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Psychology of Gender,9780131147263
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Psychology of Gender

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131147263

ISBN10:
0131147269
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $104.40
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Summary

Unlike other gender books, this one focuses equally on both men and women, drawing from the empirical research and conceptual discussions surrounding gender in the areas of psychology, sociology, anthropology, medicine, and public health.It reviews the research from multiple perspectives, but emphasizes the implications of social roles, status, and gender-related traits, particularly for relationships and health-areas that are central to readers' lives and that have a great impact on their day-to-day functioning.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xxi
Introduction
1(45)
Definition of Terms
3(6)
Cultural Differences in the Construal of Gender
9(3)
Cultures with Multiple Genders
9(1)
Morocco
10(1)
The Agta Negrito
11(1)
Tahiti
11(1)
Status and Culture
11(1)
The Scientific Method
12(9)
Correlational Study
15(2)
Experimental Study
17(3)
Field Experiment
20(1)
Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs
20(1)
Difficulties in Conducting Research on Gender
21(14)
Experimenter Effects
21(7)
Participant Effects
28(1)
The Setting: Laboratory Versus Field
29(1)
Variables Confounded with Sex
30(4)
Situational Influences
34(1)
Philosophical and Political Issues Surrounding Gender
35(6)
The Sex Difference Debate
35(1)
Should We Study Gender?
36(1)
Social Construction of Gender
37(1)
Women's Movements
38(1)
Men's Movements
39(2)
This Book's Approach to the Study of Gender
41(1)
Summary
42(1)
Discussion Questions
43(1)
Suggested Reading
44(1)
Key Terms
44(2)
Conceptualization and Measurement of Gender Roles and Gender-Role Attitudes
46(53)
History of the Psychology of Gender
46(22)
1894--1936: Sex Differences in Intelligence
46(2)
1936--1954: M/F as a Global Personality Trait
48(4)
1954--1982: Sex Typing and Androgyny
52(5)
1982--Present: Gender as a Social Category
57(11)
Gender-Role Attitudes
68(27)
Attitudes Toward Men's and Women's Roles
68(2)
Affective Component: Sexism
70(5)
Cognitive Component: Gender-Role Stereotyping
75(17)
Behavioral Component: Sex Discrimination
92(3)
Summary
95(1)
Discussion Questions
96(1)
Suggested Reading
96(1)
Key Terms
97(2)
Sex-Related Comparisons: Observations
99(35)
Maccoby and Jacklin's Psychology of Sex Differences
101(1)
Meta-Analysis
102(2)
Sex Comparisons in Cognitive Abilities
104(12)
Spatial Ability
104(5)
Mathematical Ability
109(2)
Verbal Ability
111(1)
Two Studies in Cognitive Abilities
112(3)
Conclusions
115(1)
Sex Comparisons in Social Domains
116(6)
Empathy
116(1)
Helping Behavior
117(1)
Sexuality
118(3)
Activity
121(1)
General Personality Attributes
121(1)
Conclusion
122(1)
Sex Comparisons in Emotion
122(6)
The Experience of Emotion
123(1)
The Expression of Emotion
124(2)
Physiological Measures of Emotion
126(1)
Basis of Emotion
127(1)
Conclusions
128(1)
Sex Comparisons in Moral Development
128(2)
Sex Comparisons in Social Development
130(1)
Summary
131(1)
Discussion Questions
132(1)
Suggested Reading
133(1)
Key Terms
133(1)
Sex-Related Comparisons: Theory
134(49)
Biology
135(6)
Genes
135(1)
Hormones
136(3)
The Brain
139(2)
Summary
141(1)
Evolutionary Theory and Sociobiology
141(2)
Sexual Behavior
141(1)
Mate Selection
142(1)
The Hunter-Gatherer Society
142(1)
A Final Note
143(1)
Psychoanalytic Theory
143(2)
