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Psychology : Themes and Variations(with Concept Charts and InfoTrac)

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534597696

ISBN10:
0534597696
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/25/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 3/25/2003.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

Since the First Edition of this book appeared, professors have praised its visual presentation of concepts, accessible writing style, and solid research-based scholarship. PSYCHOLOGY: THEMES AND VARIATIONS is about the ideas and concepts behind the research studies. His straightforward style gets students to contemplate open-ended questions, examine their assumptions, and apply psychological concepts to their own lives. Wayne Weiten surveys psychology's broad range of content with three aims: to illuminate the process of research and its intrinsic relationship to application; to show both the unity and diversity of the subject, and to invite students to the study of psychology by respecting their ability to master its fundamental concepts. Integrative themes--including empiricism, theoretical diversity, sociohistorical contexts, multifactorial causation, cultural heritage, heredity and environment, and subjectivity of experience--are woven throughout the text to provide connections among the different areas of research in psychology. The book's dynamic, teaching-oriented illustration program further enhances these themes. Weiten reinforces concepts through exercises that appear at the end of every chapter. At the same time, the author presents topics in a hierarchical manner, giving students handles they can use to prioritize concepts within the chapter.

Table of Contents

The Evolution of Psychology
From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
2(16)
A New Science Is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall
The Battle of the ``Schools'' Begins: Structuralism Versus Functionalism
Watson Alters Psychology's Course as Behaviorism Makes Its Debut
Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture
Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes
The Humanists Revolt
Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession
Psychology Returns to Its Roots: Renewed Interest in Cognition and Physiology
Psychology Broadens Its Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity
Psychology Adapts: The Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology
Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified
18(3)
Research Areas in Psychology
Professional Specialties in Psychology
Putting It in Perspective: Seven Key Themes
21(6)
Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study
Themes Related to Psychology's Subject Matter
Personal Application Improving Academic Performance
27(5)
Developing Sound Study Habits
Improving Your Reading
Getting More Out of Lectures
Improving Test-Taking Strategies
Critical Thinking Application Developing Critical Thinking Skills: An Introduction
32(2)
The Skills of Critical Thinking
The Attitude of a Critical Thinker
The Need to Teach Critical Thinking
An Example
Recap
34(1)
Practice Test
35(2)
The Research Enterprise in Psychology
Looking for Laws: The Scientific Approach to Behavior
37(5)
Goals of the Scientific Enterprise
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
Advantages of the Scientific Approach
Looking for Causes: Experimental Research
42(6)
Independent and Dependent Variables
Experimental and Control Groups
Extraneous Variables
Variations in Designing Experiments
Featured Study Can Subliminal Audiotapes Improve Memory or Self-Esteem?
45(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research
Looking for Links: Descriptive/Correlational Research
48(5)
Naturalistic Observation
Case Studies
Surveys
Advantages and Disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research
Looking for Conclusions: Statistics and Research
53(4)
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research
57(4)
Sampling Bias
Placebo Effects
Distortions in Self-Report Data
Experimenter Bias
Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
61(3)
The Question of Deception
The Question of Animal Research
Putting It in Perspective
64(2)
Personal Application Finding and Reading Journal Articles
66(4)
The Nature of Technical Journals
Finding Journal Articles
Reading Journal Articles
Critical Thinking Application The Perils of Anecdotal Evidence: ``I Have A Friend Who . . .''
70(2)
Recap
72(1)
Practice Test
73(2)
The Biological Bases of Behavior
Communication in the Nervous System
75(8)
Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware
The Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send Information
The Synapse: Where Neurons Meet
Neurotransmitters and Behavior
Organization of the Nervous System
83(3)
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
Looking Inside the Brain: Research Methods
86(5)
Electrical Recordings
Lesioning
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain
Brain-Imaging Procedures
Featured Study Probing the Anatomy of Schizophrenia
90(1)
The Brain and Behavior
91(7)
The Hindbrain
The Midbrain
The Forebrain
The Plasticity of the Brain
Right Brain/Left Brain: Cerebral Laterality
98(3)
Bisecting the Brain: Split-Brain Research
Hemispheric Specialization in the Intact Brain
The Endocrine System: Another Way to Communicate
101(1)
Heredity and Behavior: Is It All in the Genes?
