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Psychology : Themes and Variations

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780495093039

ISBN10:
0495093033
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/22/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $318.95

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Summary

The Seventh Edition of Wayne Weiten's popular text, PSYCHOLOGY: THEMES AND VARIATIONS, continues to offer students a unique survey of psychology with three distinct goals: to show both the unity and diversity of psychology's subject matter; to illuminate the process of research and its intimate link to application, and to make the text challenging to think about and easy to learn from. Weiten achieves these goals through a number of distinctive features. Integrative themes-including empiricism, theoretical diversity, sociohistorical contexts, multifactorial causation, cultural heritage, heredity and environment, and subjectivity of experience-are woven throughout the text to provide connections among the different areas of research in psychology. A unique end of chapter section, "Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes," ties together the key themes most relevant to each chapter, and shows links across chapter content. The book's dynamic, teaching-oriented illustration program further enhances these themes. Featured Studies, Personal Applications, and Critical Thinking Applications provide students with unprecedented opportunities to see research methods in action, to understand the practical side of psychology, and to develop important critical thinking skills. Weiten reinforces concepts through periodic in-chapter Concept Checks and an end of chapter practice quiz in every chapter. At the same time, he presents topics in a hierarchical manner, giving students handles they can use to prioritize concepts within the chapter.

Table of Contents

The Evolution of Psychology
1(35)
From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
2(14)
A New Science Is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall
The Battle of the ``Schools'' Begins: Structuralism Versus Functionalism
Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture
Watson Alters Psychology's Course as Behaviorism Makes Its Debut
Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes
The Humanists Revolt
Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession
Psychology Returns to Its Roots: Renewed Interest in Cognition and Physiology
Psychology Broadens Its Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity
Psychology Adapts: The Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology Psychology Moves in a Positive Direction
Illustrated Overview of Psychology's History
16(2)
Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified
18(3)
Research Areas in Psychology
Professional Specialties in Psychology
Seven Unifying Themes
21(5)
Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study Themes Related to Psychology's Subject Matter
Personal Application Improving Academic Performance
26(6)
Developing Sound Study Habits
Improving Your Reading
Getting More Out of Lectures
Improving Test-Taking Strategies
Critical Thinking Application Developing Critical Thinking Skills: An Introduction
32(2)
The Need to Teach Critical Thinking An Example
Recap
34(1)
Practice Test
35(1)
The Resarch Enterprise in Psychology
36(36)
Looking for Laws: The Scientific Approach to Behavior
37(5)
Goals of the Scientific Enterprise
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
Advantages of the Scientific Approach
Looking for Causes: Experimental Research
42(4)
Independent and Dependent Variables
Experimental and Control Groups
Extraneous Variables
Variations in Designing Experiments
Featured Study The Emotional Fallout of Expected and Unexpected Outcomes
46(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research
Looking for Links: Descriptive/Correlational Research
48(4)
Naturalistic Observation
Case Studies
Surveys
Advantages and Disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research
Looking for Conclusions: Statistics and Research
52(5)
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research
57(3)
Sampling Bias
Placebo Effects
Distortions in Self-Report Data
Experimenter Bias
Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
60(3)
The Question of Deception
The Question of Animal Research
Ethical Principles in Research
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
63(1)
Personal Application Finding and Reading Journal Articles
64(4)
The Nature of Technical Journals
Finding journal Articles
Reading Journal Articles
Critical Thinking Application The Perils of Anecdotal Evidence: ``I Have a Friend Who...''
68(2)
Recap
70(1)
Practice Test
71(1)
The Biological Bases of Behavior
72(46)
Communication in the Nervous System
73(8)
Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware
The Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send Information
The Synapse: Where Neurons Meet
Neurotransmitters and Behavior
Organization of the Nervous System
81(3)
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
Looking Inside the Brain: Research Methods
84(4)
Electrical Recordings
Lesioning
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Brain-Imaging Procedures
Featured Study
Probing the Anatomy of Sexual Arousal
88(1)
The Brain and Behavior
89(7)
The Hindbrain
The Midbrain
The Forebrain
The Plasticity of the Brain
Right Brain/Left Brain: Cerebral Laterality
96(3)
Bisecting the Brain: Split-Brain Research
Hemispheric Specialization in the Intact Brain
The Endocrine System: Another Way to Communicate
99(2)
Heredity and Behavior: Is It All in the Genes?
