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Psychology : An Introduction,9780072563146
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Psychology : An Introduction

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780072563146

ISBN10:
0072563141
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/1/2003
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill College
List Price: $115.75

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Table of Contents

Preface xxii
To the Instructor xxiv
Before You Begin: A Primer on Study Skills xxvii
Part I: Introduction and Foundations
1(110)
What Is Psychology?
2(30)
Prologue
3(1)
Psyche + Science = Psychology
4(3)
Definition of Psychology
5(1)
Goals of Psychology
5(2)
The Many Viewpoints in Psychology and Their Origins
7(8)
Nature of Conscious Experience
7(1)
Wundt, Titchener, and Structuralism
7(1)
J. Henry Alston
8(1)
Max Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology
8(1)
Functions of the Conscious Mind
9(1)
William James and Functionalism
9(1)
Studies of Memory: Hermann Ebbinghaus and Mary Whiton Calkins
10(1)
Contemporary Cognitive Psychology
11(1)
Psychometrics: Alfred Binet
11(1)
Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
11(1)
Ivan Pavlov
11(1)
John B. Watson and Margaret Floy Washburn
12(1)
Contemporary Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
12(1)
The Nature of the ``Unconscious Mind''
13(1)
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
13(1)
Humanistic Psychology and the Unconscious Mind
14(1)
Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology
15(7)
Neuroscience Perspective
16(1)
sociocultural Perspective
17(1)
Human Diversity: Different Yet the Same
18(1)
Sociocultural Factors in the History of Psychology
19(1)
Evolutionary Perspective
20(1)
Positive Psychology
21(1)
Specialty-Areas of Modern Psychology
22(3)
Basic Areas of Modern Psychology
22(1)
Applied Areas of Modern Psychology
23(1)
Relationship between Psychology and Psychiatry
24(1)
What We Know about Human Behavior: Some Starting Places
25(7)
Summary
29(1)
Resources
30(1)
Visual Review of Historical Time Line
31(1)
Research Methods in Psychology
32(24)
Prologue
33(1)
Basic Concepts of Research
34(1)
Empirical Evidence and Operational Definitions
34(1)
Theories and Hypotheses
34(1)
Representativeness of Samples
35(1)
Importance of Replication in Research
35(1)
Research Methods
35(12)
Descriptive Studies
36(1)
Survey Method
36(1)
Naturalistic Observation
37(1)
Clinical Method
37(1)
Correlational Studies
38(4)
Formal Experiments
42(2)
Elements and Logic of Formal Experiments
44(1)
Placebo Control in Formal Experiments
45(1)
``Blind'' Formal Experiments
45(1)
Manipulation Checks
46(1)
Ethical Principles of Research
47(9)
Ethics of Research with Human Participants
47(2)
Ethics of Research with Nonhuman Animals
49(2)
Application of Psychology: Design Your Own Formal Experiment
51(2)
Summary
53(2)
Resources
55(1)
Biological Foundations of Behavior
56(55)
Prologue
57(1)
Nervous System: Biological Control Center
58(12)
Neurons: The Units of the Nervous System
58(1)
Parts of Neurons
58(2)
Neural Transmission
60(2)
Neurotransmitters and Synaptic Transmission
62(3)
Divisions of the Nervous System
65(1)
Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System
66(1)
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
67(3)
Structures and Functions of the Brain
70(16)
Images of the Brain at Work
70(2)
Hindbrain and Midbrain: Housekeeping Chores and Reflexes
72(1)
Forebrain: Cognition, Motivation, Emotion, and Action
72(2)
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Limbic System
74(1)
Cerebral Cortex: Sensory, Cognitive, and Motor Functions
74(1)
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
75(5)
Functions of the Hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex
80(1)
Functions of the Left and Right Cerebral Hemispheres
80(1)
Split Brains
80(1)
Hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex and Emotion
81(3)
Plasticity of the Cerebral Cortex
84(1)
The Brain Is a Developing System
84(1)
The Brain Is an Interacting System
85(1)
Endocrine System: Chemical Messengers of the Body
86(5)
Pituitary Gland
87(1)
Adrenal Glands
88(1)
Islets of Langerhans
88(1)
Gonads
88(1)
Thyroid Gland
89(1)
Parathyroid Glands
89(1)
Pineal Gland
89(2)
Genetic Influences on Behavior
91(20)
What Is Inherited?
