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Psychology : From Inquiry to Understanding,9780205832064

Psychology : From Inquiry to Understanding

by ; ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205832064

ISBN10:
0205832067
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/31/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $202.99

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Summary

Provide the framework students need to go from inquiry to understanding. By continuously modeling the application of six key principles of scientific thinking for students, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understandingteaches students how to test their assumptions, and motivates them to use scientific thinking skills to better understand the field of psychology and the world around them.For introductory psychology courses at two- and four-year colleges and universities.

Author Biography

SCOTT O. LILIENFELD received his B.A. in Psychology from Cornell University in 1982 and his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Minnesota in 1990. He completed his clinical internship at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1986 to 1987. He was Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at SUNY Albany from 1990 to 1994 and now is Professor of Psychology at Emory University. He is a Fellow of the Association of Psychological Science and was the recipient of the 1998 David Shakow Award from Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) of the American Psychological Association for Early Career Contributions to Clinical Psychology. Dr. Lilienfeld is a past president of the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology within Division 12. He is the founder and editor of the Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, Associate Editor of Applied and Preventive Psychology, and a regular columnist for Scientific American Mind magazine. He has authored or coauthored seven books and over 200 journal articles and chapters. Dr. Lilienfeld has also been a participant in Emory University’s “Great Teachers” lecturer series, as well as the Distinguished Speaker for the Psi Chi Honor Society at the American Psychological Association and numerous other national conventions.

 

STEVEN JAY LYNN received his B.A. in Psychology from the University of Michigan and his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Indiana University. He completed an NIMH Postdoctoral Fellowship at Lafayette Clinic, Detroit, Michigan, in 1976 and is now Professor of Psychology at Binghamton University (SUNY), where he is the director of the Psychological Clinic. Dr. Lynn is a fellow of numerous professional organizations, including the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society, and he was the recipient of the Chancellor’s Award of the State University of New York for Scholarship and Creative Activities. Dr. Lynn has authored or edited 19 books and more than 260 other publications, and was  recently named on a list of “Top Producers of Scholarly Publications in Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Programs” (2000-2004/Stewart, Wu, & Roberts, 2007, Journal of Clinical Psychology). Dr. Lynn has served as the editor of a book series for the American Psychological Association, and he has served on 11 editorial boards, including the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Dr. Lynn’s research has been supported by the National Institute of Mental Health and the Ohio Department of Mental Health.

 

LAURA L. NAMY received her B.A. in Philosophy and Psychology from Indiana University in 1993 and her doctorate in Cognitive Psychology at Northwestern University in 1998. She is now Associate Professor of Psychology and Core Faculty in Linguistics at Emory University. Dr. Namy is the editor of the Journal of Cognition and Development. At Emory, she is Director of the Emory Child Study Center and Associate Director of the Center for Mind, Brain, and Culture. Her research focuses on the origins and development of verbal and nonverbal symbol use in young children, sound symbolism in natural language, and the role of comparison in conceptual development.

 

NANCY J. WOOLF received her B.S. in Psychobiology at UCLA in 1978 and her Ph.D. in Neuroscience at UCLA School of Medicine in 1983. She is Adjunct Professor in the Department of Psychology at UCLA. Her specialization is behavioral neuroscience, and her research spans the organization of acetylcholine systems, neural plasticity, memory, neural degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, and consciousness. In 1990 she won the Colby Prize from the Sigma Kappa Foundation, awarded for her achievements in scientific research in Alzheimer disease. In 2002 she received the Academic Advancement Program Faculty Recognition Award. She also received a Distinguished Teaching Award from the Psychology Department at UCLA in 2008. Dr. Woolf is currently on the editorial boards of Science and Consciousness Review and Journal of Nanoneuroscience.

Table of Contents

1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life 

2: Research Methods: Safeguards against Error

3: Biological Psychology: Bridging the Levels of Analysis  

4: Sensation and Perception: How We Sense and Conceptualize the World

5: Consciousness: Expanding the Boundaries of Psychological Inquiry

6: Learning: How Nurture Changes Us

7: Memory: Constructing and Reconstructing Our Pasts

8: Language, Thinking, and Reasoning: Getting Inside Our Talking Heads

9: Intelligence and IQ Testing: Controversy and Consensus

10: Human Development: How and Why We Change

11: Emotion and Motivation: What Moves Us

12: Stress, Coping, and Health: The Mind–Body Interconnection

13: Social Psychology: How Others Affect Us

14: Personality: Who We Are

15: Psychological Disorders: When Adaptation Breaks Down

16: Psychological and Biomedical Treatments: Helping People Change

 

1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life

 

What Is Psychology? Science versus Intuition                                                                               

Psychology and Levels of Analysis

What Makes Psychology Challenging—and Fascinating

Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense

Psychology as a Science

Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science

Recognizing that We Might Be Wrong  

Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science                                                                      

The Amazing Growth of Popular Psychology

What Is Pseudoscience?

