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Psychologist as Detective, The: An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology,9780130219824
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Psychologist as Detective, The: An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130219824

ISBN10:
0130219827
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 1/1/2001.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

For undergraduate courses in Experimental Psychology, Research Methods, and Experimental Design. This text conveys the excitement of research methodology through a lively, conversational style. To make the study of the research process interactive and accessible for students, pedagogical features and critical thinking activities are integrated throughout the text. Actual student research appears in each chapter to increase relevance and heighten student interest.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
The Science of Psychology
1(21)
Ways to Acquire Knowledge
3(3)
Tenacity
4(1)
Authority
4(1)
Experience
5(1)
Reason and Logic
5(1)
Science
5(1)
Components of the Scientific Method
6(2)
Objectivity
6(1)
Confirmation of Findings
7(1)
Self-Correction
7(1)
Control
7(1)
The Psychological Experiment
8(1)
Independent Variables
8(1)
Dependent Variables
8(1)
Extraneous Variables
9(1)
Establishing Cause-and-Effect Relations
9(3)
The Research Process
12(7)
Finding a Problem
12(1)
Reviewing the Literature
12(1)
Theoretical Considerations
13(1)
Hypothesis
14(1)
Research Design
15(1)
Conducting the Experiment
15(1)
Data Analysis and Statistical Decisions
15(1)
Decisions in Terms of Past Research and Theory
15(1)
Preparing the Research Report
15(1)
Sharing Your Results: Presentation and Publication
16(3)
Finding a New Problem
19(1)
Why is the Research Methods Course Important?
19(3)
Research Ideas and Hypotheses
22(23)
The Research Idea
23(5)
Characteristics of Good Research Ideas
23(1)
Sources of Research Ideas
24(4)
Developing a Research Question
28(1)
Surveying The Psychological Literature
28(9)
Formulating the Research Hypothesis
37(1)
Characteristics of the Research Hypothesis
37(8)
Ethics in Psychological Research
45(18)
The Need for Ethical Principles
46(2)
APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans
48(6)
Is Deception in Research Necessary?
50(1)
Informed Consent
50(2)
Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk
52(1)
Vulnerable Populations
52(1)
The Debriefing Session
53(1)
The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research
54(1)
The Institutional Review Board
55(1)
The Experimenter's Responsibility
56(1)
The Participant's Responsibility
56(1)
Researcher's Ethical Obligations Once the Research is Completed
57(6)
Plagiarism
57(2)
Fabrication of Data
59(1)
Lying With Statistics
60(1)
Citing Your References Correctly
60(3)
Nonexperimental Methods, Surveys and Questionnaires, Sampling and Basic Research Strategies
63(32)
Descriptive Methods
64(11)
Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
64(2)
Observational Techniques
66(6)
Grounded Theory
72(3)
Correlational Studies
75(2)
The Nature of Correlations
75(1)
Correlational Research
76(1)
Ex Post Facto Studies
77(2)
Surveys, Questionnaires, Tests, and Inventories
79(10)
Surveys and Questionnaires
80(6)
Tests and Inventories
86(3)
Sampling Considerations and Basic Research Strategies
89(6)
Sampling
89(2)
Basic Research Strategies
91(4)
The Basics of Experimentation I: Variables and Control
95(37)
The Nature of Variables
96(1)
Operationally Defining Variables
96(1)
Independent Variables
97(2)
Types of IVs
97(2)
Extraneous Variables (Confounder)
99(2)
Dependent Variables
101(4)
Selecting the DV
101(1)
Recording or Measuring the DV
102(2)
Should You Record More than One DV?
104(1)
Characteristics of a Good DV
105(1)
Nuisance Variables
105(4)
Controlling Extraneous Variables
109(13)
Basic Control Techniques
109(13)
Internal Validity: Evaluating Your Experiment from the Inside
122(10)
Threats to Internal Validity
122(7)
Protecting Internal Validity
129(3)
The Basics of Experimentation II: Final Considerations, Unanticipated Influences, and Cross-Cultural Issues
132(22)
Participants
133(3)
Type of Participants
133(2)
Number of Participants
135(1)
Apparatus
136(3)
IV Presentation
136(1)
DV Recording
137(2)
The Experimenter as an Extraneous Variable
139(3)
Experimenter Characteristics
139(1)
Experimenter Expectancies
140(1)
Controlling Experimenter Effects
141(1)
Participant Perceptions as Extraneous Variables
142(6)
Demand Characteristics and Good Participants
