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Psychology for Living : Adjustment, Growth, and Behavior Today,9780131181175
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Psychology for Living : Adjustment, Growth, and Behavior Today

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780131181175

ISBN10:
0131181173
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For courses on Adjustment, Coping, Personal Growth, Mental Health, and Applied Psychology. This careful and balanced blend of personalization, advice, and science is intended for those who are interested in applying psychological insights and principles to their own lives as a way of achieving a better understanding of themselves and of living more effectively. By underscoring several important societal (not just personal) themes, the reader is compelled to focus on other people as much as the self. Content is drawn from the psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic viewpoints and includes contributions from clinical, personality, social, and developmental psychology, as well as from cognitive, biological, and health psychology.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
How to Study xxi
About the Author xxvii
PART 1---INTRODUCTION
Self-Direction in a Changing World
1(24)
Social Change
3(7)
Living in a Technological World
3(2)
Living With Other Social Changes
5(1)
How Certain Is Our Future?
6(4)
The Challenge of Self-Direction
10(6)
Self-Direction and Society
10(1)
The Ambiguity of Personal Freedom
10(1)
Taking Charge of Our Lives
11(3)
Living in Today's Individualistic Society
14(2)
Themes of Personal Growth
16(9)
Living With Contradictions and Uncertainty
16(1)
Continuity and Change
16(2)
The Experience of Personal Growth
18(1)
Beyond Individualism
19(2)
Summary
21(1)
Self-Test
22(1)
Exercises
23(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
23(1)
For Further Information
24(1)
PART 2---BECOMING YOU
The Journey Begins---Childhood
25(36)
Perspectives on Child Development
27(2)
The Biological Perspective on Child Development
29(4)
Nature Versus Nurture---An Old Debate
29(2)
A Newer Approach
31(1)
Evaluation
31(1)
Applying It to Yourself
32(1)
The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development
33(9)
Development of Personality
33(3)
The Structure of Personality
36(1)
Personality Dynamics
37(1)
Modifications
38(3)
Evaluation
41(1)
Applying It to Yourself
41(1)
The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development
42(5)
Social Learning Theories
43(1)
Recent Additions: Cognition and Behavior
44(1)
Evaluation
45(1)
Applying It to Yourself
45(2)
The Humanistic Perspective on Development
47(14)
The Phenomenal Self
47(2)
Human Freedom
49(1)
Self-Actualization
49(5)
Evaluation
54(1)
Applying It to Yourself
54(1)
Conclusion
55(1)
Summary
55(2)
Self-Test
57(1)
Exercises
58(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
58(1)
For Further Information
59(2)
Affirmative Aging---Adulthood
61(29)
Adult Development
62(3)
Decisions, Decisions, Decisions---Early Adulthood
65(6)
Leaving Home
65(1)
Choosing a Career
66(1)
Establishing Close Relationships
67(1)
Starting a Family
67(4)
Same Old, Same Old?---Middle Adulthood
71(6)
Midlife Transition or Midlife Crisis?
71(2)
Physical and Cognitive Changes
73(1)
Possible Career Changes
74(1)
Sexual Changes
75(2)
Aging Gracefully---Late Adulthood
77(13)
Physical and Cognitive Changes
78(2)
Personal and Social Adjustment
80(2)
Retirement
82(2)
Successful Aging
84(1)
Summary
85(1)
Answers to Aging Quiz
86(1)
Self-Test
87(1)
Exercises
88(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
88(1)
For Further Information
89(1)
PART 3---BEING YOU
Seeking Selfhood
90(23)
What Is the Self-Concept?
