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Psychology of Learning for Instruction,9780205263219
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Psychology of Learning for Instruction

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205263219

ISBN10:
0205263216
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE-HALL
List Price: $77.40
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Summary

This cognitively-oriented text focuses on learning and instruction. The applications and implications of learning theories are explained and illustrated using excellent examples ranging from primary school instruction to corporate training. An important theme of the book is reflective practice, which is designed to foster a critical and reflective mode of thinking when considering any particular approach to learning and instruction.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xii
Preface to the First Edition xiv
About the Author xvi
PART ONE Introduction 1(28)
Introduction to Theories of Learning and Instruction
3(26)
What Is a Theory of Learning?
4(8)
A Definition of Learning
11(1)
A Definition of Learning Theory
11(1)
Learning in History
12(13)
The Epistemology of Learning
13(4)
Early Experimental Approaches to Learning
17(1)
Ebbinghaus (1850--1909)
18(1)
Thorndike (1874--1949)
19(1)
Pavlov (1849--1946)
20(3)
Gestalt Theory (Early 1900s)
23(1)
Summary
24(1)
Learning Theory and Instruction
25(1)
The General Plan and Approach of This Book
26(2)
Suggested Readings
28(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
28(1)
PART TWO Learning and Behavior 29(42)
Radical Behaviorism
31(40)
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior
36(2)
Respondent and Operant Behavior
36(1)
Contingencies of Reinforcement
36(2)
Principles of Behavior Management
38(15)
Strengthening or Weakening Operant Behaviors
38(1)
Strengthening a Response: Positive Reinforcement
39(2)
Strengthening a Response: Negative Reinforcement
41(1)
Weakening a Response: Punishment
42(2)
Weakening a Response: Reinforcement Removal
44(2)
Teaching New Behaviors
46(1)
Shaping
46(3)
Chaining
49(1)
Discrimination Learning and Fading
49(1)
Maintaining Behavior
50(2)
Fixed Ratio Schedules
52(1)
Fixed Interval Schedules
53(1)
Variable Ratio and Variable Interval Schedules
53(1)
Planning a Program of Behavior Change
53(5)
Set Behavioral Goals
54(1)
Determine Appropriate Reinforcers
55(1)
Select Procedures for Changing Behavior
55(1)
Implement Procedures and Record Results
56(1)
Evaluate Progress and Revise as Necessary
56(2)
Contributions of Behaviorism to Instruction
58(8)
Changing Behavior through Behavior Modification
58(1)
Managing Learning and Behavior in Instructional Systems
59(1)
Classroom Management
59(1)
Instructional Objectives
60(1)
Contingency Contracts
61(1)
Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)
61(2)
Teaching Machines to Computer-Based Instruction
63(1)
Improving Performance in Organizational Systems
64(2)
The Behaviorist Perspective on Learning: Issues and Criticisms
66(2)
Verbal Behavior
66(1)
Reinforcement and Human Behavior
67(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
67(1)
Conclusion
68(1)
Suggested Readings
69(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
69(2)
PART THREE Learning and Cognition 71(110)
Cognitive Information Processing
73(40)
Overview of the Information-Processing System
76(3)
The Stages of Information Processing
76(2)
The Flow of Information during Learning
78(1)
Sensory Memory
79(9)
Selective Attention
81(1)
Automaticity
82(2)
Pattern Recognition and Perception
84(4)
Working Memory
88(5)
Rehearsal
90(1)
Encoding
91(2)
Long-Term Memory
93(13)
Representation and Storage of Information
94(1)
Network Models of LTM
94(1)
Feature Comparison Models of LTM
95(1)
Propositional Models of LTM
96(1)
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models of LTM
97(2)
Dual-Code Models of LTM
99(1)
Retrieval of Learned Information
100(1)
Recall
101(1)
Recognition
101(2)
Encoding Specificity
103(1)
Forgetting
104(2)
Implications of CIP for Instruction
106(5)
Providing Organized Instruction
106(1)
Arranging Extensive and Variable Practice
107(3)
Enhancing Learners' Self-Control of Information Processing
110(1)
Conclusion
111(1)
Suggested Readings
112(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
112(1)
Meaningful Learning and Schema Theory
113(39)
Ausubel's Meaningful Reception Learning
116(11)
Cognitive Organization in the Learner
118(1)
Processes of Meaningful Learning
119(1)
Derivative and Correlative Subsumption
120(1)
Superordinate and Combinatorial Learning
