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The Psychology of Prejudice

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205402250

ISBN10:
0205402259
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/21/2005
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $81.80

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Summary

This comprehensive, research-based text examines the major theories of prejudice and stereotyping through an engaging narrative that reads like a well-crafted story rather than an empty series of statistics.Though the focus of this book is on empirical studies, author Todd D. Nelson has synthesized the data and presented it in a way that will excite readers. His goals were two-fold: To create a strong central text (as opposed to a simple collection of readings) for professors teaching a course in prejudice, and also to facilitate student interest in the subject.The Psychology of Prejudiceis intended to stimulate critical thinking about what causes, maintains, and reduces prejudice and stereotyping, while also relaying the historical background on the birth of research on stereotypes.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice
1(25)
Defining Stereotyping
4(3)
Lippman's ``Stereotype''
4(1)
Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral
4(1)
The Social-Cognitive Definition
5(1)
Cultural and Individual Stereotypes
6(1)
Is a Stereotype an Attitude?
6(1)
Positive versus Negative Stereotypes
7(1)
Defining Prejudice
7(5)
Prejudice as Negative Affect
8(1)
Prejudice as an Attitude
9(1)
Prejudice as a ``Social Emotion''
10(2)
The Link Between Stereotyping and Prejudice
12(1)
Early Perspectives in Stereotyping Research
13(3)
Measurement
13(1)
Individual Differences in Stereotyping
13(2)
Group-Level Explanations
15(1)
The Social-Cognition Revolution
16(2)
Cognitive-Consistency Theories
16(1)
Attribution Theory
17(1)
The Social-Cognition View of Stereotyping and Prejudice
18(4)
Categorization
19(1)
The Cognitive Miser
20(1)
The Motivated Tactician
21(1)
Why the Emphasis on African American-White Intergroup Relations?
22(1)
Summary
23(3)
Origin and Maintenance of Stereotypes and Prejudice
26(31)
The Formation of Stereotypes
26(12)
Categorization
26(1)
Why We Categorize
27(1)
Types of Categorization
27(1)
Ingroups and Outgroups
28(4)
Social Learning
32(4)
Implicit Theories
36(1)
The Efficiency of Stereotypes
37(1)
How and Why Stereotypes Are Maintained
38(8)
Selective Attention to Stereotype-Relevant Information
39(2)
Subcategorization
41(1)
Illusory Correlations
42(2)
Motivation
44(2)
Origins of Prejudice
46(8)
Social-Identity Theory
47(1)
Optimal Distinctiveness Theory
48(1)
Scapegoat Theory
49(1)
Relative Deprivation
50(1)
Realistic Conflict Theory
51(3)
Summary
54(3)
Feeling versus Thinking in the Activation and Application of Stereotypes
57(30)
Mood
58(8)
Types of Intergroup Affect
59(4)
Influence of Positive Affect
63(1)
Effects of Negative Affect
64(1)
Motivational versus Cognitive Capacity Deficits
65(1)
Cognition
66(21)
Implicit Cognition
66(2)
Implicit Memory
68(1)
Implicit Stereotyping
69(2)
The Implicit Association Test
71(8)
Stereotype Suppression
79(4)
Summary and Issues for Future Research
83(4)
The Prejudiced Personality: Are Some People More Likely to Feel Prejudice?
87(25)
Psychodynamic Perspectives
89(2)
Authoritarianism
89(1)
Character-Conditioned Prejudice
89(1)
Problems with the Psychodynamic Approach
90(1)
Right-Wing Authoritarianism
91(3)
Religion
94(5)
Committed versus Consensual Religiosity
95(1)
Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Religious Orientation
95(2)
Religion as Quest
97(2)
Need for Cognition
99(2)
Need for Structure
101(1)
Need for Cognitive Closure
102(1)
Social-Dominance Orientation
103(5)
Summary
108(4)
Old-Fashioned versus Modern Prejudice
112(22)
Where Have All the Bigots Gone?
112(4)
From Katz and Braly to Civil Rights, and Beyond
113(1)
Are Low-Prejudice People Really Low-Prejudice?
114(2)
Modern Racism
116(1)
Symbolic Racism
117(1)
Aversive Racism
118(1)
Summary of Contemporary Theories of Prejudice