Social Learning Theory
145(3)
Reinforcement
145(1)
Observational Learning or Modeling
145(3)
Gender-Role Socialization
148(15)
The Influence of Parents
150(5)
The Influence of Other People
155(1)
Other Features of the Environment
156(7)
Conclusion
163(1)
Social Role Theory
163(4)
Cognitive Development Theory
167(1)
Gender Schema Theory
168(5)
Considering the Context: Deaux and Major's Model
173(5)
Perceiver
173(1)
Target
174(1)
Situation
175(3)
Constructionist and Postmodern Perspectives
178(1)
Summary
179(2)
Discussion Questions
181(1)
Suggested Reading
181(1)
Key Terms
182(1)
Aggression
183(40)
Aggression/Violence
184(5)
Research Evidence
184(3)
Crime Statistics
187(2)
Theories of Aggression
189(8)
Biological Theories
189(2)
Social Learning Theory
191(3)
Gender-Role Theories
194(2)
Cognitive Theories
196(1)
Environmental Factors
197(1)
Rape and Other Forms of Sexual Coercion
197(7)
Definitions
197(1)
Incidence
198(2)
Characteristics of Perpetrator
200(2)
Characteristics of Victim
202(1)
Theories
202(2)
Domestic Abuse
204(7)
Incidence
205(4)
Characteristics of Perpetrator
209(1)
Characteristics of Victim
210(1)
Theories
210(1)
Sexual Harassment
211(9)
Definitions
212(3)
Incidence
215(3)
Characteristics of Perpetrator
218(1)
Characteristics of Victim
219(1)
Theories
219(1)
Summary
220(1)
Discussion Questions
221(1)
Suggested Reading
222(1)
Key Terms
222(1)
Achievement
223(46)
Individual Difference Factors
224(26)
The Achievement Motive
224(1)
Fear of Achievement
225(7)
Self-Confidence
232(4)
Response to Evaluative Feedback
236(2)
Self-Esteem
238(2)
Stereotype Threat
240(1)
Conceptions of the Self
241(5)
Attributions for Performance
246(4)
Social Factors
250(16)
Expectancy/Value Model of Achievement
250(2)
The Influence of Parents
252(4)
The Influence of Teachers
256(7)
Peers and the Neighborhood
263(3)
Summary
266(1)
Discussion Questions
267(1)
Suggested Reading
268(1)
Key Terms
268(1)
Communication
269(43)
Interaction Styles in Childhood
270(5)
Children's Styles of Play
271(1)
Girls' Difficulty in Influencing Boys
272(1)
Explaining the Different Styles of Play
273(1)
Summary
274(1)
Interaction Styles in Adulthood
275(2)
Language
277(6)
Qualifiers to Sex Differences
280(2)
Effects of Language on Perception
282(1)
Nonverbal Behavior
283(4)
Smiling
284(1)
Gazing
284(1)
Decoding
285(1)
Sending
285(1)
Touching
285(2)
Summary
287(1)
Influenceability
287(6)
Who Is Influenced?
287(3)
Who Is Influential?
290(2)
Influence Strategies
292(1)
Explanations for Sex Differences in Communication
293(7)
Sex-Segregated Interactions in Early Life
293(1)
Status Theory
294(5)
Social Role Theory
299(1)
Leadership
300(6)
Who Emerges as a Leader
300(2)
Leadership Styles
302(1)
Views of Leaders
303(2)
Summary
305(1)
Support Provision in Interactions
306(2)
Summary
308(2)
Discussion Questions
310(1)
Suggested Reading
310(1)
Key Terms
311(1)
Friendship
312(36)
Network Size
313(1)
The Nature of Friendship
314(3)
Sex Differences
314(2)
Sex Similarities
316(1)
Closeness of Friendship
317(5)
Barriers to Closeness in Male Friendship
322(1)
Homophobia
322(1)
Competition
323(1)
Emotional Inexpressiveness
323(1)
Self-Disclosure
323(5)
Sex of Discloser
324(1)
Sex of Recipient
325(1)
Situational Variables
325(2)
Barriers to Male Self-Disclosure
327(1)
Definition of Intimacy
328(2)
Conflict in Friendship
330(3)
Changes Over the Life Span
333(1)
Early Adulthood: Marriage and Family
333(1)
Late Adulthood: Retirement and Empty Nest
334(1)
Cross-Sex Friendship
334(6)
Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendship
335(2)
Obstacles
337(2)
Changes Over the Life Span
339(1)
