9781572306646

The Psychology of Religion and Coping Theory, Research, Practice

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781572306646

  • ISBN10:

    1572306645

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-02-15
  • Publisher: The Guilford Press

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Summary

When faced with a crisis, why do some people turn to religion to help them cope, while others turn away? Is religious belief merely a defense or a form of denial? Is spirituality a help or a hindrance in times of stress? Building a much-needed bridge between two different worlds of thought and practice--religion and psychology--this volume sensitively interweaves theory with first-hand accounts, clinical insight, and scientific research. The book underscores the need for greater sensitivity to religion and spirituality in the context of helping relationships, and suggests a range of ways that faith might be used more fully to help people in crisis.

Author Biography

Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Bowling Green State University, where he is also Director of Clinical Training of the clinical psychology PhD program. He is coeditor of Forgiveness: Theory, Research, and Practice (with Michael E. McCullough and Carl E. Thoresen).

Table of Contents

An Introduction to the Psychology of Religion and Coping
1(20)
Why Study Religion and Coping?
4(2)
Why a Psychology of Religion and Coping?
6(8)
Bridging Worldviews and Practices
6(3)
Bridging Methods of Knowing the World
9(5)
What the Psychology of Religion and Coping Cannot offer
14(2)
A Complete Accounting of Religious Life, 14; An Unbiased Portrayal
14(2)
Conclusions and Plan of the Book
16(5)
Part One. A PERSPECTIVE ON RELIGION
The Sacred and the Search for Significance
21(13)
Entering the Religious Labyrinth
21(2)
The Many Meanings of Religion
23(1)
Toward a Definition of Religion
24(8)
The Substantive Tradition: The Sacred as the Mark of Religion
25(1)
The Functional Tradition: The Struggle with Ultimate Issues as the Mark of Religion
26(3)
Bridging the Substantive and Functional Traditions: The Sacred and the Search for Significance as the Mark of Religion
29(3)
A Definition of Religion
32(2)
Religious Pathways and Religious Destinations
34(37)
Religious Means: Pathways to Significance
34(9)
Ways of Feeling, Thinking, Acting, and Relating
35(4)
Many Shapes, Many Sizes
39(2)
Pathways as Functional Mechanisms
41(2)
Some Final Thoughts about Religious Pathways
43(1)
Religious Ends: Destinations of Significance
43(16)
The Place of the Human, The Place of the Spiritual
44(2)
The Variety of Personal and Social Ends of Religion
46(12)
Some Final Thoughts about Religious Destinations
58(1)
Religious Orientations to the Means and Ends of Significance
59(9)
The Polarization of the Means and Ends of Religion
60(3)
A Means-and-Ends Analysis of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Quest Orientations
63(2)
Implications of a Means-and-Ends Approach
65(2)
Religious Disorientation
67(1)
Beyond Religious Orientations
68(3)
Part Two. A PERSPECTIVE ON COPING
An Introduction to the Concept of Coping
71(19)
The Historical Context of Coping
71(7)
External Historical Forces
72(2)
Internal Historical Forces
74(4)
First Steps in the Study of Coping
78(4)
The Central Qualities of Coping
82(7)
Coping as an Encounter between Person and Situation
84(1)
Coping as Multidimensional
84(1)
Coping as a Multilayered Contextual Phenomenon
85(1)
Coping as Possibilities and Choices
86(1)
Diversity as a Hallmark of Coping
87(2)
Conclusions
89(1)
The Flow of Coping
90(41)
People Seek Significance
91(4)
The Sense of Significance
92(1)
The Objects of Significance
92(1)
The Motivation to Attain Significance
93(2)
Events are Constructed in Terms of Their Significance to People
95(4)
Primary Appraisals
96(1)
Secondary Appraisals
97(1)
The Power of Appraisals
98(1)
People Bring and Orienting System to the Coping Process
99(5)
The Resources of Coping
100(1)
The Burdens of Coping
101(1)
The Bank Account of Resources and Burdens
102(2)
People Translate the Orienting System into Specific Methods of Coping
104(2)
People Seek Significance in Coping Through the Mechanisms of Conservation and Transformation
106(8)
The Conservation of Significance
108(1)
The Transformation of Significance
109(1)
Conservation and Transformation of Means and Ends in Coping
110(4)
People Cope in Ways that are Compelling to Them
114(3)
Coping is Embedded in Culture
117(2)
The Keys to Good Coping Lie in the Outcomes and the Process
119(7)
The Outcomes Approach
119(5)
The Process Approach
124(2)
Conclusions
126(5)
Part Three. THE RELIGION AND COPING CONNECTION
When People Turn to Religion; When They Turn Away
131(32)
Are There Really No Atheists in Foxholes?
132(11)
Some Anecdotal Accounts
132(2)
Some Contrasting Anecdotal Accounts
134(1)
Empirical Perspectives
135(7)
Conclusions
142(1)
When Religion and Coping Converge
143(1)
Why Religion and Coping Converge