102(6)
Basic Principles of Genetics
Investigating Hereditary Influence: Research Methods
The Interplay of Heredity and Environment
The Evolutionary Bases of Behavior
108(6)
Darwin's Insights
Subsequent Refinements to Evolutionary Theory
Behaviors as Adaptive Traits
Parental Investment and Mating Systems
Putting It in Perspective
114(1)
Personal Application Evaluating the Concept of ``Two Minds in One''
115(3)
Cerebral Specialization and Cognitive Processes
Complexities and Qualifications
Critical Thinking Application Building Better Brains: The Perils of Extrapolation
118(2)
The Key Findings on Neural Development
The Risks of Overextrapolation
Recap
120(1)
Practice Test
121(3)
Sensation and Perception
Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues
124(5)
Thresholds: Looking for Limits
Weighing the Differences: The JND
Psychophysical Scaling
Signal-Detection Theory
Perception Without Awareness
Sensory Adaptation
Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System
129(25)
The Stimulus: Light
The Eye: A Living Optical Instrument
The Retina: The Brain's Envoy in the Eye
Vision and the Brain
Viewing the World in Color
Perceiving Forms, Patterns, and Objects
Perceiving Depth or Distance
Perceiving Geographical Slant
Featured Study Why Hills Look Steeper Than They Are
148(6)
Perceptual Constancies in Vision
The Power of Misleading Cues: Optical Illusions
Our Sense of Hearing: The Auditory System
154(5)
The Stimulus: Sound
Human Hearing Capacities
Sensory Processing in the Ear
Auditory Perception: Theories of Hearing
Auditory Localization: Perceiving Sources of Sound
Our Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
159(3)
Taste: The Gustatory System
Smell: The Olfactory System
Our Sense of Touch: Sensory Systems in the Skin
162(2)
Feeling Pressure
Feeling Pain
Our Other Senses
164(1)
The Kinesthetic System
The Vestibular System
Putting It in Perspective
165(1)
Personal Application Appreciating Art and Illusion
166(6)
Critical Thinking Application Recognizing Contrast Effects: It's All Relative
172(2)
Recap
174(1)
Practice Test
175(3)
Variations in Consciousness
On the Nature of Consciousness
178(2)
Variations in Levels of Awareness
The Evolutionary Roots of Consciousness
Consciousness and Brain Activity
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
180(2)
The Role of Circadian Rhythms
Ignoring Circadian Rhythms
Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms
The Sleep and Waking Cycle
182(10)
Cycling Through the Stages of Sleep
Age Trends in Sleep
Culture and Sleep
The Neural Bases of Sleep
The Evolutionary Bases of Sleep
Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation
Featured Study Gauging the Impact of Sleep Deprivation in College Students
188(4)
Problems in the Night: Sleep Disorders
The World of Dreams
192(5)
The Contents of Dreams
Links Between Dreams and Waking Life
Culture and Dreams
Theories of Dreaming
Hypnosis: Altered Consciousness or Role Playing?
197(3)
Hypnotic Induction and Susceptibility
Hypnotic Phenomena
Theories of Hypnosis
Meditation: Pure Consciousness or Relaxation?