101(5)
Basic Principles of Genetics
Investigating Hereditary Influence: Research Methods
The Interplay of Heredity and Environment
The Evolutionary Bases of Behavior
106(4)
Darwin's Insights
Subsequent Refinements to Evolutionary Theory
Behaviors as Adaptive Traits
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
110(1)
Personal Application Evaluating the Concept of ``Two Minds in One''
111(3)
Cerebral Specialization and Cognitive Processes Complexities and Qualifications
Critical Thinking Application Building Better Brains: The Perils of Extrapolation
114(2)
The Key Findings on Neural Development
The Tendency to Overextrapolate
Recap
116(1)
Practice Test
117(1)
Sensation and Perception
118(54)
Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues
120(4)
Thresholds: Looking for Limits
Weighing the Differences: The JND
Signal-Detection Theory
Perception Without Awareness
Sensory Adaptation
Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System
124(20)
The Stimulus: Light
The Eye: A Living Optical Instrument
The Retina: The Brain's Envoy in the Eye
Vision and the Brain
Viewing the World in Color
Perceiving Forms, Patterns, and Objects
Perceiving Depth or Distance
Perceiving Geographical Slant
Featured Study
Why Hills Look Steeper Than They Are
144(5)
Perceptual Constancies in Vision
The Power of Misleading Cues: Visual Illusions
Our Sense of Hearing: The Auditory System
149(5)
The Stimulus: Sound
Human Hearing Capacities
Sensory Processing in the Ear
Auditory Perception: Theories of Hearing
Auditory Localization: Perceiving Sources of Sound
Our Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
154(3)
Taste: The Gustatory System
Smell: The Olfactory System
Our Sense of Touch: Sensory Systems in the Skin
157(3)
Feeling Pressure
Feeling Pain
Our Other Senses
160(1)
The Kinesthetic System
The Vestibular System
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
161(1)
Personal Application Appreciating Art and Illusion
162(6)
Critical Thinking Application Recognizing Contrast Effects: It's All Relative
168(2)
Recap
170(1)
Practice Test
171(1)
Variations in Consciousness
172(42)
On the Nature of Consciousness
174(1)
Variations in Levels of Awareness
The Evolutionary Roots of Consciousness
Consciousness and Brain Activity
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
175(3)
The Role of Circadian Rhythms
Ignoring Circadian Rhythms
Realigning Circadian Rhythms
The Sleep and Waking Cycle
178(6)
Cycling Through the Stages of Sleep
Age Trends in Sleep
Culture and Sleep
The Neural Bases of Sleep
The Evolutionary Bases of Sleep
Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation
Featured Study
Gauging the Impact of Sleep Deprivation on College Students
184(6)
Problems in the Night: Sleep Disorders
The World of Dreams
190(4)
The Contents of Dreams
Links Between Dreams and Waking Life
Culture and Dreams
Theories of Dreaming
Hypnosis: Altered Consciousness or Role Playing?
194(3)
Hypnotic Induction and Susceptibility
Hypnotic Phenomena
Theories of Hypnosis
Meditation: Pure Consciousness or Relaxation?