PsychoMythology: The Hot Hand: Reality or Illusion?

The Dangers of Pseudoscience: Why Should We Care?

Scientific Thinking: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction                                                                     

Scientific Skepticism

A Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking

Evaluating Claims : Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables

Psychology’s Past and Present: What a Long, Strange Trip It’s Been                                         

The Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology

The Multifaceted World of Modern Psychology

The Great Debates of Psychology

How Psychology Affects Our Lives

Your Complete Review System

 

2: Research Methods: Safeguards against Error

The Beauty and Necessity of Good Research Design

Why We Need Research Designs

Heuristics and Biases: How We Can Be Fooled

Cognitive Biases

The Scientific Method: Toolbox of Skills

Naturalistic Observation: Studying Humans “In the Wild”

Case Study Designs: Getting to Know You

Self-Report Measures and Surveys: Asking People about Themselves and Others

Correlational Designs

Experimental Designs

PsychoMythology: Laboratory Research Doesn’t Apply to the Real World, Right? 

Ethical Issues in Research Design

Tuskegee: A Shameful Moral Tale

Ethical Guidelines for Human Research

Ethical Issues in Animal Research

Statistics: The Language of Psychological Research

Descriptive Statistics: What’s What?

Inferential Statistics: Testing Hypotheses

How People Lie with Statistics

Evaluating Psychological Research

Becoming a Peer Reviewer

Most Reporters Aren’t Scientists: Evaluating Psychology in the Media

Evaluating Claims: Hair-Loss Remedies
Your Complete Review System

 

3: Biological Psychology: Bridging the Levels of Analysis

 

Nerve Cells: Communication Portals                                                                                              

Neurons: The Brain’s Communicators

Electrifying Thought

Chemical Communication: Neurotransmission

Neural Plasticity: How and When the Brain Changes

The Brain–Behavior Network                                                                                                          

The Central Nervous System: The Command Center

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Endocrine System

The Pituitary Gland the Pituitary Hormones

The Adrenal Glands and Adrenaline

Sexual Reproductive Glands and Sex Hormones

Mapping the Mind: The Brain in Action                                                                                         

A Tour of Brain-Mapping Methods

How Much of Our Brain Do We Use?

Which Parts of Our Brain Do We Use for What?

Which Side of Our Brain Do We Use for What?

Psychomythology: Are there Left-Brained versus Right-Brained Persons? 

Evaluating Claims : Diagnosing Your Brain Orientation

Nature and Nurture: Did Your Genes—or Parents—Make You Do It?                                      

How We Came to Be Who We Are

Behavioral Genetics: How We Study Heritability

Your Complete Review System

 

4: Sensation and Perception: How We Sense and Conceptualize the World

Two Sides of the Coin: Sensation and Perception

Sensation: Our Senses as Detectives

Perception: When Our Senses Meet Our Minds

Extrasensory Perception (ESP): Fact or Fiction?

Evaluating Claims: Subliminal Persuasion CDs

Seeing: The Visual System

Light: The Energy of Life

The Eye: How We Represent the Visual Realm

Visual Perception

When We Can’t See or Perceive Visually

Hearing: The Auditory System

Sound: Mechanical Vibration

The Structure and Function of the Ear

Auditory Perception

When We Can’t Hear

Smell and Taste: The Sensual Senses

What Are Odors and Flavors?

Sense Receptors for Smell and Taste

Olfactory and Gustatory Perception

When We Can’t Smell or Taste

Our Body Senses: Touch, Body Position, and Balance

The Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Proprioception and Vestibular Sense: Body Position and Balance

PsychoMythology: Psychic Healing of Chronic Pain

Your Complete Review System

 

5: Consciousness: Expanding the Boundaries of Psychological Inquiry

 

The Biology of Sleep  

The Circadian Rhythm: The Cycle of Everyday Life

Stages of Sleep

Lucid Dreaming

Disorders of Sleep

Dreams  

Freud’s Dream Protection Theory

Activation–Synthesis Theory

Dreaming and the Forebrain

Neurocognitive Perspectives on Dreaming

Evaluating Claims : Dream Interpretations

Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences  

Hallucinations: Experiencing What Isn’t There

Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences

Déjà vu Experiences

Hypnosis

PsychoMythology: Age Regression and Past Lives

Drugs and Consciousness  

Substance Abuse and Dependence 

Depressants

Stimulants

Narcotics

Psychedelics

Your Complete Review System

           

 

6: Learning: How Nurture Changes Us

 

Classical Conditioning  

Pavlov’s Discoveries

Principles of Classical Conditioning

Higher-Order Conditioning

Applications of Classical Conditioning to Daily Life

PsychoMythology: Are We What We Eat?

