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Psychology and Work Today

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780131932128

ISBN10:
0131932128
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/10/2005
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $198.60

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Summary

An invaluable preparatory guide for entering todayrs"s global business and industrial world, this informative, sophisticated, and entertaining book informs readers about the nature of work in modern society. Focusing on the practical and applied knowledge, it shows how industrial-organizational psychology directly influence our lives as job applicants, trainees, employees, managers, and consumers.Topics include human resource development (employee selection, psychological testing, performance appraisal, and training); leadership, motivation, job satisfaction, and job involvement; working conditions, safety, violence, and health in the workplace; and engineering and consumer psychology. Hot-button issues such as internet addiction and social isolation, discrimination based on genetic testing, ethnic harassment, and executive coaching are discussed and debated.An excellent handbook for all human resource employees, as well as managers, executives, and others responsible for hiring personnel.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Part One The Practice of Industrial-Organizational Psychology
1(56)
Principles, Practices, and Problems
3(26)
Is Work a Four-Letter Word?
4(2)
Newsbreak: Getting Engaged
6(1)
Industrial-Organizational Psychology on the Job
6(1)
Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Everyday Life
7(1)
What I-O Psychology Means to Your Employer
8(1)
The Scope and Historical Development of I-O Psychology
9(3)
Pioneers in Personnel Selection
10(1)
World War I and the Testing Movement
10(1)
The Hawthorne Studies and Motivational Issues
11(1)
World War II and Engineering Psychology
12(1)
Contemporary Developments in I-O Psychology
12(1)
Contemporary Challenges for I-O Psychology
12(6)
The Virtual Workplace
13(1)
Virtual Employees
13(1)
Worker Involvement
14(1)
Newsbreak: Temporarily Yours
15(1)
Changing Technology and Skills
15(1)
Globalization of the Workplace
16(1)
Newsbreak: What Jobs Will There Be for You?
17(1)
Diversity Issues
17(1)
I-O Psychology as a Career: Training and Employment
18(3)
Newsbreak: But What Can You Do with a B.A. in Psychology?
19(2)
Problems for I-O Psychologists
21(3)
Fraudulent Practitioners
21(1)
Credentials and Certification
22(1)
Communication with Management
22(1)
Resistance to New Ideas
23(1)
Research versus Application?
23(1)
Areas of I-O Psychology
24(2)
Summary
26(1)
Key Terms
27(1)
Review Questions
27(1)
Additional Reading
28(1)
Techniques, Tools, and Tactics
29(28)
Why Study Research Methods?
30(2)
Requirements of Psychological Research
30(1)
Limitations of Psychological Research
31(1)
Methods of Psychological Research
32(1)
The Experimental Method
32(4)
Designing an Experiment
33(1)
Selecting Research Participants
34(1)
On the Job: Training Effects on Turnover and Productivity
34(2)
The Naturalistic Observation Method
36(2)
On the Job: Friendly Behaviors of Store Clerks
37(1)
Surveys and Opinion Polls
38(8)
Personal Interviews
39(1)
Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires
40(1)
Newsbreak: ``Push Polls'' Can Win Elections
40(1)
Web-Based Surveys
40(2)
Telephone Surveys
42(1)
Newsbreak: Call Me Unresponsive
43(1)
Types of Survey Questions
44(1)
Sampling Methods
44(1)
Noncompliant Employees
45(1)
Virtual Laboratories: Web-Based Research
46(1)
Methods of Data Analysis
47(7)
Descriptive Statistics
47(6)
Inferential Statistics
53(1)
Summary
54(1)
Key Terms
55(1)
Review Questions
55(1)
Additional Reading
56(1)
Part Two The Development of Human Resources
57(132)
Employee Selection Principles and Techniques
59(39)
Organizational Entry
61(1)
Employee Preferences
61(1)
The Recruitment Process
62(5)
Sources for Recruiting
63(1)
Recruiter Characteristics
63(1)
Campus Recruiting
63(3)
Newsbreak: If It Sounds Too Good to Be True
66(1)
Realistic Job Previews
66(1)
A Review of the Selection Process
67(2)
Job and Worker Analyses
67(1)
Recruitment Decisions
67(1)
Selection Techniques
68(1)
A Sample Selection Program: Airport Screeners
69(1)
Fair Employment Practices
69(7)
Adverse Impact on Minority Groups
70(1)
Discriminatory Questions
70(1)
Reverse Discrimination
70(1)
Does Diversity Work?