197(2)
Physiological Correlates
Long-Term Benefits
Altering Consciousness with Drugs
199(7)
Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects
Factors Influencing Drug Effects
Mechanisms of Drug Action
Drug Dependence
Drugs and Health
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
206(1)
Personal Application Addressing Practical Questions About Sleep and Dreams
206(4)
Common Questions About Sleep
Common Questions About Dreams
Critical Thinking Application Is Alcoholism a Disease? The Power of Definitions
210(2)
The Power to Make Definitions
Definitions, Labels, and Circular Reasoning
Recap
212(1)
Practice Test
213(1)
Learning
214(44)
Classical Conditioning
216(8)
Pavlov's Demonstration: ``Psychic Reflexes''
Terminology and Procedures
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
224(14)
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Skinner's Demonstration: It's All a Matter of Consequences
Terminology and Procedures
Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement: Consequences That Strengthen Responses
Schedules of Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement Versus Negative Reinforcement
Punishment: Consequences That Weaken Responses
Changing Directions in the Study of Conditioning
238(5)
Recognizing Biological Constraints on Conditioning
Recognizing Cognitive Processes in Conditioning
Observational Learning
243(2)
Basic Processes
Acquisition Versus Performance
Observational Learning and the Media Violence Controversy
Featured Study The Power of Modeling: What They See Is What You Get
245(3)
Illustrated Overview of Three Types of Learning
248(2)
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
250(1)
Personal Application Achieving Self-Control Through Behavior Modification
250(4)
Specifying Your Target Behavior
Gathering Baseline Data
Designing Your Program
Executing and Evaluating Your Program
Ending Your Program
Critical Thinking Application Manipulating Emotions: Pavlov and Persuasion
254(2)
Classical Conditioning in Advertising
Classical Conditioning in Business Negotiations
Classical Conditioning in the World of Politics
Becoming More Aware of Classical Conditioning Processes
Recap
256(1)
Practice Test
257(1)
Human Memory
258(40)
Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
260(3)
The Role of Attention
Levels of Processing
Enriching Encoding
Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
263(5)
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
Featured Study
How Accurate Are Flashbulb Memories?
268(5)
Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate?
How Is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory?
Retrieval: Getting Information out of Memory
273(3)
Using Cues to Aid Retrieval
Reinstating the Context of an Event
Reconstructing Memories and the Misinformation Effect
Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring
Forgetting: When Memory Lapses
276(9)
How Quickly We Forget: Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve
Measures of Forgetting
Why We Forget
The Recovered Memories-Controversy
In Search of the Memory Trace: The Physiology of Memory
285(3)
The Biochemistry of Memory
The Neural Circuitry of Memory
The Anatomy of Memory
Systems and Types of Memory
288(2)
Declarative Versus Procedural Memory
Semantic Versus Episodic Memory
Prospective Versus Retrospective Memory
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
290(1)
Personal Application Improving Everyday Memory
291(3)
Engage in Adequate Rehearsal
Schedule Distributed Practice and Minimize Interference
Engage in Deep Processing and Organize Information
Enrich Encoding with Verbal Mnemonics
Enrich Encoding with Visual Mnemonics
Critical Thinking Application Understanding the Fallibility of Eyewitness Accounts
294(2)
The Contribution of Hindsight Bias
The Contribution of Overconfidence
Strategies to Reduce Overconfidence
Recap
296(1)
Practice Test
297(1)
Language and Thought
298(36)
Language: Turning Thoughts into Words
300(10)
What Is Language?
The Structure of Language
Milestones in Language Development
Learning More Than One Language: Bilingualism
Can Animals Develop Language?
Language in Evolutionary Context
Theories of Language Acquisition
Culture, Language, and Thought
Problem Solving: In Search of Solutions
310(8)
Types of Problems
Barriers to Effective Problem
Solving
Approaches to Problem Solving
Culture, Cognitive Style, and Problem Solving
Decision Making: Choices and Chances
318(5)
Making Choices: Selecting an Alternative
Taking Chances: Factors Weighed in Risky Decisions
Heuristics in judging Probabilities
The Tendency to Ignore Base Rates
The Conjunction Fallacy
The Alternative Outcomes Effect
Featured Study Even Objective Probabilities Are Subjective
323(3)
Evolutionary Analyses of Flaws in Human Decision Making Fast and Frugal Heuristics
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
326(1)
Personal Application Understanding Pitfalls in Reasoning About Decisions
327(3)
The Gambler's Fallacy
Overestimating the Improbable
Confirmation Bias
The Overconfidence Effect
The Effects of Framing
Critical Thinking Application Shaping Thought with Language: ``Only a Naive Moron Would Believe That''
330(2)
Semantic Slanting
Name Calling
Recap
332(1)
Practice Test
333(1)
Intelligence and Phychological Testing
334(40)
Key Concepts in Psychological Testing
336(5)
Principal Types of Tests
Standardization and Norms
Reliability
Validity
The Evolution of Intelligence Testing
341(2)
Galton's Studies of Hereditary Genius
Binet's Breakthrough
Terman and the Stanford-Binet
Wechsler's Innovations
Intelligence Testing Today
Basic Questions About Intelligence Testing
343(6)
What Kinds of Questions Are on Intelligence Tests?
