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Psychologist as Detective, The: An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology,9780132277310

Psychologist as Detective, The: An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780132277310

ISBN10:
013227731X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $134.00

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Summary

The Psychologist as Detective conveys the excitement of research methodology through a lively, conversational style. To make the study of the research process interactive and accessible for readers, pedagogical features and critical thinking activities are integrated throughout the volume. Actual student research appears in each chapter to increase relevance and heighten reader interest. This text evaluates the science of psychology, research ideas and hypotheses, ethics, nonexperimental methods and the basics of experimentation variables and control, statistics, designing-conducting-analyzing and interpreting experiments, as well as alternative research designs, external validity, critiquing experimental research and writing and assemblling an APA-format research report. For individuals involved with or interested in psychological research.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
The Science of Psychology
1(22)
Ways to Acquire Knowledge
3(3)
Tenacity
3(1)
Authority
4(1)
Experience
4(1)
Reason and Logic
5(1)
Science
5(1)
Components of the Scientific Method
6(2)
Objectivity
6(1)
Confirmation of Findings
6(1)
Self-Correction
7(1)
Control
7(1)
The Psychological Experiment
8(1)
Independent Variable
8(1)
Dependent Variable
8(1)
Extraneous Variables
9(1)
Establishing Cause-and-Effect Relations
9(3)
Review Summary
10(1)
Check Your Progress
11(1)
The Research Process
12(7)
Finding a Problem
12(1)
Reviewing the Literature
12(1)
Theoretical Considerations
13(1)
Hypothesis
14(1)
Research Design
15(1)
Conducting the Experiment
15(1)
Data Analysis and Statistical Decisions
15(1)
Decisions in Terms of Past Research and Theory
15(1)
Preparing the Research Report
16(1)
Sharing Your Results: Presentation and Publication
16(3)
Finding a New Problem
19(1)
Why Is the Research Methods Course Important?
20(3)
Review Summary
21(1)
Check Your Progress
21(1)
Key Terms
22(1)
Looking Ahead
22(1)
Research Ideas, Critiquing Research, and Hypotheses
23(34)
The Research Idea
24(5)
Characteristics of Good Research Ideas
24(1)
Sources of Research Ideas
25(4)
Developing a Research Question
29(1)
Surveying the Psychological Literature
29(9)
Critiquing Psychological Research
38(10)
Review Summary
47(1)
Check Your Progress
48(1)
Formulating the Research Hypothesis
48(1)
Characteristics of the Research Hypothesis
49(8)
Types of Statements
49(2)
Types of Reasoning
51(2)
A New View of Hypothesis Testing
53(1)
Directional Versus Nondirectional Research Hypotheses
54(1)
Review Summary
55(1)
Check Your Progress
55(1)
Key Terms
56(1)
Looking Ahead
56(1)
Ethics in Psychological Research
57(21)
The Need for Ethical Principles
58(2)
APA Principles in the Conduct of Research With Humans
60(7)
Is Deception in Research Necessary?
62(1)
Informed Consent
63(1)
Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk
64(1)
Vulnerable Populations
65(1)
The Debriefing Session
66(1)
The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research
67(1)
The Institutional Review Board
68(2)
The Experimenter's Responsibility
70(1)
The Participants' Responsibility
70(1)
The Researcher's Ethical Obligations Once the Research Is Completed
71(7)
Plagiarism
71(1)
Fabrication of Data
72(1)
Lying With Statistics
73(1)
Citing Your References Correctly
74(2)
Review Summary
76(1)
Check Your Progress
76(1)
Key Terms
77(1)
Looking Ahead
77(1)
Nonexperimental Methods I: Descriptive Methods, Qualitative Research, and Correlational Studies
78(19)
Descriptive Methods
79(9)
Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
79(2)
Observational Techniques