71(1)
Newsbreak: It's No Longer the Back of the Bus
72(1)
Other Forms of Discrimination
73(3)
Job Analysis
76(4)
Biographical Information
80(3)
Application Blanks
80(1)
Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired: Part 1
81(1)
Biographical Inventories
82(1)
Interviews
83(7)
Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired: Part 2
84(1)
Making the Right Impression
84(1)
Unstructured Interviews
85(1)
Structured Interviews
86(1)
Situational Interviews
87(1)
Online Interviews
88(1)
Influences on Interviewer Judgments
88(2)
References and Letters of Recommendation
90(2)
Newsbreak: A Deadly Recommendation
91(1)
Assessment Centers
92(2)
The In-Basket Technique
92(1)
Leaderless Group Discussions
92(1)
Predictive Validity of Assessment Centers
93(1)
Employee Attitudes toward Assessment Centers
94(1)
Summary
94(1)
Key Terms
95(1)
Review Questions
96(1)
Additional Reading
96(2)
Psychological Testing
98(30)
Principles of Psychological Testing
99(5)
Standardization
99(1)
Objectivity
100(1)
Test Norms
100(1)
Newsbreak: Too Bright for the Job?
101(1)
Reliability
101(1)
Validity
102(2)
Validity Generalization
104(1)
Fair Employment Practices
104(2)
An Overview of a Testing Program
106(2)
Newsbreak: Testing for Common Sense
107(1)
Administering Psychological Tests
108(2)
Individual and Group Tests
108(1)
Computerized Adaptive Tests
108(2)
Speed and Power Tests
110(1)
Types of Psychological Tests
110(11)
Cognitive Abilities
110(2)
Interests
112(1)
Newsbreak: Can You Pass the Test?
113(1)
Aptitudes
114(2)
Motor Skills
116(1)
Personality
116(4)
Integrity Tests
120(1)
Situational Judgment Tests
121(1)
Limitations of Psychological Testing
121(3)
Newsbreak: Store Sued over Personality Test
124(1)
Summary
124(1)
Key Terms
125(1)
Review Questions
126(1)
Additional Reading
126(2)
Performance Appraisal
128(32)
Fair Employment Practices
129(1)
Performance Appraisal: Why Do It?
130(3)
Opposition to Performance Appraisal
131(1)
Newsbreak: Tough Graders Get Low Scores
132(1)
Techniques of Performance Appraisal
133(1)
Objective Performance Appraisal Methods
133(4)
Output Measures
133(1)
Computerized Performance Monitoring
134(2)
Newsbreak: Big Brother in a Black Box
136(1)
Job-Related Personal Data
137(1)
Judgmental Performance Appraisal Methods
137(8)
Written Narratives
138(1)
Merit Rating Techniques
138(6)
Management by Objectives (MBO)
144(1)
Performance Appraisal for Managers
145(3)
Evaluation Techniques
145(2)
Newsbreak: Rating Your Boss: No Names, Please!
147(1)
360-Degree Feedback
147(1)
Bias in Performance Appraisal
148(5)
The Halo Effect
149(1)
Other Sources of Error
149(4)
How to Improve Performance Appraisals
153(1)
The Postappraisal Interview
154(1)
Performance Appraisal: A Poor Rating?