What Do Modern IQ Scores Mean?
Do Intelligence Tests Measure Potential or Knowledge?
Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Reliability?
Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity?
Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success?
Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures?
Extremes of Intelligence
349(3)
Mental Retardation
Giftedness
Heredity and Environment as Determinants of Intelligence
352(7)
Evidence for Hereditary Influence
Evidence for Environmental Influence
The Interaction of Heredity and Environment
Cultural Differences in IQ Scores
Featured Study Racial Stereotypes and Test Performance
359(2)
New Directions in the Assessment and Study of Intelligence
361(4)
Exploring Biological Indexes and Correlates of Intelligence
Investigating Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Behavior
Expanding the Concept of Intelligence
Measuring Emotional Intelligence
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
365(1)
Personal Application Understanding Creativity
366(4)
The Nature of Creativity
Measuring Creativity
Correlates of Creativity
Critical Thinking Application The Intelligence Debate, Appeals to Ignorance, and Reification
370(2)
Appeal to Ignorance
Reification
Recap
372(1)
Practice Test
373(1)
Motivation and Emotion
374(42)
Motivational Theories and Concepts
376(2)
Drive Theories
Incentive Theories
Evolutionary Theories
The Range and Diversity of Human Motives
The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
378(7)
Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity
Sexual Motivation and Behavior
385(5)
Determinants of Sexual Desire
Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Behavior
Featured Study Evolution, Culture, and Mating Priorities
390(6)
The Mystery of Sexual Orientation
The Human Sexual Response
Achievement: In Search of Excellence
396(2)
Individual Differences in the Need for Achievement
Situational Determinants of Achievement Behavior
The Elements of Emotional Experience
398(7)
The Cognitive Component: Subjective Feelings
The Physiological Component: Diffuse and Multifaceted
The Behavioral Component: Nonverbal Expressiveness
Culture and the Elements of Emotion
Theories of Emotion
405(2)
James-Lange Theory
Cannon-Bard Theory
Schachter's Two-Factor Theor
Evolutionary Theories of Emotion
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
407(1)
Personal Application Exploring the Ingredients of Happiness
408(4)
How Happy Are People?
Factors That Do Not Predict Happiness
Moderately Good Predictors of Happiness
Strong Predictors of Happiness
Conclusions About Subjective Well-Being
Critical Thinking Application Analyzing Arguments: Making Sense out of Controversy
412(2)
The Anatomy of an Argument
Common Fallacies
Evaluating the Strength of Arguments
Recap
414(1)
Practice Test
415(1)
Human Development Across the Life Span
416(52)
Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
418(5)
The Course of Prenatal Development
Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
The Wondrous Years of Childhood
423(15)
Exploring the World: Motor Development
Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
Early Emotional Development: Attachment
Becoming Unique: Personality Development
The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development
Featured Study
Can Infants Do Arithmetic?
438(4)
The Development of Moral Reasoning
The Transition of Adolescence
442(5)
Physiological and Neural Changes
Time of Turmoil?
The Search for Identity
The Expanse of Adulthood
447(7)
Personality Development
Transitions in Family Life
Aging and Physical Changes
Aging and Cognitive Changes
illustrated Overview of Human Development
454(4)
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
458(1)
Personal Application Understanding Gender Differences
459(5)
How Do the Sexes Differ in Behavior?