81(4)
Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques
85(3)
Qualitative Research
88(4)
Grounded Theory
89(2)
Participatory Action Research
91(1)
Correlational Studies
92(5)
The Nature of Correlations
92(2)
Correlational Research
94(1)
Review Summary
94(1)
Check Your Progress
95(1)
Key Terms
96(1)
Looking Ahead
96(1)
Nonexperimental Methods II: Ex Post Facto Studies, Surveys and Questionnaires, Sampling, and Basic Research Strategies
97(18)
Ex Post Facto Studies
98(1)
Surveys, Questionnaires, Tests, and Inventories
98(10)
Surveys and Questionnaires
99(6)
Tests and Inventories
105(3)
Sampling Considerations and Basic Research Strategies
108(7)
Sampling
108(2)
Basic Research Strategies
110(2)
Review Summary
112(1)
Check Your Progress
113(1)
Key Terms
114(1)
Looking Ahead
114(1)
The Basics of Experimentation I: Variables and Control
115(28)
The Nature of Variables
116(1)
Operationally Defining Variables
116(1)
Independent Variables
117(2)
Types of IVs
117(2)
Extraneous Variables (Confounders)
119(2)
Dependent Variables
121(3)
Selecting the DV
121(1)
Recording or Measuring the DV
122(1)
Recording More Than One DV
122(2)
Characteristics of a Good DV
124(1)
Nuisance Variables
124(4)
Review Summary
127(1)
Check Your Progress
128(1)
Controlling Extraneous Variables
128(15)
Basic Control Techniques
129(12)
Review Summary
141(1)
Check Your Progress
141(1)
Key Terms
142(1)
Looking Ahead
142(1)
The Basics of Experimentation II: Final Considerations, Unanticipated Influences, and Cross-Cultural Issues
143(23)
Participants
144(3)
Types of Participants
144(2)
Number of Participants
146(1)
Apparatus
147(3)
IV Presentation
147(1)
DV Recording
148(1)
Review Summary
149(1)
Check Your Progress
149(1)
The Experimenter as an Extraneous Variable
150(3)
Experimenter Characteristics
150(1)
Experimenter Expectancies
151(1)
Controlling Experimenter Effects
152(1)
Participant Perceptions as Extraneous Variables
153(6)
Demand Characteristics and Good Participants
153(2)
Response Bias
155(1)
Controlling Participant Effects
155(2)
Review Summary
157(1)
Check Your Progress
158(1)
The Interface Between Research and Culture
159(7)
Culture, Knowledge, and Truth
160(1)
The Effect of Culture on Research
161(1)
Methodology and Analysis Issues
162(2)
Review Summary
164(1)
Check Your Progress
164(1)
Key Terms
165(1)
Looking Ahead
165(1)
Internal and External Validity
166(25)
Internal Validity: Evaluating Your Experiment From the Inside
167(9)
Threats to Internal Validity
167(7)
Protecting Internal Validity
174(1)
Review Summary
175(1)
Check Your Progress
175(1)
External Validity: Generalizing Your Experiment to the Outside
176(15)
Threats to External Validity (Based on Methods)
179(3)
Threats to External Validity (Based on Our Participants)
182(4)
The Devil's Advocate: Is External Validity Always Necessary?
186(3)
Review Summary
189(1)
Check Your Progress
189(1)
Key Terms
190(1)
Looking Ahead
190(1)
Using Statistics to Answer Questions
191(35)
Descriptive Statistics
192(18)
Scales of Measurement
192(2)
Measures of Central Tendency
194(2)
Graphing Your Results
196(5)
Calculating and Computing Statistics
201(2)
Measures of Variability
203(5)
Review Summary
208(1)
Check Your Progress
209(1)
Correlation
210(4)
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
213(1)
Inferential Statistics
214(8)
What Is Significant?
214(1)
The t Test
215(3)
One-Tail Versus Two-Tail Tests of Significance
218(1)
The Logic of Significance Testing
218(3)
When Statistics Go Astray: Type I and Type II Errors
221(1)
Effect Size
222(4)
Review Summary
223(1)
Check Your Progress
223(1)
Key Terms
224(1)
Looking Ahead
225(1)
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments With Two Groups
226(30)
Experimental Design: The Basic Building Blocks
227(17)
The Two-Group Design
227(10)
Review Summary
237(1)
Check Your Progress
237(1)
Comparing Two-Group Designs
238(3)
Variations on the Two-Group Design
241(2)
Review Summary
243(1)