Operant Conditioning  

Distinguishing Operant Conditioning from Classical Conditioning

The Law of Effect

B. F. Skinner and Reinforcement

Terminology of Operant Conditioning

Schedules of Reinforcement

Applications of Operant Conditioning

Putting Classical and Operant Conditioning Together

Cognitive Models of Learning  

S-O-R Psychology: Throwing Thinking Back into the Mix

Latent Learning

Observational Learning

New Frontiers: Mirror Neurons and Observational Learning 

Insight Learning

Biological Influences on Learning  

Conditioned Taste Aversions

Preparedness and Phobias

Instinctive Drift

Learning Fads: Do They Work?  

Sleep-Assisted Learning 

Accelerated Learning

Discovery Learning

Learning Styles

Evaluating Claims: Sleep-Assisted Learning

Your Complete Review System

 

7: Memory: Constructing and Reconstructing Our Pasts

How Memory Operates: The Memory Assembly Line

The Paradox of Memory

The Reconstructive Nature of Memory

The Three Systems of Memory

The Three Processes of Memory

Encoding: The “Call Numbers” of the Mind

Storage: Filing Our Memories Away

Retrieval: Heading for the “Stacks”

PsychoMythology: Smart Pills

Evaluating Claims: Memory Boosters

The Biology of Memory

The Neural Basis of Memory Storage

Where Is Memory Stored?

The Biology of Memory Deterioration

The Development of Memory: Acquiring a Personal History

Memory over Time

Infants’ Implicit Memory: Talking with Their Feet

Infantile Amnesia

False Memories: When Good Memory Goes Bad

False Memories

Implanting False Memories in the Lab

Generalizing from the Lab to Real World

The Seven Sins of Memory

Your Complete Review System

 

8: Language, Thinking, and Reasoning: Getting Inside Our Talking Heads

 

How Does Language Work?

The Features of Language

How Did Language Come About and Why?

How Do Children Learn Language?

Special Cases of Language Learning

Critical Periods for Language Learning

Theoretical Accounts of Language Acquisition

Nonhuman Animal Communication

PsychoMythology : Do Twins Have Their Own Language?  

Do We Think in Words? The Relation between Language and Thought

Linguistic Determinism: We Speak, Therefore We Think

Linguistic Relativity: Language Gives Thought a Gentle Nudge

Reading : Recognizing the Written Word

Learning to Read

Speed-Reading—A Hoax in Sheep’s Clothing?

Evaluating Claims: Speed Reading Courses

Thinking and Reasoning

Cognitive Economy—Imposing Order on Our World

Decision Making: Choices, Choices, and More Choices

Problem Solving: Accomplishing Our Goals

Models of the Mind

Your Complete Review System

 

9: Intelligence and IQ Testing: Controversy and Consensus

 

What Is Intelligence? Definitional Confusion  

Intelligence as Sensory Capacity: Out of Sight, Out of Mind

Intelligence as Abstract Thinking  

Intelligence as General versus Specific Abilities

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence  

Multiple Intelligences: Different Ways of Being Smart  

Biological Bases of Intelligence  

Intelligence Testing: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

How We Calculate IQ

The Eugenics Movement: Misuses and Abuses of IQ Testing  

IQ Testing Today  

College Admissions Tests: What Do They Measure? 

Reliability of IQ Scores: Is IQ Forever?  

Validity of IQ Scores: Predicting Life Outcomes  

A Tale of Two Tails: From Mental Retardation to Genius  

PsychoMythology: Do Standardized Tests Predict Grades?

Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ  

Exploring Genetic Influences on IQ  

Exploring Environmental Influences on IQ  

Evaluating Claims : IQ Boosters

Group Difference in IQ: The Science and the Politics  

Sex Differences in IQ and Mental Abilities 

Racial Differences in IQ  

The Rest of the Story: Other Dimensions of Intellect 

Creativity  

Interests and Intellect

Emotional Intelligence: Is EQ as Important as IQ?  