Biological Origins of Gender Differences
Environmental Origins of Gender Differences Conclusion
Critical Thinking Application
Are Fathers Essential to Children's Well-Being?
464(2)
The Basic Argument
Evaluating the Argument
Recap
466(1)
Practice Test
467(1)
Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment
468(42)
The Nature of Personality
470(2)
Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness
Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions
The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits
Psychodynamic Perspectives
472(9)
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
Jung's Analytical Psychology
Adler's Individual Psychology
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives
Behavioral Perspectives
481(2)
Skinner's Ideas Applied to Personality
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Featured Study Can Rooms Really Have Personality?
483(4)
Mischel and the Person-Situation Controversy
Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives
Humanistic Perspectives
487(4)
Rogers's Person-Centered Theory
Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization
Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives
Biological Perspectives
491(3)
Eysenck's Theory
Behavioral Genetics and Personality
The Evolutionary Approach to Personality
Illustrated Overview of Major Theories of Personality
494(3)
Evaluating Biological Perspectives
A Contemporary Empirical Approach: Terror Management Theory
497(2)
Essentials of Terror Management Theory
Applications of Terror Management Theory
Culture and Personality
499(2)
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
501(1)
Personal Application Understanding Personality Assessment
502(4)
Self-Report Inventories
Projective Tests
Critical Thinking Application Hindsight in Everyday Analyses of Personality
506(2)
The Prevalence of Hindsight Bias
Hindsight and Personality
Other Implications of ``20/20 Hindsight''
Recap
508(1)
Practice Test
509(1)
Stress, Coping, and Health
510(40)
The Nature of Stress
512(5)
Stress as an Everyday Event
Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder
Major Types of Stress
Responding to Stress
517(8)
Emotional Responses
Physiological Responses
Behavioral Responses
The Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning
525(2)
Impaired Task Performance
Burnout
Psychological Problems and Disorders
Positive Effects
The Effects of Stress on Physical Health
527(3)
Personality, Hostility, and Heart Disease
Emotional Reactions, Depression, and Heart Disease
Featured Study Is Depression a Risk Factor for Heart Disease?
530(3)
Stress, Other Diseases, and Immune Functioning Sizing Up the Link Between Stress and Illness
Factors Moderating the Impact of Stress
533(1)
Social Support
Optimism and Conscientiousness
Health-Impairing Behavior
534(4)
Smoking
Poor Nutritional Habits
Lack of Exercise
Alcohol and Drug Use
Behavior and AIDS
How Does Health-Impairing Behavior Develop?
Reactions to Illness
538(2)
Deciding to Seek Treatment
Communicating with Health Providers
Adhering to Medical Advice
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
540(1)
Personal Application Improving Coping and Stress Management
541(5)
Reappraisal: Ellis's Rational Thinking
Using Humor as a Stress Reducer
Releasing Pent-Up Emotions
Managing Hostility and Forgiving Others
Learning to Relax
Minimizing Physiological Vulnerability
Critical Thinking Application Thinking Rationally About Health Statistics and Decisions
546(2)
Evaluating Statistics on Health Risks
Thinking Systematically About Health Decisions
Recap
548(1)
Practice Test
549(1)
Psychological Disorders
550(44)
Abnormal Behavior: Myths, Realities, and Controversies
551(6)
The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior
Criteria of Abnormal Behavior
Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders
Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders
The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
557(5)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Phobic Disorder
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
562(2)
Somatization Disorder
Conversion Disorder
Hypochondriasis
Etiology of Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
564(2)
Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Etiology of Dissociative Disorders
Mood Disorders
566(5)
Major Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Etiology of Mood Disorders
Featured Study Does Negative Thinking Cause Depression?
