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Psychology and Life,9780205417995

Psychology and Life

by ;
Edition:
17th
ISBN13:

9780205417995

ISBN10:
020541799X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $124.80

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Summary

This classic text emphasizes the science of psychology, with a special focus on applying that science to students' daily lives. Psychology and Life continues to provide a rigorous, research-centered survey of the discipline while offering students special features and learning aids that will spark their interest and excite their imaginations. the seventeenth edition, which has been thoroughly updated to reflect the latest cutting-edge research, features a beautiful new design and an updated art program.

Table of Contents

Psychology and Life
2(20)
What Makes Psychology Unique?
4(4)
Definitions
4(1)
The Goals of Psychology
5(3)
Psychology In Your Life: Why Study Psychology?
8(1)
The Evolution of Modern Psychology
9(7)
Psychology's Historical Foundations
9(2)
Current Psychological Perspectives
11(5)
What Psychologists Do
16(2)
Psychology in the 21st Century: The Future is Now
18(4)
Research Methods in Psychology
22(22)
The Process of Research
24(10)
Observer Biases and Operational Definitions
25(2)
Experimental Methods: Alternative Explanations and the Need for Controls
27(3)
Correlational Methods
30(3)
Subliminal Influence?
33(1)
Psychological Measurements
34(4)
Achieving Reliability and Validity
34(1)
Self-Report Measures
35(1)
Behavioral Measures and Observations
35(3)
Ethical Issues in Human and Animal Research
38(2)
Informed Consent
38(1)
Risk/Gain Assessment
38(1)
Intentional Deception
38(1)
Debriefing
38(1)
Issues in Animal Research
39(1)
Becoming a Wiser Research Consumer
40(1)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Psychological Research and the Information Explosion
41(3)
Statistical Supplement
44(48)
Analyzing the Data
46(6)
Descriptive Statistics
46(4)
Inferential Statistics
50(2)
Becoming a Wise Consumer of Statistics
52(2)
The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior
54(38)
Heredity and Behavior
56(6)
Evolution and Natural Selection
56(4)
Variation in the Human Genotype
60(2)
Biology and Behavior
62(17)
Eavesdropping on the Brain
63(3)
The Nervous System
66(2)
Brain Structures and Their Functions
68(6)
Hemispheric Lateralization
74(3)
The Endocrine System
77(2)
The Nervous System in Action
79(4)
The Neuron
79(2)
Action Potentials
81(3)
Synaptic Transmission
84(1)
Neurotransmitters and Their Functions
85(3)
Plasticity and Neurogenesis: Our Changing Brains
88
Psychology in the 21st Century: Unlocking the ``Locked-in'' Brain
83(3)
Psychology in Your Life: How Does Music Have an Impact on How You Feel?
86(6)
Sensation and Perception
92(2)
Sensing, Organizing, Identifying, and Recognizing
94(5)
The Proximal and Distal Stimuli
94(2)
Reality, Ambiguity, and Illusions
96(3)
Sensory Knowledge of the World
99(4)
Psychophysics
99(4)
From Physical Events to Mental Events
103(1)
The Visual System
103(6)
The Human Eye
103(1)
The Pupil and The Lens
104(1)
The Retina
104(2)
Processes in the Brain
106(2)
Seeing Color
108(1)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Can Technology Restore Sight?
109(4)
Hearing
113(5)
The Physics of Sound
113(1)
Psychological Dimensions of Sound
113(1)
The Physiology of Hearing
114(4)
Your Other Senses
118(4)
Smell
118(1)
Taste
119(1)
Touch and Skin Senses
119(1)
The Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses
120(1)
Pain
121(1)
Organizational Processes in Perception
122(1)
Attentional Processes
122(3)
Principles of Perceptual Grouping
125(2)
Spatial and Temporal Integration
127(1)
Motion Perception
128(1)
Depth Perception
128(4)
Perceptual Constancies
132
Psychology in Your Life: Why is Eating ``Hot'' Food Painful?
123(11)
Identification and Recognition Processes
134(6)