Why Smart People Believe Strange Things 

Wisdom

Your Complete Review System 

 

10: Human Development: How and Why We Change

 

Special Considerations in Human Development

Post Hoc Fallacy

Bidirectional Influences

Keeping an Eye on Cohort Effects

The Influence of Early Experience

Clarifying the Nature–Nurture Debate

The Developing Body: Physical and Motor Development

Conception and Prenatal Development: From Zygote to Baby

Infant Motor Development: How Babies Get Going

Growth and Physical Development throughout Childhood

Physical Maturation in Adolescence: The Power of Puberty

Physical Development in Adulthood

Evaluating Claims: Anti-Aging Treatments

The Developing Mind: Cognitive Development

Theories of Cognitive Development

Cognitive Landmarks of Early Development

Cognitive Changes in Adolescence

Cognitive Function in Adulthood

PsychoMythology: The Mozart Effect, Baby Einstein, and Creating “Superbabies”

The Developing Personality: Social and Moral Development

Social Development in Infancy and Childhood

Social and Emotional Development in Adolescence

Life Transitions in Adulthood

Your Complete Review System

 

11: Emotion and Motivation: What Moves Us

 

Theories of Emotion: What Causes Our Feelings?

Discrete Emotions Theory: Emotions as Evolved Expressions

Cognitive Theories of Emotion: Think First, Feel Later

Unconscious Influences on Emotion

Nonverbal Expression of Emotion: The Eyes, Bodies, and Cultures Have It

The Importance of Nonverbal Cues

Body Language and Gestures 

Personal Space

Lying and Lie Detection

PsychoMythology: Is “Truth Serum” Really a Truth Serum?

Happiness and Self-Esteem: Science Confronts Pop Psychology

Positive Psychology: Psychology’s Future or Psychology’s Fad?

What Happiness Is Good For

What Makes Us Happy: Myths and Realities

Forecasting Happiness

Self-Esteem: Important or Over-hyped?

Motivation: Our Wants and Needs

Motivation: A Beginner’s Guide

Hunger, Eating, and Eating Disorders

Sexual Motivation

Evaluating Claims : Diets and Weight-Loss Plans

Attraction, Love, and Hate: The Greatest Mysteries of Them All

Social Influences on Interpersonal Attraction

Love: Science Confronts the Mysterious

Your Complete Review System

 

12: Stress, Coping, and Health: The Mind–Body Interconnection

 

What Is Stress?

Stress in the Eye of the Beholder: Three Approaches

No Two Stresses Are Created Equal: Measuring Stress

How We Adapt to Stress: Change and Challenge

The Mechanics of Stress: Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome

The Diversity of Stress Responses

PsychoMythology : Almost All People Are Traumatized by Highly Aversive Events

The Brain–Body Reaction to Stress

The Immune System

Psychoneuroimmunology: Our Bodies, Our Environments, and Our Health

Stress-Related Illnesses: A Biopsychosocial View

Coping with Stress

Social Support

Gaining Control

Flexible Coping

Individual Differences: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personality

Evaluating Claims: Stress Reduction and Relaxation Techniques

Promoting Good Health—and Less Stress!

Toward a Healthy Lifestyle

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Your Complete Review System

 

13: Social Psychology: How Others Affect Us

 

What Is Social Psychology?  

Humans as a Social Species

The Fundamental Attribution Error: The Great Lesson of Social Psychology

Social Comparison: Person See, Person Do

Social Influence: Conformity and Obedience  

Conformity: The Asch Paradigm

Deindividuation: Losing Our Typical Identities

Groupthink

Obedience: The Psychology of Following Orders

Helping and Harming Others: Prosocial Behavior and Aggression 

Safety in Numbers or Danger in Numbers? Bystander Nonintervention

Social Loafing: With a Little Too Much Help from My Friends

Prosocial Behavior and Altruism

Aggression: Why We Hurt Others

PsychoMythology : Is Brainstorming in Groups a Good Way to Generate Ideas?  

Attitudes and Persuasion: Changing Minds 

Attitudes and Behavior

Origins of Attitudes

Attitude Change: Wait, Wait, I Just Changed My Mind

Persuasion: Humans as Salespeople

Evaluating Claims: Work-from-Home Jobs

Prejudice and Discrimination  

The Nature of Prejudice

Discrimination

Stereotypes

Roots of Prejudice: A Tangled Web

Prejudice “Behind the Scenes”

Combating Prejudice: Some Remedies

Your Complete Review System

 

14: Personality: Who We Are

 

Personality: What Is It and How Can We Study It?  