91(5)
Self-Image
93(1)
Ideal Self
93(1)
Multiple Selves
94(2)
Core Characteristics of the Self-Concept
96(5)
Self-Consistency
96(2)
Self-Esteem
98(2)
Self-Enhancement and Self-Verification
100(1)
The Self-Concept and Personal Growth
101(12)
The Self You'd Like to Be
102(1)
Our Social Selves
103(1)
Learning From Criticism
104(1)
Greater Self-Direction
105(3)
Summary
108(1)
Scoring Key for the Self-Image and Ideal Self Exercise
109(1)
Self-Test
109(1)
Exercises
110(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
111(1)
For Further Information
111(2)
A Healthier You
113(37)
Body Image
115(4)
How We Feel About Our Bodies
115(2)
Our Ideal Body
117(1)
Body Image, Age, and Psychological Well-Being
118(1)
Psychological Factors and Physical Illness
119(13)
The Immune System
119(1)
Personality
120(2)
Lifestyle Choices
122(9)
Environmental Issues
131(1)
Coping With Illness
132(4)
Noticing and Interpreting Symptoms
132(2)
Seeking Help
134(1)
Adhering to Treatment
135(1)
Promoting Wellness
136(14)
Taking Charge of Your Own Health
136(3)
Eating Sensibly
139(2)
Getting Enough Sleep
141(2)
Keeping Physically Fit
143(2)
Finding Social Support
145(1)
Summary
145(1)
Self-Test
146(1)
Exercises
147(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
148(1)
For Further Information
149(1)
Taking Charge of Your Life
150(23)
Mastery and Personal Control
151(10)
Perceived Control
152(2)
Consequences of Perceived Control
154(3)
Misperception and Maladjustment
157(1)
Learned Optimism
158(3)
Resolve and Decision Making
161(4)
The Process of Decision Making
161(2)
Making Better Decisions
163(2)
Decisions and Personal Growth
165(8)
Identifying the Basic Decisions in Your Life
166(1)
Making New Decisions
166(1)
Some Practical Applications
167(2)
Summary
169(1)
Self-Test
169(1)
Exercises
170(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
171(1)
For Further Information
171(2)
Managing Your Inner Life
173(26)
Understanding Motivation
174(9)
Understanding Your Needs
175(1)
Differences Between You and Others
176(1)
Everyone's Basic Needs
177(1)
Psychosocial Motives
178(4)
Personal Motivation
182(1)
Understanding Emotions
183(16)
What Are Emotions?
183(1)
Experiencing Emotions
184(1)
Expressing Emotions
185(1)
Managing Emotions
186(1)
Special Emotions
187(6)
Summary
193(1)
Scoring Key
194(1)
Self-Test
195(1)
Exercises
196(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
197(1)
For Further Information
197(2)
PART 4---THE SOCIABLE YOU
Your Friends and You
199(27)
Meeting People
201(13)
Are First Impressions Most Important?
202(6)
Mistaken Impressions
208(2)
Shyness
210(4)
Interpersonal Attraction
214(12)
Friendships Are Precious
214(1)
When Friends Get Together
214(1)
Self-Disclosure---Those Little Secrets
215(2)
Same-Sex, Opposite-Sex Friends
217(1)
Staying Friends or Breaking Up
218(1)
Loneliness
219(3)
Summary
222(1)
Self-Test
223(1)
Exercises
224(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
224(1)
For Further Information
225(1)
Leader or Follower?
226(30)
Kinds of Groups
228(2)
My Favorite Groups---Primary Groups
228(1)
Bigger Than Both of Us---Secondary Groups
228(1)
What Goes Wrong at Rock Concerts?---Collectives
228(1)
``Us'' Versus ``Them''---In-Groups and Out-Groups
229(1)
How Do Groups Form?
230(2)
Why Join a Group?
232(1)
What Goes On in Groups?
233(7)
What Did You Say?---Communication Patterns
233(2)
You Want Me to Do What?---Social Influence
235(3)
Let the Other Guy Do It---Social Loafing
238(1)
All in Favor Say ``Aye''---Group Polarization
239(1)
Are Leaders Made or Born?