200(2)
Physiological Correlates
Long-Term Benefits
Altering Consciousness with Drugs
202(7)
Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects
Factors Influencing Drug Effects
Mechanisms of Drug Action
Drug Dependence
Drugs and Health
Putting It in Perspective
209(1)
Personal Application Addressing Practical Questions About Sleep and Dreams
210(4)
Common Questions About Sleep
Common Questions About Dreams
Critical Thinking Application Is Alcoholism a Disease? The Power of Definitions
214(2)
The Power to Make Definitions
Definitions, Labels, and Circular Reasoning
Recap
216(1)
Practice Test
217(3)
Learning
Classical Conditioning
220(9)
Pavlov's Demonstration: ``Psychic Reflexes''
Terminology and Procedures
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
Featured Study Sex and the Single Quail
224(5)
Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
229(14)
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Skinner's Demonstration: It's All a Matter of Consequences
Terminology and Procedures
Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement: Consequences That Strengthen Responses
Intermittent Reinforcement: Effects of Basic Schedules
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement and the Study of Choice
Positive Reinforcement Versus Negative Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement and Avoidance Behavior
Punishment: Consequences That Weaken Responses
Changing Directions in the Study of Conditioning
243(4)
Recognizing Biological Constraints on Conditioning
Recognizing Cognitive Processes in Conditioning
Observational Learning
247(2)
Basic Processes
Acquisition Versus Performance
Applications
Putting It in Perspective
249(3)
Personal Application Achieving Self-Control Through Behavior Modification
252(4)
Specifying Your Target Behavior
Gathering Baseline Data
Designing Your Program
Executing and Evaluating Your Program
Ending Your Program
Critical Thinking Application Manipulating Emotions: Pavlov and Persuasion
256(2)
Classical Conditioning in Advertising
Classical Conditioning in Business Negotiations
Classical Conditioning in the World of Politics
Becoming More Aware of Classical Conditioning Processes
Recap
258(1)
Practice Test
259(3)
Human Memory
Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
262(4)
The Role of Attention
Levels of Processing
Enriching Encoding
Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
266(9)
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
Featured Study How Accurate Are Flashbulb Memories?
270(5)
Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate?
How Is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory?
Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory
275(4)
Using Cues to Aid Retrieval
Reinstating the Context of an Event
Reconstructing Memories and the Misinformation Effect
Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring
Forgetting: When Memory Lapses
279(8)
How Quickly We Forget: Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve
Measures of Forgetting
Why We Forget
The Repressed Memories Controversy
In Search of the Memory Trace: The Physiology of Memory
287(2)
The Biochemistry of Memory
The Neural Circuitry of Memory
The Anatomy of Memory
Are There Multiple Memory Systems?
289(4)
Implicit Versus Explicit Memory
Declarative Versus Procedural Memory
Semantic Versus Episodic Memory
Prospective Versus Retrospective Memory
Putting It in Perspective
293(1)
Personal Application Improving Everyday Memory
294(4)
Engage in Adequate Rehearsal
Schedule Distributed Practice and Minimize Interference
Emphasize Deep Processing and Organize Information
Enrich Encoding with Verbal Mnemonics
Enrich Encoding with Visual Mnemonics
Critical Thinking Application Understanding the Fallibility of Eyewitness Accounts
298(2)
The Contribution of Hindsight Bias
The Contribution of Overconfidence
Strategies to Reduce Overconfidence
Recap
300(1)
Practice Test
301(3)
Language and Thought
Language: Turning Thoughts into Words
304(10)
What Is Language?
The Structure of Language
Milestones in Language Development
Learning More Than One Language: Bilingualism
Can Animals Develop Language?
Language in Evolutionary Context
Theories of Language Acquisition
Culture, Language, and Thought
Problem Solving: In Search of Solutions
314(9)
Types of Problems
Barriers to Effective Problem Solving
Approaches to Problem Solving
Culture, Cognitive Style, and Problem Solving
Decision Making: Choices and Chances
323(7)
Making Choices: Selecting an Alternative
Taking Chances: Factors Weighed in Risky Decisions
Heuristics in Judging Probabilities
The Tendency to Ignore Base Rates
The Conjunction Fallacy
The Alternative Outcomes Effect
Featured Study Even Objective Probabilities Are Subjective
327(3)
Evolutionary Analyses of Flaws in Human Decision Making
Fast and Frugal Heuristics
Putting It in Perspective
330(2)
Personal Application Understanding Pitfalls in Reasoning About Decisions
332(4)
The Gambler's Fallacy
The Law of Small Numbers
Overestimating the Improbable
Confirmation Bias and Belief Perseverance
The Overconfidence Effect
The Effects of Framing
Critical Thinking Application Shaping Thought with Language: ``Only a Naive Moron Would Believe That''
336(2)
Semantic Slanting
Name Calling
Recap
338(1)
Practice Test
339(3)
Intelligence and Psychological Testing
Key Concepts in Psychological Testing
342(5)
Principal Types of Tests
Standardization and Norms
Reliability
Validity
The Evolution of Intelligence Testing
347(2)
Galton's Studies of Hereditary Genius
Binet's Breakthrough
Terman and the Stanford-Binet
Wechsler's Innovations
Intelligence Testing Today
Basic Questions About Intelligence Testing
349(5)
What Kinds of Questions Are on Intelligence Tests?