144(13)
The Availability of Religion in the Orienting System
144(5)
The Compelling Character of Religious Coping Methods
149(7)
The Relationship between the Availability of Religion and the Compelling Character of Religious Coping Methods
156(1)
Why Religion and Coping Diverge
157(4)
Leaving the Convent
158(1)
Where is God in Hell?
159(1)
The Making of Atheists
160(1)
Conclusions
161(2)
The Many Faces of Religion in Coping
163(35)
From Heaven to Earth
163(4)
Beyond Stereotypes
167(20)
Merely Tension Reduction? The Many Ends of Religious Coping
168(3)
Merely Denial? The Many Religious Constructions of the Situation
171(6)
Merely Avoidance? The Many Methods of Religious Coping
177(6)
Measuring the Many Faces of Religious Coping
183(4)
Shaping the Expression of Religious Coping
187(9)
Situational Forces and the Shape of Religious Coping
187(3)
Cultural Forces and the Shape of Religious Coping
190(2)
Individual Forces and the Shape of Religious Coping: The Orienting System
192(4)
Conclusions
196(2)
Religion and the Mechanisms of Coping: The Conservation of Significance
198(36)
Religion and the Conservation of Significance
200(1)
Holding Fast: Religion and the Preservation of Significance
201(12)
Marking Boundaries
201(3)
Religious Perseverance
204(4)
Religious Support
208(5)
Another Way to an Old Destination: Religion and the Reconstruction of the Path to Significance
213(19)
Religious Switching
214(3)
Religious Purification
217(4)
Religious Reframing
221(11)
Conclusions
232(2)
Religion and the Mechanisms of Coping: The Transformation of Significance
234(41)
Change of Heart: Religion and the Re-Valuation of Significance
235(11)
Seeking Religious Purpose
236
Rites of Passage
230(16)
Radical Change: Religion and the Re-Creation of Significance
246(24)
Religious Conversion: From Self to Sacred Concern
247(13)
Religious Forgiving: From Anger to Peace
260(10)
Conclusions
270(5)
Part Four. Evaluative And Practical Implications
Does it Work? Religion and the Outcomes of Coping
275(40)
Self-Evaluations of the Efficacy of Religious Coping
277(2)
Religious Orientations and the Outcomes of Negative Life Events
279(5)
Religious Coping and the Outcomes of Negative Life Events
284(4)
What Types of Religious Coping are Helpful? What Types are Harmful?
288(12)
Helpful Forms of Religious Coping
288(2)
Harmful Forms of Religious Coping
290(2)
Forms of Religious Coping with Mixed Implications
292(6)
Patterns of Positive and Negative Religious Coping
298(2)
Is Religion More Helpful to Some People than Others in Times of Stress?
300(2)
Is Religion More Helpful in Some Situations than Others?
302(10)
Evidence for the Religious Stress Moderator Model
304(2)
Evidence for the Religious Stress Deterrent Model and the Combined Model
306(2)
How Helpful is Religious Coping in Comparison to Other Forms of Coping?
308(4)
Conclusions
312(3)
When Religion Fails: Problems of Integration in the Process of Coping
315(44)
The Wrong Direction: Problems of Ends
317(7)
Religious One-Sidedness
317(4)
Religious Deception
321(3)
The Wrong Road: Problems of Means
324(10)
Errors of Religious Explanation
325(3)
Errors of Religious Control
328(2)
Errors of Religious Moderation
330(4)
Against the Wind: Problems of Fit
334(4)
A Time and Place for Not Fitting
337(1)
No Single Best Way to Cope
338(1)
Accounting for the Failures of Religion in Coping
339(19)
Undifferentiated Religion
342(5)
Fragmented Religion
347(4)
Religious Rigidity
351(3)
Insecure Religious Attachment
354(4)
Conclusions
358(1)
Putting Religion into Practice
359(106)
Attending to the Helpers Orientation to Religion
360(11)
Religious Rejectionism
362(2)
Religious Exclusivism
364(2)
Religious Constructivism
366(3)
Religious Pluralism
369(2)
Assessing Religion in the Coping Process
371(7)
The Standard for Comparison
372(1)
The Starting Point
372(4)
Assessing Religion in Context
376(2)
Applications of Religious Coping to Counseling
378(11)
Preservation
370(11)
Reconstruction
381(2)
Re-Valuation
383(2)
Re-Creation
385(3)
The Efficacy of Religious Counseling
388(1)
The Boader Practical Implications of Religion and Coping
389(11)
Expanding the Pool of Helpers
389(5)
Expanding the Targets of Help
394(2)
Expanding the Time to Help
396(4)
Bridging the Worlds of Psychology and Religion Through Resource Collaboration
400(7)
APPENDICES
Appendix A. Proportion of People Who Involve Religion in Coping
407(4)
Appendix B. Predictors of Religious Coping
411(12)
Appendix C. Summary of Research on the Relationship between Measures of Religious Orientation and the Outcomes of Negative Events
423(16)
Appendix D. Summary of Research on the Relationship between Religious Coping Methods and the Outcomes of Negative Events
439(19)
Appendix E. Summary of Studies of Religion as a Moderator and or Deterrent of the Relationship between Stressors and Adjustment
458(7)
Notes 465(8)
References 473(48)
Author Index 521(13)
Subject Index 534

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