240(5)
The Great Man Theory
240(1)
Situational Explanations of Leadership
240(1)
Contingency Theory
241(1)
Contemporary Theories
241(2)
Gender and Leadership
243(2)
Culture and Leadership
245(1)
When Groups Go Wrong
245(11)
The Fiasco of Groupthink
245(2)
A Little Shove Goes a Long Way---Group Conflict
247(4)
Summary
251(1)
Self-Test
252(1)
Exercises
253(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
253(1)
For Further Information
254(2)
At Work and Play
256(30)
Choosing Your Career
258(10)
Taking Stock of Yourself
258(5)
Identifying Compatible Careers
263(1)
Arriving at Your Career Decision
264(1)
Preparing for Your Career
265(3)
Your Career Outlook
268(4)
Forecasting Your Career's Growth
268(1)
Changing Jobs or Careers
268(4)
Contemporary Issues in the World of Work
272(5)
Job Satisfaction
272(1)
Technology and Work
273(1)
Diversity in the Workplace
274(3)
Leisure Time
277(9)
What Is Leisure?
278(1)
Work and Leisure
279(1)
Using Leisure Positively
280(1)
Summary
281(1)
Self-Test
282(1)
Exercises
283(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
284(1)
For Further Information
284(2)
PART 5---THE INTIMATE YOU
Sexuality
286(31)
Men and Women
287(6)
Changing Views of Sexuality
287(3)
Sexual Communication
290(2)
Initiating and Refusing Sex
292(1)
Sexual Responsiveness
293(9)
The Sexual Response Cycle
293(3)
Individual Differences
296(5)
Love and Sex
301(1)
Practical Issues
302(15)
Sexual Dysfunctions
302(2)
Contraception
304(2)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
306(5)
Sexual Victimization
311(2)
Summary
313(1)
Self-Test
314(1)
Exercises
315(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
315(1)
For Further Information
316(1)
Love and Commitment
317(28)
Love and Intimacy
319(8)
The Ingredients of Love
319(4)
Love and Close Relationships
323(4)
Commitment
327(4)
Cohabitation
327(1)
Marriage and Other Committed Relationships
327(4)
Adjusting to Intimate Relationships
331(5)
Sharing Responsibilities
331(1)
Communication and Conflict
332(1)
Making the Relationship Better
333(1)
Sexuality
334(1)
Changes Over Time
335(1)
Divorce and Its Consequences
336(9)
The Divorce Experience
336(1)
Single-Parent Families
337(1)
Remarriage
338(1)
Summary
339(1)
Scoring Key for the Marital Myths Quiz
340(1)
Self-Test
341(1)
Exercises
342(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
343(1)
For Further Information
344(1)
PART 6---FACING CHALLENGES
Stress and You
345(28)
Oh No!---Understanding Stress
346(8)
Conceptualizing Stress
347(3)
Stress and You
350(4)
Yikes!---Reactions to Stress
354(7)
Physiological Stress Reactions
354(1)
Psychological Reactions
355(3)
How Do You React to Stress?
358(3)
Phew!---Managing Stress
361(12)
Modifying Your Environment
362(3)
Altering Your Lifestyle
365(3)
Using Stress for Personal Growth
368(1)
Summary
369(1)
Self-Test
369(1)
Exercises
370(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
371(1)
For Further Information
371(2)
Your Mental Health
373(36)
Understanding Psychological Disorders
375(7)
What Are Psychological Disorders?
375(2)
How Common Are Psychological Disorders?
377(5)
How Are Disorders Classified?
382(1)
Anxiety Disorders: The Most Common Disorder
382(10)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
383(2)
Phobias: Are You Afraid of Something That Won't Really Hurt You?
385(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Doubting Disease
386(1)
Trauma and Disaster
387(5)
Mood Disorders
392(5)
What Is Depression?
392(2)
Suicide: Who and Why?
394(2)
What Is Bipolar Disorder?
396(1)
Other Common Disorders
397(12)
Do You Have an Eating Disorder?
397(2)
What Are Personality Disorders?
399(1)
Schizophrenia---The Enigmatic Disorder
400(4)
Summary
404(1)
Self-Test
405(1)
Exercises
406(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
406(1)
For Further Information
407(2)
If You Go for Help
409(29)
Insight Therapies---The Talking Cure
413(5)
Psychoanalysis
413(1)
The Person-Centered Approach
414(1)
A Variety of Approaches
415(3)
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
418(4)
Behavioral Therapies
418(2)
Cognitive Therapies
420(1)
Status of Psychotherapy Today
420(2)
Other Approaches to Treatment
422(6)
Family, Couples, and Relationship Therapy
423(1)
Biomedical Therapies
424(2)
Community-Based Services
426(2)
How Well Does Therapy Work?