Friendship at Work
340(3)
Friendships of Lesbians and Gay Men
343(2)
Summary
345(1)
Discussion Questions
346(1)
Suggested Reading
346(1)
Key Terms
347(1)
Romantic Relationships
348(52)
Relationship Development
349(10)
Interest in Relationships
349(1)
Standards for Relationships
350(2)
Characteristics Desired in a Mate
352(6)
Relationship Initiation
358(1)
The Nature of Romantic Relationships
359(11)
Intimacy
359(1)
Love
360(5)
Sexuality
365(5)
Maintaining Relationships
370(7)
Maintenance Strategies
371(1)
Marital Satisfaction
372(5)
Conflict
377(10)
Areas of Conflict
377(1)
Conflict Management
378(2)
Demand/Withdraw Pattern
380(4)
Jealousy
384(3)
Gay and Lesbian Relationships
387(6)
Relationship Development
388(2)
Intimacy and Sexuality
390(1)
Relationship Satisfaction
391(1)
Jealousy
392(1)
Sex Versus Status
392(1)
Cohabiting Relationships
393(3)
Who Cohabits
394(1)
Outcomes of Cohabitation
395(1)
Summary
396(2)
Discussion Questions
398(1)
Suggested Reading
398(1)
Key Terms
399(1)
Sex Differences in Health: Evidence and Explanations
400(50)
Sex Differences in Mortality
400(5)
Life Span
400(4)
Leading Causes of Death
404(1)
Sex Differences in Morbidity
405(2)
Explanations for Sex Differences in Health
407(1)
Biology
407(5)
Genes
407(1)
Hormones
408(1)
Immune System
408(1)
Cardiovascular Reactivity
409(3)
Socioeconomic Status
412(1)
Artifacts
412(6)
Proxy
413(1)
Physicians Bias
413(5)
Health Behaviors
418(18)
Preventive Health Care
419(1)
Smoking
420(7)
Alcohol
427(1)
Drugs
428(1)
Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Drug Use
429(3)
Overweight and Obesity
432(2)
Exercise
434(2)
Men's and Women's Social Roles
436(5)
Job Characteristics
436(1)
Driving
437(1)
Risky Behavior
437(1)
Concerns with Health
438(1)
Nurturant Roles
439(1)
Gender-Related Traits
440(1)
Symptom Perception
441(2)
Evidence
441(1)
Explanations
442(1)
Illness Behavior
443(3)
Implications for Morbidity
443(1)
Implications for Mortality
444(2)
Conclusions
446(1)
Summary
446(2)
Discussion Questions
448(1)
Suggested Reading
448(1)
Key Terms
449(1)
Relationships and Health
450(45)
Effects of Marriage on Health
451(7)
Evidence
452(2)
Explanations
454(4)
Summary
458(1)
Effect of Bereavement on Health
458(4)
Evidence
460(1)
Explanations
461(1)
Summary
462(1)
Effect of Relationship Dissolution on Health
462(5)
Breakup of Dating Relationships
462(1)
Breakup of Marriage: Separation and Divorce
463(1)
Explanations
464(3)
Summary
467(1)
Effect of Marital Quality on Health
467(4)
Evidence
467(4)
Explanations
471(1)
Summary
471(1)
Division of Labor
471(9)
Who Does What?
471(4)
What Determines Who Does What?
475(2)
Satisfaction
477(2)
Effects on Well-Being
479(1)
Summary
479(1)
Parenting and Health
480(5)
Effects of Parental Status on Health
481(2)
Effect of Quality of Parent Role on Health
483(1)
Effect of Parenthood on Marriage
484(1)
Summary
485(1)
Effect of Social Support on Health
485(6)
Sex Comparisons
485(3)
Evidence: Relations to Health
488(3)
Summary
491(2)
Discussion Questions
493(1)
Suggested Reading
493(1)
Key Terms
494(1)
Work Roles and Health
495(40)
Work Role
496(10)
Women's Employment
497(6)
Unemployment
503(1)
Retirement
504(1)
Summary
505(1)
Quality of Work Role
506(3)
Characteristics of Work
507(1)
Effects on Health
508(1)
Discrimination
509(12)
Pay Disparity
510(9)
Denial of Discrimination
519(2)
Summary
521(1)
The Multiple Roles Question
521(6)
Differential Exposure vs. Differential Vulnerability
524(1)
Difficulties in Combining Roles
525(2)
Summary
527(1)
Role Buffering and Role Exacerbation
527(4)
Does Work Role Buffer or Exacerbate Family Stress?