What Do Modern IQ Scores Mean?
Do Intelligence Tests Measure Potential or Knowledge?
Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Reliability?
Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity?
Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success?
Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures?
Extremes of Intelligence
354(3)
Mental Retardation
Giftedness
Heredity and Environment as Determinants of Intelligence
357(9)
Evidence for Hereditary Influence
Evidence for Environmental Influence
The Interaction of Heredity and Environment
Cultural Differences in IQ Scores
Featured Study Racial Stereotypes and Test Performance
364(2)
New Directions in the Assessment and Study of Intelligence
366(6)
Increasing Emphasis on Specific Abilities
Exploring Biological Indexes of Intelligence
Investigating Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Behavior
Expanding the Concept of Intelligence
Measuring Emotional Intelligence
Putting It in Perspective
372(1)
Personal Application Understanding Creativity
373(3)
The Nature of Creativity
Measuring Creativity
Correlates of Creativity
Critical Thinking Application The Intelligence Debate, Appeals to Ignorance, and Reification
376(2)
Appeal to Ignorance
Reification
Recap
378(1)
Practice Test
379(3)
Motivation and Emotion
Motivational Theories and Concepts
382(2)
Drive Theories
Incentive Theories
Evolutionary Theories
The Range and Diversity of Human Motives
The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
384(7)
Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity
Sexual Motivation and Behavior
391(11)
Determinants of Sexual Desire
Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Behavior
Featured Study Evolution, Culture, and Mating Priorities
395(7)
The Mystery of Sexual Orientation
The Human Sexual Response
Affiliation: In Search of Belongingness
402(1)
Achievement: In Search of Excellence
403(2)
Individual Differences in the Need for Achievement
Situational Determinants of Achievement Behavior
The Elements of Emotional Experience
405(7)
The Cognitive Component: Subjective Feelings
The Physiological Component: Diffuse and Multifaceted
The Behavioral Component: Nonverbal Expressiveness
Culture and the Elements of Emotion
Theories of Emotion
412(2)
James-Lange Theory
Cannon-Bard Theory
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory
Evolutionary Theories of Emotion
Putting It in Perspective
414(2)
Personal Application Exploring the Ingredients of Happiness
416(4)
How Happy Are People?
Factors That Do Not Predict Happiness
Moderately Good Predictors of Happiness
Strong Predictors of Happiness
Conclusions About Subjective Well-Being
Critical Thinking Application Analyzing Arguments: Making Sense Out of Controversy
420(2)
The Anatomy of an Argument
Common Fallacies
Evaluating the Strength of Arguments
Recap
422(1)
Practice Test
423(3)
Human Development Across the Life Span
Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
426(5)
The Course of Prenatal Development
Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
The Wondrous Years of Childhood
431(18)
Exploring the World: Motor Development
Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
Early Emotional Development: Attachment
Becoming Unique: Personality Development
The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development
The Development of Moral Reasoning
The Transition of Adolescence
449(6)
Puberty and the Growth Spurt
Featured Study Evolution and the Timing of Sexual Maturation
451(4)
Time of Turmoil?
The Search for Identity
The Expanse of Adulthood
455(11)
Personality Development
Transitions in Family Life
Aging and Physical Changes
Aging and Cognitive Changes
Putting It in Perspective
466(1)
Personal Application Understanding Gender Differences
467(5)
How Do the Sexes Differ in Behavior?
Biological Origins of Gender Differences
Environmental Origins of Gender Differences
Conclusion
Critical Thinking Application Are Fathers Essential to Children's Well-Being?