121(3)
Assimilation Theory
124(1)
Retention of Meaningful Learning
125(1)
Readiness for Learning
125(2)
Meaningful Learning as Assimilation to Schema
127(11)
Efforts toward an Understanding of Schema
128(2)
The Nature of Schema
130(2)
Schema-Based Processing
132(1)
Comprehending Text
132(2)
Understanding Events and Guiding Actions
134(2)
Solving Problems
136(1)
Schema Acquisition and Modification
137(1)
Meaningful Learning, Schema Theory, and Instruction
138(11)
Activating Prior Knowledge
138(1)
Advance Organizers
139(2)
Schema Signals
141(1)
Advance Organizer for a Lesson on the Government of the United Kingdom
142(1)
An Advance Organizer for Theories of Learning
143(1)
Making Instructional Materials Meaningful
144(1)
Comparative Organizers and Elaboration
144(2)
Conceptual and Pedagogical Models
146(2)
Using Prior Knowledge in New Contexts
148(1)
Conclusion
149(1)
Suggested Readings
150(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
150(2)
Situated Cognition
152(29)
The Nature of Situated Cognition
155(4)
Knowledge as Lived Practices
156(1)
Learning as Participation in Communities of Practice
157(2)
Antecedents to Situated Cognition Theory
159(5)
The Ecological Psychology of Perception
160(1)
Critical Pedagogy
161(1)
Everyday Cognition
162(1)
Summary: Toward a Theory of Situated Cognition
162(2)
Processes of Situated Cognition
164(8)
Legitimate Peripheral Participation
164(2)
Apprenticeship
166(1)
Other Forms of Legitimate Peripheral Participation
166(2)
Cognition as Semiosis
168(4)
Implications of Situated Cognition for Instruction
172(6)
Cognitive Apprenticeships
173(1)
Anchored Instruction
174(1)
Learning Communities
175(2)
Assessment In-Situ
177(1)
Conclusion
178(1)
Suggested Readings
179(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
179(2)
PART FOUR Learning and Development 181(76)
Cognitive and Knowledge Development
183(35)
Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology
187(13)
Types of Knowledge
188(3)
The Stages of Development
191(1)
The Sensorimotor Period (Birth to 2)
192(1)
The Preoperational Period (2 to 7 Years)
193(1)
The Concrete Operational Period (7 to 11 Years)
193(1)
The Formal Operational Period (11 Years Onward)
194(1)
The Processes of Development
194(1)
Assimilation
194(1)
Accommodation
195(1)
Equilibration
195(1)
Criticisms of Genetic Epistemology
196(1)
The Sequence of Stages Is Invariant
196(1)
The Stages Represent Qualitative Changes in Cognition
197(2)
Children Exhibit the Characteristics of Each Stage
199(1)
Global Restructuring Characterizes the Shift from Stage to Stage
200(1)
Beyond Piaget: Alternative Perspectives on Cognitive Development
200(9)
A Neo-Piagetian View
201(2)
A Computational Model
203(1)
A Componential Analysis
204(1)
A Framework Theory Approach
205(1)
A New Agenda Based on Variability, Choice, and Change
206(1)
Conclusion: Comparisons among Theories
207(2)
Implications for Instruction of Developmental Theory
209(7)
Piagetian-Inspired Instruction
209(1)
Principle 1: The Learning Environment Should Support the Activity of the Child
210(1)
Principle 2: Children's Interactions with Their Peers Are an Important Source of Cognitive Development
211(1)
Principle 3: Adopt Instructional Strategies That Make Children Aware of Conflicts and Inconsistencies in Their Thinking
211(1)
Instructional Implications of an Information-Processing View
212(1)
The Role of Rules in Children's Thinking
212(1)
Promoting Conceptual Change
213(3)
Suggested Readings
216(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
216(2)
Interactional Theories of Cognitive Development
218(39)
Bruner: Going beyond the Information Given
222(17)
Three Modes of Representation
223(1)
The Sequence of Representational Stages
224(2)
Sequence and Instruction
226(2)
The Course of Cognitive Growth
228(1)
Learning by Discovery
229(6)
Culture and Cognitive Growth
235(2)
Summary: Toward a Theory of Instruction
237(2)
Vygotsky: The Social Formation of Mind
239(15)
Vygotsky's Developmental Method
241(1)
The Natural Process of Development
241(1)
Phylogenetic Comparisons
242(1)
Sociocultural History
242(1)
The Social Origins of Higher Mental Processes
243(1)
Sociocultural Influence on Cognition
243(1)
Classification of Concepts Made by Aboriginal Dyirbal Speakers in Australia
244(1)
Internalization
245(1)
The Zone of Proximal Development
246(2)
Learning, Instruction, and Development
248(1)
Teaching Thinking versus Content-Specific Skills
249(1)
Interaction in the Zone of Proximal Development
250(3)
The Role of Language and Other Sign Systems
253(1)
Conclusion
254(1)
Suggested Readings