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes
135(1)
The Influence of Contexts and Expectations
136(1)
Final Lessons
137(3)
Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States
140(28)
The Contents of Consciousness
142(3)
Awareness and Consciousness
142(2)
Studying the Contents of Consciousness
144(1)
The Functions of Consciousness
145(3)
The Uses of Consciousness
145(1)
Studying the Functions of Consciousness
146(2)
Psychology in Your Life: When Do Children Acquire Consciousness?
148(1)
Sleep and Dreams
149(5)
Circadian Rhythms
149(1)
The Sleep Cycle
149(2)
Why Sleep?
151(1)
Sleep Disorders
152(2)
Dreams: Theater of the Mind
154(1)
Psychology in the 21st Century: The 24/7 Lifestyle and Sleep
154(3)
Altered States of Consciousness
157(11)
Lucid Dreaming
157(1)
Hypnosis
158(2)
Meditation
160(1)
Hallucinations
161(1)
Religious Ecstasy
161(1)
Mind-Altering Drugs
162(6)
Learning and Behavior Analysis
168(36)
The Study of Learning
170(2)
What Is Learning?
170(1)
Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis
171(1)
Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals
172(9)
Pavlov's Surprising Observation
172(2)
Processes of Conditioning
174(3)
Focus on Acquisition
177(2)
Applications of Classical Conditioning
179(2)
Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences
181(7)
The Law of Effect
181(1)
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
182(1)
Reinforcement Contingencies
183(4)
Properties of Reinforcers
187(3)
Schedules of Reinforcement
190(2)
Shaping
192
Psychology in Your Life: Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child?
188(5)
Biology and Learning
193(3)
Instinctual Drift
193(1)
Taste-Aversion Learning
194(2)
Cognitive Influences on Learning
196(8)
Animal Cognition
196(3)
Observational Learning
199(5)
Memory
204(40)
What Is Memory?
206(4)
Ebbinghaus Quantifies Memory
206(1)
Types of Memories
207(2)
An Overview of Memory Processes
209(1)
Sensory Memory
210(3)
Iconic Memory
210(2)
Echoic Memory
212(1)
Short-Term Memory and Working Memory
213(5)
The Capacity Limitations of STM
213(1)
Accommodating to STM Capacity
214(2)
Working Memory
216(2)
Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval
218(10)
Context and Encoding
218(3)
Retrieval Cues
221(2)
The Processes of Encoding and Retrieval
223(2)
Improving Memory for Unstructured Information
225(2)
Metamemory
227(1)
Psychology in Your Life: How Can Memory Research Help You Prepare for Exams?
228(1)
Structures in Long-Term Memory
229(7)
Memory Structures
229(4)
Using Memory Structures
233(1)
Remembering as a Reconstructive Process
234(2)
Biological Aspects of Memory
236(1)
Searching for the Engram
238(1)
Amnesia
239(1)
Brain Imaging
240
Psychology in the 21st Century: Understanding Alzheimer's Disease
237(7)
Cognitive Processes
244(40)
Studying Cognition
246(5)
Discovering the Processes of Mind
247(1)
Mental Processes and Mental Resources
247(4)
Language Use
251(7)
Language Production
251(3)
Language Understanding
254(3)
Language, Thought, and Culture
257(1)
Psychology in Your Life: Can Nonhuman Animals Learn Language?
258(2)
Visual Cognition
260(5)
Using Visual Representations
260(2)
Combining Verbal and Visual Representations
262(3)
Problem Solving and Reasoning
265(8)
Problem Solving
265(3)
Deductive Reasoning
268(3)
Inductive Reasoning
271(2)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Expert Systems and Medicine
273(1)
Judgment and Decision Making
274(10)
Heuristics and Judgment
274(4)
The Psychology of Decision Making
278(6)
Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment
284(30)
What Is Assessment?
286(4)
History of Assessment
286(1)
Basic Features of Formal Assessment
287(3)
Intelligence Assessment
290(4)
The Origins of Intelligence Testing
290(1)
IQ Tests
291(3)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Assessment on the World Wide Web
294(1)
Theories of Intelligence
295(4)
Psychometric Theories of Intelligence
295(1)