91(1)
Biological Mechanisms of Inheritance: Genetic Codes
91(1)
Genes, Chromosomes, and DNA
91(2)
Dominant and Recessive Traits
93(1)
Chromosome Abnormalities
94(1)
How Do Genes Influence Our Behavior and Mental Processes?
94(1)
Research on Inheritance in Humans
94(1)
Studies of Twins
94(1)
Studies of Adopted Children
95(1)
Genetic Influences on Complex Human Behavior
96(3)
Application of Psychology: Madness and the Brain
99(4)
Summary
103(2)
Resources
105(1)
Visual Review of Brain Structures
106(5)
Part II: Awareness
111(84)
Sensation and Perception
112(48)
Prologue
113(1)
Sensation: Receiving Messages about the World
114(4)
Stimuli: What Messages Can Be Received?
114(1)
Transduction: Translating Messages for the Brain
114(1)
Sensory Limits: How Strong Must Messages Be?
115(1)
Sensory Adaptation
115(1)
Psychophysics
115(3)
Vision: Your Human Camera
118(8)
Light: What Is It?
118(1)
The Eye: How Does It Work?
119(1)
Dark and Light Adaptation
120(2)
Color Vision
122(4)
Hearing: Sensing Sound Waves
126(5)
Sound: What Is It?
126(2)
The Ear: How Does It Work?
128(1)
Outer Ear
128(1)
Middle Ear
128(1)
Inner Ear
128(3)
Body Senses: Messages from Myself
131(9)
Orientation and Movement
132(1)
Vestibular Organ
132(1)
Kinesthetic Sense
133(1)
Skin Senses
133(1)
Pressure
134(1)
Temperature
134(1)
Pain
134(1)
Pain Gates
135(2)
Peripheral Sensitization
137(1)
Phantom Limbs
137(1)
Human Diversity: Culture and Pain
138(2)
Chemical Senses: The Flavors and Aromas of Life
140(3)
Taste
140(1)
Smell
141(1)
Pheromone Detection
142(1)
Perception: Interpreting Sensory Messages
143(17)
Visual Perception
144(1)
Perceptual Organization
144(1)
Perceptual Constancy
145(1)
Depth Perception
146(3)
Visual Illusions
149(3)
Individual and Cultural Influences on Perception
152(2)
Application of Psychology: Visual Perception, Illusion, and Art
154(2)
Summary
156(1)
Resources
157(1)
Visual Review of the Sense Organs
158(2)
States of Consciousness
160(35)
Prologue
161(1)
Wide Awake: Normal Waking Consciousness
162(3)
Daydreams
162(1)
Divided Consciousness: Being Two Places (Mentally) at the Same Time
162(1)
The Concept of the Unconscious Mind
163(2)
Sleep and Dreams: Conscious While Asleep
165(11)
Stages of Sleep
165(1)
Hypnagogic State
165(1)
Stages of Light and Deep Sleep
165(1)
REM Sleep and Dreams
165(2)
Autonomic Storms
167(1)
Time Spent Dreaming
167(1)
Non-REM Sleep and Dreams
168(1)
Circadian Rhythms
168(2)
Content of Dreams
170(1)
Images and Characters in Dreams
170(1)
Sweet Dreams: The Emotional Content of Dreams
171(1)
Creative and Bizarre Aspects of Dreams
171(1)
Meaning of Dreams
171(1)
Day Residue and Stimulus Incorporation
172(1)
Dream Interpretation
172(1)
Reasons for Sleep and Dreams
173(1)
Nightmares and Other Sleep Phenomena
174(1)
Sleep Disorders
175(1)
Altered States of Consciousness
176(5)
Meditation
177(1)
Hypnosis
178(1)
Mesmer and Mesmerism
179(1)
Depersonalization
180(1)
Drugs and Altered Consciousness
181(14)
Drug Use: Some Basic Considerations
182(1)
Variable Response to Drugs
183(1)
Problems Associated with Drug Use
183(1)
Psychotropic Drugs
184(1)
Stimulants
184(2)
Human Diversity: Substance Abuse and Human Diversity
186(1)
Depressants
186(1)
Inhalants
187(1)
Hallucinogens
187(1)
Marijuana
188(1)
Act-Alike and Designer Drugs
188(2)
Application of Psychology: The Legal Consciousness-Altering Drugs
190(3)
Summary
193(1)
Resources
194(1)
Part III: Learning and Cognition
195(122)
Basic Principles of Learning
196(38)
Prologue
197(1)
Definition of Learning
198(1)
Classical Conditioning: Learning by Association
199(7)
Association: The Key Element in Classical Conditioning
200(1)
Terminology of Classical Conditioning
201(1)
Definition of Classical Conditioning
202(2)
Importance of Classical Conditioning
204(2)
Operant Conditioning: Learning from the Consequences of Your Behavior
206(13)
Positive Reinforcement
206(2)
Primary and Secondary Reinforcement
208(1)
Schedules of Positive Reinforcement
209(1)
Shaping
210(2)
Negative Reinforcement
212(1)
Escape Conditioning
212(1)
Avoidance Conditioning
212(1)
Punishment
213(1)
Dangers of Punishment
213(1)
Guidelines for the Use of Punishment
214(1)
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
215(1)
Stimulus Discrimination and Generalization
216(3)
Extinction: Learning When to Quit
219(2)
Removing the Source of Learning
219(1)
Spontaneous Recovery and Disinhibition
220(1)
Theoretical Interpretations of Learning
221(13)
Cognition or Connection?