155(2)
Summary
157(1)
Key Terms
157(1)
Review Questions
158(1)
Additional Reading
158(2)
Training and Development
160(29)
The Scope of Organizational Training Programs
161(3)
Newsbreak: Employees Who Can't Read Directions
163(1)
Goals of Organizational Training Programs
164(1)
Staffing for Organizational Training Programs
165(1)
The Pretraining Environment
165(2)
Pretraining Attributes of Employees
166(1)
How People Learn: Psychological Factors
167(3)
Training Methods
170(11)
On-the-Job Training
171(1)
Vestibule Training
172(1)
Apprenticeship
172(1)
Computer-Assisted Instruction
173(1)
Net-Based Training
174(1)
Behavior Modification
174(1)
Newsbreak: She Flew through College
175(1)
Job Rotation
176(1)
Case Studies
176(1)
Business Games
177(1)
In-Basket Training
178(1)
Role Playing
178(1)
Behavior Modeling
178(1)
Newsbreak: Virtual Training
179(1)
Executive Coaching
180(1)
Diversity Training
180(1)
Career Development and Planning
181(2)
Career Development and Life Stages
182(1)
Career Self-Management
182(1)
Newsbreak: It's Your Career: Make the Most of It
183(1)
Evaluating Organizational Training Programs
183(2)
Summary
185(1)
Key Terms
186(1)
Review Questions
186(1)
Additional Reading
187(2)
Part Three Organizational Psychology
189(96)
Leadership
191(30)
Newsbreak: A Bad Boss Can Ruin Your Day
193(1)
Approaches to Leadership
194(2)
Scientific Management
194(1)
The Human Relations Approach
195(1)
Theory X and Theory Y
195(1)
Theories of Leadership
196(4)
Contingency Theory
196(1)
Path-Goal Theory
196(1)
The Leader-Member Exchange
197(2)
Newsbreak: The Deputy Assistant to the Assistant Deputy
199(1)
Implicit Leadership Theory
199(1)
Styles of Leadership
200(3)
Authoritarian and Democratic Leaders
200(1)
Transactional and Transformational Leaders
201(2)
The Role of Power in Leadership
203(1)
Types of Power
203(1)
Effects and Uses of Power
203(1)
The Role of Expectations: The Pygmalion Effect
204(1)
The Functions of Leadership
205(2)
The Consideration Dimension
205(1)
Newsbreak: Management Always Wins: The Canoe Race
206(1)
The Initiating Structure Dimension
207(1)
Characteristics of Successful Leaders
207(4)
First-Line Supervisors
208(1)
Managers and Executives
208(3)
Problems of Leadership
211(1)
First-Line Supervisors
211(1)
Managers and Executives
211(1)
Women in Management
212(4)
Newsbreak: Tips for Hiring Women: 1943 Version
215(1)
Minority Employees in Management
216(1)
Summary
217(1)
Key Terms
218(1)
Review Questions
218(1)
Additional Reading
219(2)
Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement
221(32)
Content Theories of Motivation
222(6)
Achievement Motivation Theory
223(1)
Needs Hierarchy Theory
224(1)
Motivator-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory
225(1)
Job-Characteristics Theory
226(2)
Process Theories of Motivation
228(4)
Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory
228(1)
Newsbreak: Driven by the Work Ethic
229(1)
Equity Theory
230(1)
Goal-Setting Theory
230(2)
Job Satisfaction: The Quality of Life at Work
232(9)
Measuring Job Satisfaction
233(1)
Job Facet Satisfaction
234(1)
Job Satisfaction Data
234(1)
Impact of Personal Characteristics
235(3)
Losing Your Job
238(2)
Newsbreak: Grades Slipping? Maybe It's Not Your Fault
240(1)
Job Satisfaction and On-the-Job Behavior
241(3)
Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Pay
244(2)
Perceived Pay Equity
244(1)
Merit Pay
244(1)
Newsbreak: Unequal Pay for Women, and for Men, Too
245(1)
Wage-Incentive Pay Systems
246(1)
Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment
246(3)
Personal Factors
246(1)
Organizational Factors
247(1)
Types of Commitment
248(1)
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
249(1)
Summary
249(2)
Key Terms
251(1)
Review Questions
251(1)
Additional Reading
252(1)
The Organization of the Organization
253(32)
The Classic Organizational Style: Bureaucracy
254(2)
The Modern Participative Organizational Style
256(3)
Newsbreak: The Workers Are Taking Over!