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
296(1)
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and Emotional Intelligence
297(2)
Psychology in Your Life: Do Theories of Intelligence Matter?
299(1)
The Politics of Intelligence
300(7)
The History of Group Comparisons
300(1)
Heredity and IQ
301(2)
Environments and IQ
303(2)
Culture and the Validity of IQ Tests
305(2)
Creativity
307(2)
Assessing Creativity and the Link to Intelligence
307(1)
Exceptional Creativity and Madness
307(2)
Assessment and Society
309(5)
Human Development Across the Life Span
314(46)
Studying Development
316(2)
Physical Development Across the Life Span
318(6)
Prenatal and Childhood Development
318(4)
Physical Development in Adolescence
322(1)
Physical Changes in Adulthood
323(1)
Cognitive Development Across the Life Span
324(8)
Piaget's Insights into Mental Development
325(3)
Contemporary Perspectives on Early Cognitive Development
328(2)
Cognitive Development in Adulthood
330(2)
Acquiring Language
332(4)
Perceiving Speech and Perceiving Words
332(2)
Learning Word Meanings
334(1)
Acquiring Grammar
334(2)
Social Development Across the Life Span
336(6)
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
337(1)
Social Development in Childhood
338(6)
Social Development in Adolescence
344(3)
Social Development in Adulthood
347
Psychology in Your Life: How Does Day Care Affect Children's Development?
342(9)
Gender Development
351(3)
Sex and Gender
352(1)
The Acquisition of Gender Roles
353(1)
Moral Development
354(3)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
354(1)
Gender and Cultural Perspectives on Moral Reasoning
355(2)
Learning to Age Successfully
357(3)
Motivation
360(32)
Understanding Motivation
362(5)
Functions of Motivational Concepts
362(1)
Sources of Motivation
363(4)
Eating
367(3)
The Physiology of Eating
367(2)
The Psychology of Eating
369(1)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Genes and Obesity
370(4)
Sexual Behaviors
374(8)
Nonhuman Sexual Behaviors
374(2)
Human Sexual Arousal and Response
376(1)
The Evolution of Sexual Behaviors
377(1)
Sexual Norms
378(2)
Homosexuality
380(2)
Motivation for Personal Achievement
382(5)
Need for Achievement
383(1)
Attributions for Success and Failure
384(2)
Work and Organizational Psychology
386(1)
Psychology in Your Life: Can Psychology Help Find Me a Career?
387(1)
A Hierarchy of Needs
388(4)
Emotion, Stress, and Health
392(42)
Emotions
394(11)
Basic Emotions and Culture
394(4)
Theories of Emotion
398(4)
Functions of Emotion
402(3)
Psychology in Your Life: Why Are Some People Happier Than Others?
405(1)
Stress of Living
406(14)
Physiological Stress Reactions
406(4)
Psychological Stress Reactions
410(5)
Coping with Stress
415(5)
Health Psychology
420(5)
The Biopsychosocial Model of Health
420(1)
Health Promotion
421(3)
Treatment
424(4)
Personality and Health
428(1)
Job Burnout and the Health-Care System
429(1)
A Toast to Your Health
430
Psychology in the 21st Century: Healthy People 2010
425(9)
Understanding Human Personality
434(36)
Type and Trait Personality Theories
436(8)
Categorizing by Types
436(1)
Describing with Traits
437(4)
Traits and Heritability
441(1)
Do Traits Predict Behaviors?
442(1)
Evaluation of Type and Trait Theories
443(1)
Psychology in Your Life: Why Are Some People Shy?
444(1)
Psychodynamic Theories
444(7)
Freudian Psychoanalysis
445(4)
Evaluation of Freudian Theory
449(1)
Extending Psychodynamic Theories
449(2)
Humananistic Theories
451(2)
Features of Humanistic Theories
451(1)
Evaluation of Humanistic Theories
452(1)
Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories
453(5)
Mischel's Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory
454(1)
Bandura's Cognitive Social-Learning Theory
455(2)
Cantor's Social Intelligence Theory
457(1)
Evaluation of Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories
457(1)
Self Theories
458(4)
Dynamic Aspects of Self-Concepts
458(1)