222(1)
Place Learning
222(1)
Latent Learning
223(1)
Insight Learning and Learning Sets
224(1)
Modeling: Learning by Watching Others
225(2)
Biological Factors in Learning
227(3)
Application of Psychology: Learning to Be Superstitious
230(1)
Summary
230(1)
Resources
231(3)
Memory
234(38)
Prologue
235(1)
Three Stages of Memory: An Information-Processing View
236(13)
Sensory Register
237(1)
Short-Term Memory
237(1)
Rehearsal in Short-Term Memory: Overcoming STM's Limited Life Span
238(1)
Chunking in Short-Term Memory: Overcoming STM's Limited Capacity
239(1)
Long-Term Memory
240(1)
Types of Long-Term Memory: Procedural, Episodic, and Semantic
241(1)
Organization in Long-Term Memory
242(2)
Retrieval of Long-Term Memories
244(2)
Human Diversity: Cultural Circumstances and Memory Skills
246(1)
Levels of Processing: An Alternative to the Stage Model
247(2)
Forgetting and Why It Occurs
249(8)
Decay Theory
249(1)
Interference Theory
250(1)
Reconstruction (Schema) Theory
251(3)
Motivated Forgetting
254(3)
Biological Basis of Memory
257(15)
Synaptic Theories of Memory: Search for the Engram
257(1)
Stages of Memory and the Brain
258(1)
Amnesia: Disorders of Memory
259(1)
Anterograde Amnesia
259(2)
Retrograde Amnesia
261(2)
Application of Psychology: Eyewitness Testimony and Memory
263(6)
Summary
269(1)
Resources
270(2)
Cognition, Language, and Intelligence
272(45)
Prologue
273(1)
Definition of Cognition
274(1)
Concepts: The Basic Units of Thinking
274(4)
Simple and Complex Concepts
275(1)
Natural Concepts
275(1)
Natural Concepts Are Basic
275(2)
Natural Concepts Are Good Prototypes
277(1)
Thinking and Problem Solving: Using Information to Reach Goals
278(7)
Cognitive Operations in Problem Solving
279(1)
Formulating the Problem
279(1)
Understanding and Organizing the Elements of the Problem
279(1)
Generating and Evaluating Alternative Solutions
280(1)
Heuristic Thinking
280(1)
Framing and Emotional Factors in Decision Making
281(1)
Artificial Intelligence
282(1)
Experts and Expertise
282(1)
Creative Problem Solving: Convergent and Divergent Thinking
283(2)
Language: Symbolic Communication
285(6)
Semantics: The Meaning of What Is Said
285(1)
Generative Property of Language: Elements and Rules
286(1)
Phonemes
286(1)
Morphemes
286(1)
Syntax
287(1)
Language and Thought: The Whorfian Hypothesis
287(2)
Animal Languages: Can We Talk to the Animals?
289(2)
Intelligence: The Sum Total of Cognition
291(26)
Differing Views of Intelligence
291(1)
Intelligence: General or Specific Abilities?