428(2)
Getting Help
430(8)
Summary
433(1)
Self-Test
434(1)
Exercises
435(1)
Questions for Self-Reflection
436(1)
For Further Information
437(1)
Good Grief and Death
438(23)
Death and Dying
439(7)
Risks of Dying
440(3)
Awareness of Death
443(1)
Near-Death Experiences
444(1)
The Experience of Dying
445(1)
Bereavement and Grief
446(4)
Grief Work
447(1)
Unresolved Grief
448(1)
Good Grief
449(1)
Life and Death in Perspective
450(11)
The Right to Die
451(1)
A Natural Death
452(4)
Funerals and Other Services
456(1)
Death and Growth
456(1)
Summary
457(1)
Self-Test
458(1)
Exercises
458(2)
Questions for Self-Reflection
460(1)
For Further Information
460(1)
Answers to the Self-Tests 461(2)
Glossary 463(8)
References 471(17)
Photo Acknowledgments 488(1)
Name Index 489(6)
Subject Index 495

Excerpts

This book is intended for those who are interested in applying psychological insights and principles to their own lives as a way of achieving a better understanding of themselves and of living more effectively To this end, I have included material from the major perspectives of psychology, including the psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic viewpoints. Since a well-rounded text cuts across several branches of psychology, I have included contributions from clinical, personality, social, and developmental psychology, as well as from the important fields of cognitive, biological, and health psychology. Throughout the book, I've presented differing views on the same issue, along with questions that are designed to stimulate readers' critical thinking. My aim is to increase readers' understanding as well as their knowledge about personal adjustment, in order that they may continue learning on their own. Major features of this eighth edition are explained in the following sections. NEW ORGANIZATION This edition of the book has been reorganized, with some chapters retitled to reflect an increasingly personalized tone. Please note if you are a former reader of this book: The chapters still stand alone; that is, you can read them out of order and still understand all of the material even though you have not read a preceding chapter. The introductory chapter on self-direction and social change remains at the beginning, of course. The second large unit, however, is about development or the state of "becoming." The chapters on childhood and adulthood can be found here, rather than finding the chapter on adulthood way at the end of the text. The third large unit pertains to the individual in the present or in a state of "being:" Here you will find the chapters on self-concept, health, personal control, and decision making, as well as emotion and motivation. The next large unit is about the social side of adjustment and growth. Here are located the chapters on friends, groups (leaders and followers), and work and leisure. This unit is followed by an apt unit about closer intimate relationships. This short unit contains chapters on sexuality and on committed or intimate relationships. Finally, any book about personal growth and adjustment would be incomplete without including material on the challenges each of us faces. The last unit, then, contains chapters on stress, mental health and disorder, therapy, and death and dying. Please let me know how you feel about this organization, and remember that the chapters are self-contained so can easily be read in any order you wish. I can be reached at duffy@geneseo.edu. NEW CONTENT I have made some changes to the content of the book to reflect changes in the field of psychology in addition to world events. First, there are many new and updated references as well as new glossary terms. You will also find new or additional information on the following topics: Technology and how it affects our lives. The threat of terrorism and how it has changed the way we live and cope. Environmental psychology and how the environment is changing and affecting each of us. Positive psychology and the way it is refocusing the whole field of psychology. Population changes related to many topics as evidenced by the latest census. The status of America's children and what the future holds for them. Changes in the American family and how they affect the individual members. Historic changes in social attitudes and community problems. Gender similarities and differences, especially as related to education, career choice, leadership, and so on. Charismatic and transformational leadership and group behavior. What it means to age successfully and healthily as well as ways to accomplish healthy aging. Methods we can utilize to feel better about ourselves or impro


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