119(1)
Measures of Stereotyping and Prejudice
120(11)
The Self-Report Questionnaire
120(2)
The Bogus Pipeline
122(3)
Measuring Stereotyping
125(1)
Measuring Prejudice
126(1)
Priming and Reaction Times: The True Measure?
127(4)
Summary: Is There Such a Thing as Modern Prejudice?
131(3)
Experiencing Prejudice
134(31)
Social Stigma
134(2)
Group Identification
136(1)
Stereotype Threat
136(9)
Self-Esteem
145(3)
Denial of Discrimination
146(1)
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
147(1)
Intergroup Interactions
148(6)
Dynamic Nature of Interactions
149(3)
Expectations
152(1)
Intergroup Anxiety
152(1)
Metastereotypes
153(1)
Attributional Ambiguity
154(8)
The Paradoxical Effects of Affirmative Action
159(2)
Perceived Controllability of the Stigma
161(1)
Summary
162(3)
Ageism
165(34)
Why Ageism? (And What About Other ``-Isms''?)
165(2)
Does Ageism Really Exist?
167(2)
Age Stereotypes: Content and Use
169(2)
Positive Attitudes and Positive Stereotypes
171(1)
Effects of Pseudopositive Attitudes
171(5)
Patronizing Language
171(2)
Patronizing Behavior
173(1)
Effects of Pseudopositive Attitudes on Older People
174(2)
Ageism in the Helping Professions
176(2)
Origins of Ageism
178(2)
Age Grading of Society
178(1)
From Sage to Burden
178(1)
Modernization
179(1)
Idealism
179(1)
Maintenance of Ageism
180(3)
Functional Perspective
180(1)
Conflict
181(1)
Self-Threat, Self-Esteem, and Terror Management
181(2)
Juvenile Ageism
183(1)
Beliefs and Expectations About Old Age
183(3)
Beliefs and Expectations of the Young about Aging
183(1)
Expectations of Older People about Aging
184(2)
Age Discrimination
186(1)
Prominence of Age as a Variable in Social Perception
187(3)
Contact with Older People
190(2)
Negative Expectations about Intergenerational Contact
190(1)
Negative Schemas about Older People
191(1)
Cross-Cultural Differences in Ageism
192(2)
Eastern versus Western Views
193(1)
Summary and Issues for Future Research
194(5)
Measurement
194(1)
You're Really as Old (or Young) as You Feel
195(1)
Stereotype Knowledge or Stereotype Belief?
195(2)
Evaluating Prejudiced Attitudes
197(2)
Sexism
199(41)
Gender Stereotypes
201(2)
Measurement of Gender Stereotypes
203(1)
Origin of Gender Stereotypes
204(12)
Religion
205(1)
Social Learning
205(1)
Cultural Institutions
206(5)
Evolution versus Social Roles
211(4)
Power
215(1)
Accuracy of Gender Stereotypes
216(1)
Sexist Language
217(2)
Sexist Humor
219(5)
Sexist Jokes Perpetuate Gender Stereotypes
219(1)
Perceptions of Sexist Humor
220(1)
Is Sexist Humor Harmless Fun?
221(1)
Automatic and Controlled Reactions to Sexist Humor
222(2)
Types of Sexism
224(5)
Old-Fashioned versus Modern Sexism
224(1)
Neosexism
225(1)
Benevolent versus Hostile Sexism
226(3)
Effects of Sexism on Women
229(2)
Gender Discrimination
231(5)
Distancing Behavior
231(1)
Job Opportunities
232(3)
The Glass Ceiling
235(1)
Summary
236(4)
Reducing Prejudice
240(25)
The Contact Hypothesis
241(5)
Allport's Contact Hypothesis
242(1)
Tests of the Contact Hypothesis
243(1)
Pettigrew's Reformulated Contact Theory
244(2)
Sherif's Robber's Cave Study: The Superordinate Goal
246(1)
Common Ingroup Identity
246(1)
The ``Confrontation Technique'' of Rokeach
247(1)
The Jigsaw Classroom
248(3)
Education, Empathy, and Role Playing
251(1)
The Color-Blind Approach
252(2)
Current Approaches to Prejudice Reduction
254(7)
Functional Approach
255(1)
Normative Influence
256(2)
Self-Regulation
258(3)
Summary
261(4)
Trends and Unanswered Questions in Prejudice Research
265(17)
Prejudice Against Other Groups
265(6)
Attitudes toward Overweight Persons
266(2)
Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men
268(2)
Attitudes toward the Physically Challenged
270(1)
Understanding the Dynamic Nature of Intergroup Interactions
271(4)
Motivation and Prejudice
275(1)
The Neurobiology of Prejudice
276(1)
Implicit and Automatic Stereotyping
277(1)
To Individuate or Stereotype? That Is the Question
278(1)
Summary
279(3)
References 282(33)
Name Index 315(4)
Subject Index 319


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