292(1)
The Biological Basis of General Intelligence
292(1)
Cognitive Components of Intelligent Behavior
293(1)
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
294(1)
Measures of Intelligence: The IQ Test
295(1)
Construction of Intelligence Tests
296(1)
Human Diversity: Cultural Influences on Inferential Reasoning
297(1)
Characteristics of Good Intelligence Tests
298(1)
Tacit Intelligence
299(1)
Individual Differences in Intelligence: Contributing Factors
300(1)
The Importance of Intelligence Scores in Modern Society
301(1)
Are People Becoming More Intelligent?
302(3)
Race-Ethnic Differences in Intelligence and Achievement: The Narrowing Gap
305(2)
``The Bell Curve'': Policy Implications of Differences in Intelligence
307(1)
Extremes in Intelligence: Mental Retardation and Giftedness
308(3)
Application of Psychology: Improving Critical Thinking
311(2)
Summary
313(2)
Resources
315(2)
Part IV: Developmental Psychology
317(48)
Developmental Psychology
318(47)
Prologue
319(1)
Basic Processes of Development
320(6)
Nature or Nurture?
320(1)
Maturation
320(1)
Early Experience and Critical Periods
321(1)
Imprinting
322(1)
Early Social Deprivation
323(1)
Variations in Development: Getting There at Different Times
324(1)
Human Diversity: Raising a Child Who Cannot Hear
325(1)
Stage Theories of Development
326(5)
Piaget's Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
327(1)
Stage Theories of Moral Development
328(1)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
328(1)
Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
329(1)
Erikson's Stage Theory of Personality Development
330(1)
The Concept of Development across the Life Span
331(2)
Development in Infancy and Childhood
333(7)
Neonatal Period: The Newborn
333(1)
Infancy: 2 Weeks to 2 Years
333(1)
Physical Development
333(1)
Cognitive Development (Sensorimotor Stage)
334(2)
Emotional and Social Development
336(1)
Early Childhood: 2 to 7 Years
337(1)
Cognitive Development (Preoperational Stage)
337(1)
Emotional and Social Development
338(1)
Middle Childhood: 7 to 11 Years
338(1)
Cognitive Development (Concrete Operational Stage)
339(1)
Emotional and Social Development
339(1)
Adolescent Development
340(5)
Physical Development
340(2)
Cognitive Development (Formal Operational Stage)
342(1)
Emotional and Social Development
343(1)
Adolescent Social Development
343(1)
Adolescent Emotions
343(2)
Adulthood: Young Adulthood through Older Adulthood
345(20)
Physical Development
345(1)
Cognitive Development
346(1)
Emotional and Social Development
346(1)
Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation (17 to 45 Years)
347(2)
Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation (40 to 65 Years)
349(1)
Climacteric
350(1)
Later Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair (65 Years On)
350(1)
Evaluation of Stage Theories of Adulthood
351(1)
Causes of Aging and Predictors of Longevity
352(1)
Death and Dying: The Final ``Stage''
353(3)
Application of Psychology: Parenting
356(3)
Summary
359(3)
Resources
362(1)
Visual Review of Stage Theories of Development
363(2)
Part V: The Self
365(132)
Motivation and Emotion
366(42)
Prologue
367(1)
Definitions of Motivation and Emotion
368(1)
Primary Motives: Biological Needs
369(6)
Homeostasis: Biological Thermostats
369(1)
Hunger: The Regulation of Food Intake
369(2)
Body Weight and the ``Set Point''
371(1)
Specific Hungers
372(1)
Psychological Factors in Hunger
372(1)
Thirst: The Regulation of Water Intake
373(1)
Biological Regulation of Thirst
373(1)
Psychological Factors in Thirst
374(1)
Psychological Motives
375(11)
Stimulus Motivation: Seeking Novel Stimulation
375(1)
Optimal Arousal Theory
375(1)
Arousal and Performance: The Yerkes-Dodson Law
376(1)
Affiliation Motivation
376(2)
Achievement Motivation
378(1)
Solomon's Opponent-Process Theory of Acquired Motives
379(2)
Human Diversity: Conflict and the First-Generation College Student
381(1)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
381(2)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives
383(1)
Self-Actualization and the American Dream
384(2)
Emotions
386(12)
Three Theories of Emotion
388(1)
James-Lange Theory
388(3)
Cannon-Bard Theory
391(1)
Cognitive Theory
391(3)
The Physiology of Emotion and Lie Detectors
394(1)
Role of Learning and Culture in Emotions
394(1)
The Pursuit of Happiness
395(3)
Aggression: Emotional and Motivational Aspects
398(10)
Freud's Instinct Theory: The Release of Aggressive Energy
398(1)
Frustration-Aggression Theory
399(1)
Social Learning Theory
399(1)
Violent Youth Gangs
400(2)
Application of Psychology: Should You Try to Lose Weight? If So, How?