Researching the Causes of Personality: Overview of Twin and Adoption Studies

Birth Order: Does It Matter?

Behavior-Genetic Studies: A Note of Caution

Psychoanalytic Theory: The Controversial Legacy of Sigmund Freud and His Followers  

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality

The Id, Ego, and Superego: The Structure of Personality 

Stages of Psychosexual Development

Psychoanalytic Theory Evaluated Scientifically

Freud’s Followers: The Neo-Freudians

Behavioral and Social Learning Theories of Personality   

Behavioral Views of the Causes of Personality

Social Learning Theories of Personality: The Causal Role of Thinking Resurrected

Behavioral and Social Learning Theories Evaluated Scientifically

Humanistic Models of Personality: The Third Force   

Rogers and Maslow: Self-Actualization Realized and Unrealized 

Humanistic Models Evaluated Scientifically

Trait Models of Personality: Consistencies in Our Behavior   

Identifying Traits: Factor Analysis

The Big Five Model of Personality

Basic Tendencies versus Characteristic Adaptations

Can Personality Traits Change?

Trait Models Evaluated Scientifically

Personality Assessment: Measuring and Mismeasuring the Psyche  

Famous—and Infamous—Errors in Personality Assessment

Structured Personality Tests

Projective Tests

Common Pitfalls in Personality Assessment

PsychoMythology: How Accurate Is Criminal Profiling?

Evaluating Claims: Online Personality Tests

Your Complete Review System

 

15: Psychological Disorders: When Adaptation Breaks Down

 

Conceptions of Mental Illness: Yesterday and Today  

What Is Mental Illness? A Deceptively Complex Question

Historical Conceptions of Mental Illness: From Demons to Asylums

Psychiatric Diagnoses Across Cultures

Special Considerations in Psychiatric Classification and Diagnosis

Psychiatric Diagnosis Today: The DSM-IV

Evaluating Claims: Online Tests for Mental Disorders

PsychoMythology : The Insanity Defense: Free Will versus Determinism  

Anxiety Disorders: The Many Faces of Worry and Fear  

Panic Disorder: Terror That Comes out of the Blue

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Perpetual Worry

Phobias: Irrational Fears

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Enduring Effects of Experiencing Horror

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Trapped in One’s Thoughts

Explanations for Anxiety Disorders: The Roots of Pathological Worry and Fear

Mood Disorders and Suicide 

Major Depressive Disorder: Common, But Not the Common Cold

Explanations for Major Depressive Disorder: A Tangled Web

Bipolar Disorder: When Mood Goes to Extremes

Suicide: Facts and Fiction

Personality and Dissociative Disorders: The Disrupted and Divided Self  

Personality Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

The Enigma of Schizophrenia  

Symptoms of Schizophrenia: The Shattered Mind

Explanations for Schizophrenia: The Roots of a Shattered Mind

Childhood Disorders: Recent Controversies

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

Your Complete Review System

 

16: Psychological and Biomedical Treatments: Helping People Change

 

Psychotherapy: Clients and Practitioners

Who Seeks and Benefits from Treatment?

Who Practices Psychotherapy?

Insight Therapies: Acquiring Understanding

Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Therapies: Freud’s Legacy

Humanistic Psychotherapy: Achieving Our Potential

Group Therapies: The More, the Merrier

Family Therapies: Treating the Dysfunctional Family System

Behavioral Approaches: Changing Maladaptive Actions

Systematic Desensitization and Exposure Therapies: Learning Principles in Action

Modeling in Therapy: Learning by Watching

Operant Procedures: Consequences Count

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies: Learning to Think Differently

Is Psychotherapy Effective?

The Dodo Bird Verdict: Alive or Extinct?

How Different Groups of People Respond to Psychotherapy

Common Factors

Empirically Supported Treatments

Why Can Ineffective Therapies Appear to Be Helpful? How We Can Be Fooled

Evaluating Claims: Psychotherapies

PsychoMythology: Are Self-Help Books Always Helpful?

Biomedical Treatments: Medications, Electrical Stimulation, and Surgery

Psychopharmacotherapy: Targeting Brain Chemistry

Electrical Stimulation: Conceptions and Misconceptions

Psychosurgery: An Absolute Last Resort

Your Complete Review System

 

 



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