventory
466(1)
The Career Assessment Inventory
466(1)
The Self-Directed Search
467(1)
Eliminating Gender Bias in Interest Measurement
468(1)
Aptitudes and Interests
469(1)
Measuring Personal Characteristics for Job Placement
469(4)
Trait Factor Approach: Osipow's Vocational Dimensions
469(1)
The Career Maturity Inventory: Super's Development Theory
470(1)
The California Occupational Preference Survey: Roe's Career-Choice Theory
471(1)
Are There Stable Personality Traits?
472(1)
Summary
473(1)
Web Activity
474(1)
Testing in Health Psychology and Health Care
475(34)
Neuropsychological Assessment
476(17)
Clinical Neuropsychology
476(5)
Developmental Neuropsychology
481(3)
Adult Neuropsychology
484(6)
California Verbal Learning Test
490(3)
Anxiety and Stress Assessment
493(9)
Stress and Anxiety
493(1)
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
494(1)
Measures of Test Anxiety
495(4)
Measures of Coping
499(1)
Ecological Momentary Assessment
500(1)
Measures of Social Support
501(1)
Quality-of-Life Assessment
502(4)
What Is Health-Related Quality of Life?
503(1)
Common Methods for Measuring Quality of Life
504(2)
Summary
506(1)
Web Activity
507(2)
Testing in Industrial and Business Settings
509(29)
Personnel Psychology---The Selection of Employees
510(2)
Employment Interview
510(2)
Base Rates and Hit Rates
512(13)
Taylor-Russell Tables
516(5)
Utility Theory and Decision Analysis
521(2)
Incremental Validity
523(2)
Personnel Psychology from the Employee's Perspective: Fitting People to Jobs
525(2)
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
525(1)
Tests for Use in Industry: Wonderlic Personnel Test
526(1)
Measuring Characteristics of the Work Setting
527(4)
The Social-Ecology Approach
528(1)
Classifying Environments
529(2)
Job Analysis
531(2)
Measuring the Person-Situation Interaction
533(4)
Summary
537(1)
Web Activity
537(1)
Part III Issues
Test Bias
538(35)
Why Is Test Bias Controversial?
539(1)
Test Fairness and the Law
540(4)
The Traditional Defense of Testing
544(9)
Content-Related Evidence for Validity
545(3)
Criterion-Related Sources of Bias
548(5)
Other Approaches to Testing Minority Group Members
553(7)
Ignorance Versus Stupidity
553(1)
The Chitling Test
554(1)
The Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity
555(1)
The System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment
556(4)
Suggestions for Solutions
560(8)
Ethical Concerns and the Definition of Test Bias
560(3)
Thinking Differently: Finding New Interpretations of Data
563(2)
Developing Different Criteria
565(3)
Changing the Social Environment
568(3)
Summary
571(1)
Web Activity
572(1)
Testing in Forensic Settings
573(38)
Laws Governing the Use of Tests
574(11)
Federal Authorities
574(9)
Specific Laws
583(2)
Major Lawsuits That Have Affected Psychological Testing
585(24)
Early Desegregation Cases
585(2)
Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education
587(1)
Hobson v. Hansen
587(1)
Diana v. State Board of Education
588(1)
Larry P. v. Wilson Riles
589(2)
Parents in Action on Special Education v. Hannon
591(4)
Crawford et al. v. Honig et al.
595(1)
Marchall v. Georgia
596(1)
Debra P. v. Turlington
596(2)
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
598(1)
Golden Rule Insurance Company et al. v. Washburn et al.
599(1)
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, Secretary of Transportation et al.
600(1)
Affirmative Action in Higher Education
600(1)
Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger
601(1)
Personnel Cases
602(5)
Cases Relevant to the Americans with Disabilities Act
607(2)
A Critical Look at Lawsuits
609(1)
Summary
609(1)
Web Activity
610(1)
Ethics and the Future of Psychological Testing
611(23)
Issues Shaping the Field of Testing
612(12)
Professional Issues
612(5)
Moral Issues
617(4)
Social Issues
621(3)
Current Trends
624(4)
The Proliferation of New Tests
624(1)
Higher Standards, Improved Technology, and Increasing Objectivity
625(1)
Greater Public Awareness and Influence
626(1)
The Computerization of Tests
627(1)
Testing on the Internet
627(1)
Future Trends
628(5)
Future Prospects for Testing Are Promising
628(1)
The Proliferation of New and Improved Tests Will Continue
629(1)
Revolutionary Changes: ``Perestroika'' in School Testing?
630(2)
Controversy, Disagreement, and Change Will Continue
632(1)
The Integration of Cognitive Science and Computer Science Will Lead to Several Innovations in Testing
632(1)
Summary
633(1)
Web Activity
633(1)
Appendix 1 Areas of a Standard Normal Distribution 634(3)
Appendix 2 Publishers of Major Tests 637(4)
Appendix 3 Critical Values of r for α = .05 and α = .01 (Two-Tailed Test) 641(1)
Appendix 4 Critical Values of t 642(2)
Appendix 5 Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education 644(5)
Glossary 649(6)
References 655(69)
Name Index 724(10)
Subject Index 734


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