402(2)
Summary
404(2)
Resources
406(1)
Visual Review of Theories of Motivation and Emotion
406(2)
Gender and Sexuality
408(52)
Prologue
409(1)
Gender and Sexual Orientation
410(20)
Gender Identity and Gender Roles
410(1)
Gender Similarities and Gender Differences
411(1)
Gender Differences in Physical Strenght and Skills
412(1)
Gender Differences in Cognitive Ability and Achievement
412(2)
Gender Differences in Emotion and Social Behavior
414(1)
Gender Differences in Mating and Sexual Behavior
414(2)
Origins of Gender Differences
416(5)
Development of Gender Identity and Roles
421(1)
Psychoanalytic Theory of Gender Identity
422(1)
Social Learning Theory of Gender Identity
423(1)
Sexual Orientation
423(2)
Gays and Lesbians in the Military
425(1)
Stigmatization, Stress, and Sexual Orientation
426(1)
Origins of Sexual Orientation
426(4)
Biological and Psychological Aspects of Sexuality
430(11)
Sexual Anatomy and Functioning
431(2)
The Sexual Response Cycle
433(2)
Sexual Motivation
435(1)
Similarity to Other Primary Motives
435(1)
Differences from Other Primary Motives
436(1)
Hormones and Sexual Behavior
437(1)
Patterns of Sexual Behavior
437(4)
Atypical and Abnormal Sexual Behavior
441(5)
Transvestism and Transsexualism
441(1)
Fetishism
441(1)
Sexual Sadism and Masochism
442(1)
Voyeurism and Exhibitionism
442(1)
Forced Sexual Behavior
442(1)
Rape
442(1)
Sexual Abuse of Children
443(1)
Sexual Harassment
444(2)
Sexual Dysfunction and Sexual Health
446(14)
Dysfunctions of Sexual Desire
446(1)
Dysfunctions of Sexual Arousal
446(1)
Orgasm Dysfunctions
447(1)
Health Problems Related to Sexual Anatomy
448(1)
Cancers of Sexual Anatomy
448(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
449(5)
Application of Psychology: Date Rape
454(2)
Summary
456(2)
Resources
458(2)
Personality Theories and Assessment
460(37)
Prologue
461(1)
Definition of Personality
462(1)
Trait Theory: Describing the Consistencies of Personality
462(4)
Allport's Trait Theory
462(1)
Five-Factor Trait Theory
463(1)
Validation of Personality Trait Theory
464(2)
Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud
466(10)
Freud's Mind: Three Levels of Consciousness
467(1)
Freud's Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego
468(1)
Id: The Selfish Beast
468(1)
Ego: The Executive of Personality
469(1)
Superego: The Conscience and Ego Ideal
469(1)
Displacement and Identification: Becoming a Member of Society
469(1)
Growing Up: The Stages of Psychosexual Development
470(1)
Oral Stage (Birth to 1 Year)
470(1)
Anal Stage (1 to 3 Years)
470(1)
Phallic Stage (3 to 6 Years)
470(1)
Latency Stage (6 to 11 Years)
471(1)
Genital Stage (11 Years On)
472(1)
Theories Derived from Psychoanalysis
472(1)
Carl Jung
472(1)
Alfred Adler
473(1)
Karen Horney
474(2)
Social Learning Theory: Albert Bandura
476(4)
Role of Learning in Personality
476(1)
Role of Cognition in Personality
477(1)
Situationism and Interactionism
478(2)
Humanistic Theory: Maslow and Rogers
480(7)
Inner-Directedness and Subjectivity
480(1)
The Self-Concept
480(2)
Self-Actualization
482(1)
Humanism Compared with Classic Psychoanalysis and Social Learning Theory
483(1)
Contemporary Merging of the Major Theories of Personality
483(3)
Human Diversity: Personality and Culture
486(1)
Personality Assessment: Taking a Measure of the Person
487(10)
Interviews and Observational Methods
488(1)
Projective Personality Tests
488(1)
Objective Personality Tests
489(1)
Evaluation of Personality Tests
490(2)
Application of Psychology: Situational Influences on Personality in Everyday Life
492(2)
Summary
494(1)
Resources
495(1)
Visual Review of Personality Theory
496(1)
Part VI: Health and Adjustment
497(106)
Stress and Health
498(40)
Prologue
499(1)
Stress: Challenges to Coping
500(12)
Sources of Stress
500(1)
Frustration
500(1)
Conflict
500(3)
Pressure
503(1)