527(2)
Do Family Roles Buffer or Exacerbate Work Stress?
529(2)
Summary
531(1)
Discussion Questions
532(1)
Suggested Reading
532(1)
Key Terms
533(2)
Mental Health
535(53)
Sex Differences in Depression
535(5)
Methodological Artifacts
540(3)
Clinician Bias
540(1)
Response Bias
541(1)
Different Manifestations of Depression
542(1)
Theories of Depression
543(19)
Biology
544(2)
Learned Helplessness
546(1)
Attributional Styles
547(1)
Coping
548(7)
Stressful Life Events
555(4)
The Female Gender Role
559(3)
Challenges of Adolescence
562(4)
Adjustment to Chronic Illness
566(6)
Male Gender Role
569(2)
Female Gender Role
571(1)
Eating Disorders
572(7)
Definitions and Prevalence
572(1)
Consequences
573(2)
Etiology
575(4)
Suicide
579(5)
Incidence
579(2)
Attempts
581(1)
The Gender Paradox
581(1)
Factors Associated with Suicide Among Adults
582(1)
Factors Associated with Suicide Among Adolescents
583(1)
Summary
584(2)
Discussion Questions
586(1)
Suggested Reading
586(1)
Key Terms
587(1)
References 588(65)
Author Index 653(14)
Subject Index 667

Excerpts

The purpose of this text is to provide a review of the empirical research and conceptual discussions surrounding gender and to examine the implications of gender for relationships and health. The focus of this book goes beyond sex alone--whether one is biologically male or female--to explore the roles that society has assigned to men and women and the other variables that co-occur with sex, such as status and gender-related traits. The implications of social roles, status, and gender-related traits for relationships and health are examined. This is why the book is titledThe Psychology of Genderrather thanThe Psychology of Sex.Gender is a term that represents the social and cultural forces that influence men and women in our society. The book discusses the "psychology" of gender because the focus is on the individual in the social context. The primary focus is not on biology and anthropology, although their contributions to the study of gender are included. Rather than review every single topic related to gender, I examine the implications of gender for two broad domains of research: relationships and health. These domains are chosen, first, because they are central to our lives. Friendships, romantic relationships, and relationships at work have a great impact on our day-to-day functioning. Psychological wellbeing and physical health are important outcomes in their own right. A second reason for the focus on relationships and health is that these are domains in which clear sex differences have been documented. These sex differences cannot be attributed to biology alone; thus, relationships and health are domains for which gender, the social category, may play a role. The book is divided into three sections, with each section building on the previous one. First, the nature of gender and the development of gender roles is presented. In the first chapter, I provide a brief overview of the scientific method and discuss the difficulties in conducting research on gender, including the philosophical and political issues that pervade this arena. I then provide a brief history of the psychology of gender, which includes discussions of the various instruments used to study gender (Chapter 2). I also discuss our attitudes toward gender and gender roles, as well as gender-role stereotypes (Chapter 2). I then turn to the research literature to provide the current data (Chapter 3) and theory (Chapter 4) on sex differences in cognitive, emotional, and social domains. In Chapter 4, I also discuss different theories of gender-role development, such as evolutionary theory, social learning theory, social role theory, and gender schema theory. In Chapter 5, I discuss the implications of gender and gender roles for aggression, including rape, domestic violence, and sexual harassment. In Chapter 6,.I discuss the implications of gender and gender roles for achievement. Thus, in this first section of the book, I provide important information on the similarities and differences between men and women and the theories that explain any observed differences. The data and the theories are important for understanding the subsequent sections of the book that address the implications of gender for relationships and health. The second section of the book begins with a discussion of men's and women's communication and interaction styles (Chapter 7). These findings have implications for the specific relationships discussed: friendship (Chapter 8) and romantic relationships (Chapter 9). Recent research on cross-sex friendship and gay and lesbian relationships are included in these chapters. The role of gender in relationships is critical to understanding the third section of the book, how gender influences health. The third section begins with an overview chapter documenting sex differences in mental and physical health and theories as to their origins (Chapter 10). Health is broadly construed in this book


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