Check Your Progress
244(1)
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
244(1)
The Relation Between Experimental Design and Statistics
244(1)
Analyzing Two-Group Designs
244(1)
Calculating Your Statistics
245(1)
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
245(7)
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
246(6)
The Continuing Research Problem
252(4)
Review Summary
253(1)
Check Your Progress
254(1)
Key Terms
254(1)
Looking Ahead
255(1)
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with More Than Two Groups
256(30)
Experimental Design: Adding to the Basic Building Block
257(12)
The Multiple-Group Design
257(7)
Comparing the Multiple-Group and Two-Group Designs
264(1)
Comparing Multiple-Group Designs
265(2)
Variations on the Multiple-Group Design
267(1)
Review Summary
268(1)
Check Your Progress
268(1)
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
269(4)
Analyzing Multiple-Group Designs
269(1)
Planning Your Experiment
270(1)
Rationale of ANOVA
270(3)
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
273(10)
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
274(9)
The Continuing Research Problem
283(3)
Review Summary
284(1)
Check Your Progress
284(1)
Key Terms
285(1)
Looking Ahead
285(1)
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables
286(42)
Experimental Design: Doubling the Basic Building Block
287(1)
The Factorial Design
288(22)
Review Summary
300(1)
Check Your Progress
300(1)
Comparing the Factorial Design to Two-Group and Multiple-Group Designs
301(3)
Choosing a Factorial Design
304(1)
Variations on Factorial Designs
305(4)
Review Summary
309(1)
Check Your Progress
310(1)
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
310(5)
Naming Factorial Designs
310(1)
Planning the Statistical Analysis
311(1)
Rationale of Factorial ANOVA
312(2)
Understanding Interactions
314(1)
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
315(9)
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
315(9)
A Final Note
324(1)
The Continuing Research Problem
324(4)
Review Summary
326(1)
Check Your Progress
326(1)
Key Terms
327(1)
Looking Ahead
327(1)
Alternative Research Designs
328(35)
Protecting Internal Validity Revisited
329(9)
Examining Your Experiment from the Inside
329(2)
Protecting Internal Validity with Research Designs
331(5)
Conclusion
336(1)
Review Summary
337(1)
Check Your Progress
337(1)
Single-Case Experimental Designs
338(13)
History of Single-Case Experimental Designs
339(1)
Uses of Single-Case Experimental Designs
340(1)
General Procedures of Single-Case Experimental Designs
341(1)
Statistics and Single-Case Experimental Designs
342(1)
Representative Single-Case Experimental Designs
343(7)
Review Summary
350(1)
Check Your Progress
350(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
351(12)
History of Quasi-Experimental Designs
352(1)
Uses of Quasi-Experimental Designs
352(1)
Representative Quasi-Experimental Designs
353(7)
Review Summary
360(1)
Check Your Progress
361(1)
Key Terms
362(1)
Looking Ahead
362(1)
Writing and Assembling an APA-Format Research Report
363(58)
What Is APA Format?
364(1)
Sections of the APA-Format Paper
365(38)
Title Page
365(2)
Abstract
367(2)
Introduction
369(5)
Method
374(5)
Results
379(5)
Discussion
384(4)
References
388(5)
Appendix
393(1)
Author Note
394(1)
Headings
394(2)
Review Summary
396(6)
Check Your Progress
402(1)
Writing in APA Style
403(4)
General Guidelines
403(2)
Grammatical Guidelines
405(2)
APA Editorial Style
407(1)
Preparing Your Manuscript
408(1)
Student Views of Professional Activities
408(13)
Review Summary
417(1)
Check Your Progress
418(1)
Key Terms
419(1)
Looking Ahead
419(2)
Appendix A: Statistical Tables 421(6)
Appendix B: Selected Statistical Formulae 427(2)
Appendix C: Factorial Design with Three Independent Variables 429(4)
Appendix D: Check Your Progress Answers 433(17)
Glossary 450(10)
References 460(9)
Index 469


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