Life Events
503(3)
Environmental Conditions
506(1)
Stress Reactions
506(1)
The General Adaptation Syndrome
506(4)
Depression and Health
510(1)
Psychological Reactions to Stress
510(2)
Factors that Influence Reactions to Stress
512(7)
Prior Experience with the Stress
512(1)
Developmental Factors
512(1)
Predictability and Control
512(1)
Social Support
513(1)
Person Variables in Reactions to Stress: Cognition and Personality
514(1)
Cognitive Factors in Stress Reactions
515(1)
Personality Characteristics and Stress Reactions
515(1)
Person Variables in Reactions to Stress: Gender and Ethnicity
516(1)
Gender Differences in Response to Stress
516(1)
Gender Differences in the Benefits of Marriage
517(1)
Fight-or-Flight and Tend-and-Befriend
517(1)
Ethnic Differences in Stress
518(1)
Coping with Stress
519(4)
Effective Coping
519(1)
Ineffective Coping
520(3)
Changing Health-Related Behavior Patterns
523(5)
Learning to Relax
523(1)
Eating Right, Exercising, and Doing Just What the Doctor Ordered
524(1)
Improved Eating Habits
524(1)
Regular Aerobic Exercise
525(1)
Medical Compliance
525(1)
Safety Management
526(1)
Human Diversity: Psychology and Women's Health
527(1)
Summing Up: How Beneficial Could Health Psychology Be?
528(10)
Psychology and the Cost of Health Care
531(2)
Application of Psychology: Prevention and Management of AIDS
533(2)
Summary
535(2)
Resources
537(1)
Abnormal Behavior
538(32)
Prologue
539(1)
Definition of Abnormal Behavior
540(5)
Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior
541(1)
Supernatural Theories
541(1)
Biological Theories
541(1)
Psychological Theories
542(1)
Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior
542(1)
The Concept of Insanity
543(2)
Anxiety Disorders
545(4)
Phobias
545(1)
Generalized and Panic Anxiety Disorders
546(2)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
548(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
549(1)
Somatoform Disorders
549(2)
Somatization Disorders and Hypochondriasis
549(1)
Conversion Disorders and Somatoform Pain Disorders
550(1)
Dissociative Disorders
551(4)
Depersonalization
551(1)
Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue
552(1)
Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality)
552(3)
Mood Disorders
555(4)
Major Depression
555(1)
Cognitive Factors in Depression
556(1)
Bipolar Disorder
557(1)
Human Diversity: Ethnic and Gender Differences in Depression and Suicide
558(1)
Schizophrenia and Delusional Disorder
559(3)
Schizophrenia
559(1)
Paranoid Schizophrenia
560(1)
Disorganized Schizophrenia
561(1)
Catatonic Schizophrenia
561(1)
Delusional Disorder
561(1)
Personality Disorders
562(8)
Schizoid Personality Disorder
562(1)
Antisocial Personality Disorder
562(1)
Other Personality Disorders
563(3)
Application of Psychology: Psychology and Civil Liberties
566(2)
Summary
568(1)
Resources
569(1)
Therapies
570(33)
Prologue
571(1)
Definition of Psychotherapy
572(1)
Ethical Standards for Psychotherapy
572(1)
Psychoanalysis
573(6)
Techniques of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
574(1)
Free Association
574(1)
Dream Interpretation
575(1)
Interpretation of Resistance
575(1)
Interpretation of Transference
575(1)
Catharsis
576(1)
Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression
576(3)
Humanistic Psychotherapy
579(4)
Client-Centered Psychotherapy
580(1)
Gestalt Psychotherapy
581(2)
Behavior Therapy
583(5)
Fear Reduction Methods
583(1)
Social Skills Training
584(4)
Cognitive Therapy
588(4)
Relationship between Cognition and Behavior
588(1)
Maladaptive Cognitions
588(4)
Other Approaches and Models of Therapy
592(11)
Feminist Psychotherapy
592(1)
Group Therapy
593(1)
Family Therapy
593(1)
Medical Therapies
594(1)
Drug Therapy
595(1)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
596(1)
Psychosurgery
596(3)
Application of Psychology: What to Do If You Think You Need Help