142(2)
Response Bias
144(1)
Controlling Participant Effects
145(3)
The Interface Between Research and Culture
148(6)
Culture, Knowledge, and Truth
149(1)
The Effect of Culture on Research
149(1)
Methodology and Analysis Issues
150(4)
Using Statistics to Answer Questions
154(34)
Descriptive Statistics
155(17)
Scales of Measurement
155(2)
Measures of Central Tendency
157(2)
Graphing Your Results
159(7)
Calculating and Computing Statistics
166(1)
Measures of Variability
166(6)
Correlation
172(4)
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
175(1)
Inferential Statistics
176(5)
What Is Significant?
177(1)
The t Test
178(2)
One-Tail versus Two-Tail Tests of Significance
180(1)
The Logic of Significance Testing
181(3)
When Statistics Go Astray: Type I and Type II Errors
184(1)
Effect Size
184(4)
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with Two Groups
188(28)
Experimental Design: The Basic Building Block
189(16)
The Two-Group Design
189(10)
Comparing the Two-Group Designs
199(3)
Variations on the Two-Group Design
202(3)
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
205(1)
The Relation between Experimental Design and Statistics
205(1)
Analyzing Two-Group Designs
205(1)
Calculating Your Statistics
205(1)
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
206(7)
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
206(7)
The Continuing Research Problem
213(3)
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with More than Two Groups
216(29)
Experimental Design: Adding to the Basic Building Block
217(12)
The Multiple-Group Design
217(7)
Comparing the Multiple-Group Design to the Two-Group Design
224(2)
Comparing Multiple-Group Designs
226(1)
Variations on the Multiple-Group Design
227(2)
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
229(3)
Analyzing Multiple-Group Designs
229(1)
Calculating Your Statistics
230(1)
Rationale of ANOVA
230(2)
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
232(10)
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
233(9)
The Continuing Research Problem
242(3)
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables
245(39)
Experimental Design: Doubling the Basic Building Block
246(21)
The Factorial Design
246(12)
Comparing the Factorial Design to Two-Group and Multiple-Group Designs
258(3)
Choosing a Factorial Design
261(1)
Variations on Factorial Designs
262(5)
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
267(4)
Analyzing Factorial Designs
267(1)
Analyzing the Statistical Example
268(1)
Rationale of ANOVA
269(1)
Understanding Interactions
270(1)
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
271(9)
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
271(9)
A Final Note
280(1)
The Continuing Research Problem
280(4)
Alternative Research Designs
284(34)
Protecting Internal Validity Revisited
285(8)
Examining Your Experiment from the Inside
285(3)
Protecting Internal Validity with Research Design
288(4)
Conclusion
292(1)
Single-Case Experimental Designs
293(13)
History of Single-Case Experimental Designs
294(1)
Uses of Single-Case Experimental Designs
295(1)
General Procedures of Single-Case Experimental Designs
296(1)
Statistics and Single-Case Experimental Designs
297(2)
Representative Single-Case Experimental Designs
299(7)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
306(12)
History of Quasi-Experimental Designs
307(1)
Uses of Quasi-Experimental Designs
307(1)
Representative Quasi-Experimental Designs
308(10)
External Validity and Critiquing Experimental Research
318(25)
External Validity: Generalizing Your Experiment to the Outside
319(14)
Threats to External Validity (Based on Methods)
321(3)
Threats to External Validity (Based on Our Participants)
324(5)
The Devil's Advocate: Is External Validity Always Necessary?
329(1)
Conclusion
330(3)
Critiquing Experimental Research
333(10)
Writing and Assembling an APA-Format Research Report
343(44)
What Is APA Format?
344(1)
Sections of the APA Format Paper
345(33)
Title Page
346(1)
Abstract
347(2)
Introduction
349(4)
Method
353(4)
Results
357(6)
Discussion
363(2)
References
365(5)
Author Note
370(1)
Headings
371(7)
Writing in APA Style
378(9)
General Guidelines
378(2)
Grammatical Guidelines
380(2)
APA Editorial Style
382(1)
Preparing Your Manuscript
383(4)
Appendix A: Statistical Tables 387(6)
Appendix B: Selected Statistical Formulae 393(2)
Appendix C: Factorial Design with Three Independent Variables 395(4)
Appendix D: Study Break Answers 399(18)
Glossary 417(8)
References 425(8)
Index 433


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