472(2)
The Basic Argument
Evaluating the Argument
Recap
474(1)
Practice Test
475(3)
Personality: Theory, Research and Assessment
The Nature of Personality
478(2)
Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness
Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions
The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits
Psychodynamic Perspectives
480(10)
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
Jung's Analytical Psychology
Adler's Individual Psychology
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives
Behavioral Perspectives
490(5)
Skinner's Ideas Applied to Personality
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Featured Study Can Rooms Really Have Personality?
492(3)
Mischel and the Person-Situation Controversy
Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives
Humanistic Perspectives
495(5)
Rogers's Person-Centered Theory
Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization
Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives
Biological Perspectives
500(6)
Eysenck's Theory
Behavioral Genetics and Personality
The Evolutionary Approach to Personality
Evaluating Biological Perspectives
Contemporary Empirical Approaches to Personality
506(1)
Sensation Seeking: Life in the Fast Lane
Self-Monitoring: Life as Theater
Culture and Personality
507(2)
Putting It in Perspective
509(2)
Personal Application Understanding Personality Assessment
511(5)
The Uses of Personality Scales
Self-Report Inventories
Projective Tests
Critical Thinking Application Hindsight in Everyday Analyses of Personality
516(2)
The Prevalence of Hindsight Bias
Hindsight and Personality
Other Implications of ``20/20 Hindsight''
Recap
518(1)
Practice Test
519(3)
Stress, Coping, and Health
The Nature of Stress
522(1)
Stress as an Everyday Event
Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder
Major Types of Stress
523(4)
Frustration
Conflict
Change
Pressure
Responding to Stress
527(7)
Emotional Responses
Physiological Responses
Behavioral Responses
The Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning
534(4)
Impaired Task Performance
Burnout
Posttraumatic Stress Disorders
Psychological Problems and Disorders
Positive Effects
The Effects of Stress on Physical Health
538(5)
Type A Personality, Hostility, and Heart Disease
Emotional Reactions, Depression, and Heart Disease
Stress, Other Diseases, and Immune Functioning
Featured Study Connecting Stress to the Common Cold
541(2)
Sizing Up the Link Between Stress and Illness
Factors Moderating the Impact of Stress
543(1)
Social Support
Optimism and Conscientiousness
Health-Impairing Behavior
544(5)
Smoking
Poor Nutritional Habits
Lack of Exercise
Alcohol and Drug Use
Behavior and AIDS
How Does Health-Impairing Behavior Develop?
Reactions to Illness
549(1)
Deciding to Seek Treatment
Communicating with Health Providers
Adhering to Medical Advice
Putting It in Perspective
550(2)
Personal Application Improving Coping and Stress Management
552(4)
Reappraisal: Ellis's Rational Thinking
Using Humor as a Stress Reducer
Releasing Pent-Up Emotions
Managing Hostility and Forgiving Others
Learning to Relax
Minimizing Physiological Vulnerability
Critical Thinking Application Thinking Rationally About Health Statistics and Decisions
556(2)
Evaluating Statistics on Health Risks
Thinking Systematically About Health Decisions
Recap
558(1)
Practice Test
559(2)
Psychological Disorders
Abnormal Behavior: Myths, Realities, and Controversies
561(6)
The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior
Criteria of Abnormal Behavior
Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders
Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders
The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
567(4)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Phobic Disorder
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
571(3)
Somatization Disorder
Conversion Disorder
Hypochondriasis
Etiology of Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
574(2)
Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Etiology of Dissociative Disorders
Mood Disorders
576(6)
Major Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Etiology of Mood Disorders
Featured Study Does Negative Thinking Cause Depression?
580(2)
Schizophrenic Disorders
582(7)
General Symptoms
Subtypes, Course, and Outcome
Etiology of Schizophrenia
Personality Disorders
589(5)
Diagnostic Problems
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Psychological Disorders and the Law
594(1)
Insanity
Involuntary Commitment
Culture and Pathology
595(1)
Are Equivalent Disorders Found Around the World?