571(2)
Schizophrenic Disorders
573(7)
General Symptoms
Subtypes, Course, and Outcome
Etiology of Schizophrenia
Personality Disorders
580(2)
Diagnostic Problems
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Illustrated Overview of Three Categories of Psychological Disorders
582(2)
Psychological Disorders and the Law
584(1)
Insanity
Involuntary Commitment
Culture and Pathology
585(1)
Are Equivalent Disorders Found Around the World?
Are Symptom Patterns Culturally Invariant?
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
586(1)
Personal Application Understanding Eating Disorders
587(3)
Description
History and Prevalence
Etiology of Eating Disorders
Critical Thinking Application Working With Probabilities in Thinking About Mental Illness
590(2)
Recap
592(1)
Practice Test
593(1)
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
594(38)
The Elements of the Treatment Process
596(3)
Treatments: How Many Types Are There?
Clients: Who Seeks Therapy?
Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?
Insight Therapies
599(7)
Psychoanalysis
Client-Centered Therapy
Group Therapy
How Effective Are Insight Therapies?
How Do Insight Therapies Work?
Behavior Therapies
606(4)
Systematic Desensitization
Aversion Therapy
Social Skills Training
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments
How Effective Are Behavior Therapies?
Biomedical Therapies
610(5)
Treatment with Drugs
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Current Trends and Issues in Treatment
615(1)
Grappling with the Constraints of Managed Care
Illustrated Overview of Five Major Approaches to Treatment
616(3)
Blending Approaches to Treatment
Featured Study Combining Insight Therapy and Medication
619(2)
Increasing Multicultural Sensitivity in Treatment
Institutional Treatment in Transition
621(3)
Disenchantment with Mental Hospitals
Deinstitutionalization
Mental Illness, the Revolving Door, and Homelessness
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
624(1)
Personal Application Looking for a Therapist
625(3)
Where Do You Find Therapeutic Services?
Is the Therapist's Profession or Sex Important?
Is Treatment Always Expensive?
Is the Therapist's Theoretical Approach Important?
What Should You Look for in a Prospective Therapist?
What Is Therapy Like?
Critical Thinking Application From Crisis to Wellness--- But Was It the Therapy?
628(2)
Recap
630(1)
Practice Test
631(1)
Social Behavior
632
Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others
634(3)
Effects of Physical Appearance
Cognitive Schemas
Stereotypes
Subjectivity in Person Perception
An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Person Perception
Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior
637(5)
Internal Versus External Attributions Attributions for Success and Failure Bias in Attribution Culture and Attributional Tendencies
Close Relationships: Liking and Loving
642(7)
Key Factors in Attraction Perspectives on the Mystery of Love Culture and Close Relationships An Evolutionary Perspective on Attraction
Attitudes: Making Social Judgments
649(7)
Components and Dimensions of Attitudes Attitudes and Behavior Trying to Change Attitudes: Factors in Persuasion Theories of Attitude Formation and Change
Conformity and Obedience: Yielding to Others
656(2)
Conformity Obedience
Featured Study ``I Was Just Following Orders''
658(4)
Cultural Variations in Conformity and Obedience The Power of the Situation: The Stanford Prison Simulation
Behavior in Groups: Joining with Others
662(5)
Behavior Alone and in Groups: The Case of the Bystander Effect Group Productivity and Social Loafing Decision Making in Groups
Reflecting on the Chapter's Themes
667(1)
Personal Application Understanding Prejudice
667(5)
Stereotyping and Subjectivity in Person Perception Biases in Attribution Forming and Preserving Prejudicial Attitudes Competition Between Groups Dividing the World into Ingroups and Outgroups Threats to Social Identity
Critical Thinking Application Whom Can You Trust? Analyzing Credibility and Influence Tactics
672(2)
Evaluating Credibility Recognizing Social Influence Strategies
Recap
674(1)
Practice Test
675
Appendix A Answers to Concept Checks 1
Appendix B Statistical Methods 7
Appendix C Industrial/Organizational Psychology 15
Appendix D Careers in Psychology 30
Appendix E Critical Thinking About Internet Research Sources: What Students Need to Know 35
Glossary 1
References 1
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1
Credits 1


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