599(2)
Summary
601(1)
Resources
602(1)
Part VII: Social Context
603(1)
Social Psychology
604(38)
Prologue
605(1)
Definition of Social Psychology
606(1)
Groups and Social Influence
606(10)
Lynch Mobs
606(1)
Uninvolved Bystanders
606(2)
Working and Solving Problems in Groups
608(1)
Groupthink
609(1)
Conformity, Social Roles, and Obedience
610(1)
Conformity
610(1)
Social Roles and Social Norms
611(2)
Obedience: Direct Influence by Authority Figures
613(1)
The Positive Side of Groups
614(2)
Attitudes and Persuasion
616(12)
Origins of Attitudes
616(1)
Persuasion and Attitude Change
617(1)
Characteristics of the Speaker
617(1)
Characteristics of the Message
618(2)
Characteristics of the Listeners
620(1)
Techniques of Persuasion
620(1)
Behavior and Attitude Change: Cognitive Dissonance Theory
621(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
622(1)
Causes of Stereotypes and Prejudice
623(1)
Combating Prejudice
624(1)
Human Diversity: Stereotypes about College Students with Physical Challenges
625(3)
Interpersonal Attraction: Friendship and Love
628(14)
Person Perception
628(1)
Negative Information: The Bad Outweighs the Good
628(1)
Primacy Effects: The Importance of First Impressions
628(1)
Emotions and Person Perception
629(1)
Attribution Processes in Person Perception
630(1)
General Determinants of Interpersonal Attraction
630(1)
Proximity
631(1)
Similar and Complementary Characteristics
631(1)
Competence
631(1)
Physical Attractiveness
632(1)
Mutual Liking
633(1)
Gender Differences in Interpersonal Attraction
633(1)
Maintaining Relationships
634(1)
Expectations Versus Reality in Relationships
634(1)
Equity in Relationships
635(3)
Application of Psychology: Stereotypes and Discrimination in the Workplace
638(1)
Summary
639(2)
Resources
641(1)
Psychology Applied to Business and Other Professions
642(1)
Prologue
643(1)
Applied Fields of Psychology
644(1)
Psychology and Work: Employees and Managers Are People
644(17)
Employee Selection and Evaluation
645(1)
Interviews
645(1)
Tests of Intelligence
645(1)
Tests of Specific Abilities, Skills, and Job Knowledge
646(1)
Performance Tests
647(1)
Ratings of Job Performance
647(2)
Assessment Centers
649(1)
Validity of Job Selection Measures
649(2)
Fairness in Employee Selection
651(1)
Gender Biases in Employee Selection
651(1)
Race-Ethnic Biases in Employee Selection
652(1)
Job Satisfaction, Happiness, and Productivity
653(1)
Management Strategies to Improve Job Satisfaction, Happiness, and Productivity
654(1)
Management Strategies to Minimize Social Loafing
655(1)
Leadership
656(1)
Leadership among Women and Minorities
656(1)
Psychology of the Entrepreneur
656(1)
Human Factors Engineering
657(1)
Health Psychology in the Workplace
658(1)
Other Applications of Psychology to the Workplace
659(2)
Environmental Psychology
661(8)
Office and Workspace Design
662(1)
Architectural Design of Living Units
662(2)
Environmental Protection
664(1)
Overpopulation, Resource Depletion, and Pollution and Waste Management
664(1)
Psychological Approaches to Environmental Protection
665(4)
Psychology and Law: The Behavior of Juries and Witnesses
669(4)
Characteristics of Defendants and Plaintiffs
669(1)
Characteristics of Jury Members
670(1)
Psychological Factors in Presenting Evidence
671(1)
Interrogating Criminal Suspects
672(1)
Psychology and Education: Better Teaching and Testing
673(1)
Mastery Learning and Intelligent Tutoring Systems
674(1)
Project Follow Through: Educating Economically Disadvantaged Children
675(1)
Person x Situation Interaction in the Classroom
675(1)
Criterion-Referenced Testing
676(1)
Mainstreaming: Education for Persons with Special Needs
676(2)
Summary
678(1)
Resources
679
Appendix 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1


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