Are Symptom Patterns Culturally Invariant?
Putting It in Perspective
596(2)
Personal Application Understanding Eating Disorders
598(4)
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
History, Prevalence, and Course
Etiology of Eating Disorders
Critical Thinking Application Working with Probabilities in Thinking About Mental Illness
602(2)
Recap
604(1)
Practice Test
605(3)
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
The Elements of the Treatment Process
608(3)
Treatments: How Many Types Are There?
Clients: Who Seeks Therapy?
Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?
Insight Therapies
611(8)
Psychoanalysis
Client-Centered Therapy
Cognitive Therapy
Group Therapy
Evaluating Insight Therapies
Behavior Therapies
619(3)
Systematic Desensitization
Aversion Therapy
Social Skills Training
Evaluating Behavior Therapies
Biomedical Therapies
622(8)
Treatment with Drugs
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Current Trends and Issues in Treatment
630(4)
Grappling with the Constraints of Managed Care
Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments
Blending Approaches to Treatment
Featured Study Combining Insight Therapy and Medication
632(2)
Increasing Multicultural Sensitivity in Treatment
Institutional Treatment in Transition
634(3)
Disenchantment with Mental Hospitals
Deinstitutionalization
Mental Illness, the Revolving Door, and Homelessness
Putting It in Perspective
637(1)
Personal Application Looking for a Therapist
638(4)
Where Do You Find Therapeutic Services?
Is the Therapist's Profession or Sex Important?
Is Treatment Always Expensive?
Is the Therapist's Theoretical Approach Important?
What Should You Look for in a Prospective Therapist?
What If There Isn't Any Progress?
What Is Therapy Like?
Critical Thinking Application From Crisis to Wellness---But Was It the Therapy?
642(2)
Recap
644(1)
Practice Test
645(3)
Social Behavior
Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others
648(4)
Effects of Physical Appearance
Cognitive Schemas
Stereotypes
Subjectivity in Person Perception
An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Person Perception
Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior
652(5)
Internal Versus External Attributions
Attributions for Success and Failure
Bias in Attribution
Culture and Attributional Tendencies
Close Relationships: Liking and Loving
657(6)
Key Factors in Attraction
Perspectives on the Mystery of Love
Culture and Close Relationships
An Evolutionary Perspective on Attraction
Attitudes: Making Social Judgments
663(8)
Components and Dimensions of Attitudes
Attitudes and Behavior
Trying to Change Attitudes: Factors in Persuasion
Theories of Attitude Formation and Change
Conformity and Obedience: Yielding to Others
671(5)
Conformity
Obedience
Featured Study ``I Was Just Following Orders''
673(3)
Cultural Variations in Conformity and Obedience
Behavior in Groups: Joining with Others
676(4)
Behavior Alone and in Groups: The Case of the Bystander Effect
Group Productivity and Social Loafing
Decision Making in Groups
Putting It in Perspective
680(1)
Personal Application Understanding Prejudice
681(3)
Stereotyping and Subjectivity in Person Perception
Biases in Attribution
Forming and Preserving Prejudicial Attitudes
Dividing the World into Ingroups and Outgroups
Critical Thinking Application Whom Can You Trust? Analyzing Credibility and Social Influence Tactics
684(2)
Evaluating Credibility
Recognizing Social Influence Strategies
Recap
686(1)
Practice Test
687
Appendix A Answers to Concept Checks
1(6)
Appendix B Statistical Methods
7(8)
Graphing Data
Measuring Central Tendency
Measuring Variability
The Normal Distribution
Measuring Correlation
Correlation and Prediction
Hypothesis Testing
Statistical Significance
Statistics and Empiricism
Appendix C Industrial/Organizational Psychology
15(14)
Industrial Psychology
Organizational Psychology
Putting It All Together: A Case Study
Conclusion
Appendix D Evaluating The Quality of Web-Based Resources
29(4)
Criteria for Quality on the Net
A Final Note of Advice
For Further Reference and Reading
Appendix E URLs for Recommended Web Links
33
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Name Index 1(12)
Subject Index 13


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