254(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
255(2)
PART FIVE Learning and Biology 257(42)
Biological Bases of Learning and Memory
259(40)
Ultimate Causes: Evolution and Behavior
263(7)
Evolution and Conditioning
264(2)
Evolution and Cognition
266(1)
Implications of Evolutionary Psychology for Learning and Instruction
267(3)
Proximate Causes: Neurophysiology of Learning
270(27)
An Overview of Neural Architecture Implicated in Learning
272(1)
Cerebral Localization and the Search for the Engram
273(3)
Attention and the Brain
276(1)
Controlling Attentional States
277(2)
Selectively Allocating Attentional Resources
279(1)
Selectively Organizing Attention
280(2)
Learning, Memory, and the Brain
282(1)
Types of Memory Systems
283(3)
A Biological Basis for Language Learning
286(2)
Cognitive Development and the Brain
288(1)
Fixed Circuitry and Critical Periods
289(1)
Plasticity
290(1)
Modularity
291(1)
Implications of Neurophysiology for Learning and Instruction
292(1)
Modularity and ``Brain-Based'' Curricula
292(2)
Use It or Lose It: Enriched Environments, Critical Periods, and Plasticity
294(1)
Language Learning
295(2)
Learning Disabilities and Their Treatment
297(1)
Suggested Readings
297(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
298(1)
PART SIX Learning and Motivation 299(40)
Motivation and Self-Regulation in Learning
301(38)
A Brief History
304(2)
Origins and Determinants of Motivation
306(11)
Curiosity and Interest
306(2)
Goals and Goal Orientation
308(2)
Self-Efficacy Beliefs
310(2)
Enactive Mastery Experiences
312(1)
Vicarious Experiences
313(1)
Verbal Persuasion
314(2)
Physiological States
316(1)
Integration of Efficacy Information
316(1)
Summary
317(1)
Continuing Motivation and Self-Regulation
317(8)
Satisfying Expectancies
318(1)
Making Attributions
319(3)
Monitoring Progress
322(1)
Managing the Learning Environment
323(1)
Summary
324(1)
A Model of Motivational Design
325(11)
Strategies for Stimulating Motivation
325(2)
Gaining and Sustaining Attention
327(1)
Enhancing Relevance
328(1)
Building Confidence
329(1)
Generating Satisfaction
330(1)
Summary
331(1)
The Process of Motivational Design
332(1)
Analyze the Audience
332(3)
Define Motivational Objectives
335(1)
Design a Motivational Strategy
335(1)
Try Out and Revise as Necessary
336(1)
Summary
336(1)
Suggested Readings
336(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
337(2)
PART SEVEN Learning and Instruction 339(58)
Gagne's Theory of Instruction
341(32)
Instructional Psychology, Instructional Theories, Instructional Models
344(2)
Robert M. Gagne and the Conditions of Learning
346(24)
A Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes
347(1)
Verbal Information
348(3)
Intellectual Skills
351(3)
Cognitive Strategies
354(1)
Attitudes
355(1)
Motor Skills
356(1)
Conditions for Learning
356(3)
Conditions for Learning Verbal Information
359(1)
Conditions for Learning Intellectual Skills
359(1)
Conditions for Learning Cognitive Strategies
360(1)
Conditions for Learning Attitudes
361(1)
Conditions for Learning Motor Skills
362(1)
Summary
363(1)
The Nine Events of Instruction
363(1)
Gaining Attention
364(1)
Informing the Learner of the Objective
365(1)
Stimulating Recall of Prior Learning
365(1)
Presenting the Stimulus
366(1)
Providing Learning Guidance
366(1)
Eliciting Performance
367(1)
Providing Feedback
368(1)
Assessing Performance
368(1)
Enhancing Retention and Transfer
368(1)
Summary: Planning Instructional Events
369(1)
An Application of Gagne's Instructional Theory
370(1)
Conclusion
371(1)
Suggested Readings
372(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
372(1)
Constructivism
373(24)
Constructivism: A Contrasting Theory
375(20)
Constructivist Assumptions about Learning
376(1)
Constructivist Models of Memory
377(2)
Constructivist Learning Goals
379(3)
Constructivist Conditions for Learning
382(1)
Complex and Relevant Learning Environments
383(2)
Social Negotiation
385(1)
Multiple Perspectives and Multiple Modes of Learning
386(2)
Ownership in Learning
388(1)
Self-Awareness of Knowledge Construction
389(1)
Summary
390(1)
Constructivist Methods of Instruction
391(1)
Microworlds and Hypermedia Designs
391(1)
Collaborative Learning and Problem Scaffolding
392(1)
Goal-Based Scenarios and Problem-Based Learning
393(1)
Open Software and Course Management Tools
394(1)
Summary
394(1)
Conclusion
395(1)
Suggested Readings
395(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
396(1)
PART EIGHT Epilogue 397(8)
Toward a Personal Theory of Learning and Instruction
399(6)
References 405(35)
Index 440


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