Self-Esteem and Self-Presentation
459(1)
The Cultural Construction of Self
460(2)
Evaluation of Self Theories
462(1)
Comparing Personality Theories
462(1)
Psychology in the 21st Century: The Self on the Internet
463(1)
Assessing Personality
464(6)
Objective Tests
464(2)
Projective Tests
466(4)
Psychological Disorders
470(38)
The Nature of Psychological Disorders
472(6)
Deciding What Is Abnormal
472(2)
The Problem of Objectivity
474(1)
Historical Perspectives
474(2)
The Etiology of Psychopathology
476(2)
Classifying Psychological Disorders
478(2)
Goals of Classification
478(1)
DSM-IV-TR
478(2)
Psychology in Your Life: Is ``Insanity'' Really a Defense?
480(1)
Major Types of Psychological Disorders
481(17)
Anxiety Disorders: Types
482(2)
Anxiety Disorders: Causes
484(3)
Mood Disorders: Types
487(1)
Mood Disorders: Causes
488(4)
Gender Differences in Depression
492(1)
Suicide
492(1)
Personality Disorders
493(1)
Dissociative Disorders
494(2)
Psychological Disorders of Childhood
496(2)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Pinpointing Interactions of Nature and Nurture
498
Schizophrenic Disorders
497(7)
Major Types of Schizophrenia
499(1)
Causes of Schizophrenia
500(4)
The Stigma of Mental Illness
504(4)
Therapies for Psychological Disorders
508(34)
The Therapeutic Context
510(4)
Goals and Major Therapies
510(1)
Therapists and Therapeutic Settings
510(2)
Historical and Cultural Contexts
512(2)
Psychodynamic Therapies
514(2)
Freudian Psychoanalysis
514(1)
Later Psychodynamic Therapies
515(1)
Psychology in Your Life: Are Lives Haunted by Repressed Memories?
516(2)
Behavior Therapies
518(7)
Counterconditioning
518(3)
Contingency Management
521(1)
Social-Learning Therapy
522(1)
Generalization Techniques
523(2)
Cognitive Therapies
525(2)
Changing False Beliefs
525(1)
Cognitive Behavior Modification
526(1)
Humanistic Therapies
527(1)
Client-Centered Therapy
527(1)
Gestalt Therapy
528(1)
Group Therapies
528(2)
Marital and Family Therapy
529(1)
Community Support Groups
530(1)
Biomedical Therapies
530(6)
Psychosurgery
531(1)
ECT and rTMS
531(1)
Drug Therapy
532(4)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Therapies and Brain Activity
536
Treatment Evaluation and Prevention Strategies
535(7)
Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness
535(2)
Prevention Strategies
537(5)
Social Cognition and Relationships
542(30)
Constructing Social Reality
544(6)
The Origins of Attribution Theory
545(1)
The Fundamental Attribution Error
545(2)
Self-Serving Biases
547(1)
Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
548(1)
Behaviors That Confirm Expectations
549(1)
Attitudes, Attitude Change, and Action
550(9)
Attitudes and Behaviors
550(2)
Processes of Persuasion
552(2)
Persuasion by Your Own Actions
554(2)
Compliance
556(3)
Psychology in Your Life: Do Late Night TV Ads Really Work?
559
Prejudice
558(5)
Origins of Prejudice
558(2)
Effects of Stereotypes
560(2)
Reversing Prejudice
562(1)
Social Relationships
563(5)
Liking
564(1)
Loving
565(3)
Psychology in the 21st Century: Relationships and the Internet
568(4)
Social Processes, Society, and Culture
572(2)
The Power of the Situation
574(6)
Roles and Rules
574(2)
Social Norms
576(1)
Conformity
576(5)
Situational Power: Candid Camera Revelations
581
Psychology in Your Life: How Do Groups Affect Decision Making?
580(2)
Altruism and Prosocial Behavior
582(5)
The Roots of Altruism
582(2)
Motives for Prosocial Behavior
584(1)
The Effects of the Situation on Prosocial Behavior
585(2)
Aggression
587(8)
Evolutionary Perspectives
588(1)
Individual Differences
588(2)
Situational Influences
590(2)
Cultural Constraints
592(3)
The Psychology of Conflict and Peace
595(10)
Obedience to Authority
596(3)
The Psychology of Genocide and War
599(4)
Peace Psychology
603(2)
A Personal Endnote
605
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1(1)
Credits 1


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