258(1)
Total Quality Management
259(6)
Why Some Programs Fail
260(2)
Self-Managing Work Groups
262(1)
Virtual Self-Managing Work Groups
263(1)
Newsbreak: Everybody Wanted to Go Home Early
264(1)
Organizational Change
265(2)
Organizational Development (OD)
266(1)
Socialization of New Employees
267(2)
Resocialization
269(1)
Organizational Culture
269(2)
Newsbreak: Gimme an Order of Fries---Sir!
270(1)
Person-Organization Fit
271(1)
Labor Unions
271(1)
Union Grievances
272(1)
Informal Groups: The Organization within the Organization
272(3)
The Hawthorne Studies
273(1)
Social Loafing
274(1)
Group Cohesiveness
274(1)
Technological Change and Organizational Structure
275(5)
Newsbreak: Are You a Compulsive Multitasker?
278(1)
Newsbreak: Beware of Big Brother
279(1)
Summary
280(1)
Key Terms
281(1)
Review Questions
281(1)
Additional Reading
282(3)
Part Four Characteristics of the Workplace
285(96)
Working Conditions
287(29)
Physical Working Conditions
288(10)
Work Sites
288(1)
Newsbreak: Employee Gripes
289(1)
Office and Workplace Design
289(1)
Environmental Psychology and Landscaped Offices
290(1)
Newsbreak: Can You Get Any Work Done at Work?
291(1)
Illumination
292(1)
Noise
293(2)
Color
295(1)
Newsbreak: Does Beige Make You Sick?
296(1)
Music
297(1)
Temperature and Humidity
297(1)
Work Schedules
298(7)
Working Hours
298(2)
Permanent Part-Time Employment
300(1)
The Four-Day Workweek
300(1)
Flexible Work Schedules
301(1)
Rest Breaks
302(1)
Shift Work
303(1)
Newsbreak: Asleep on the Job? Good for You!
304(1)
Psychological and Social Issues
305(8)
Job Simplification
305(2)
Boredom and Monotony
307(1)
Fatigue
307(1)
Ethnic Harassment
308(1)
Gender Harassment
308(2)
Telecommuting: The Virtual Workplace at Home
310(3)
Summary
313(1)
Key Terms
313(1)
Review Questions
313(1)
Additional Reading
314(2)
Safety, Violence, and Health in the Workplace
316(34)
Work-Related Health Problems
317(3)
Newsbreak: The Sick Building Syndrome
319(1)
Accident Statistics
320(1)
Causes of Accidents
321(7)
Workplace Factors
321(3)
Personal Factors
324(1)
Newsbreak: How about a Drink after You Drive?
325(3)
Newsbreak: Look Out! The Driver Behind You May Be Asleep
328(1)
Accident Prevention
328(5)
Newsbreak: Accidents and Adolescents
329(1)
Accident Reports
329(1)
Workplace Design
329(1)
Safety Training
330(1)
Management Support
330(2)
Safety Publicity Campaigns
332(1)
Violence in the Workplace
333(3)
Protecting Employees from Violence
335(1)
Alcoholism in the Workplace
336(4)
Effects on Job Performance
337(1)
The Alcoholic Executive
337(1)
Rehabilitation Programs
338(1)
Newsbreak: Brian's a Hard Charger!
339(1)
Drug Use in the Workplace
340(4)
Effects on Job Performance
341(1)
Drug Testing Programs
342(2)
Computers and Physical Health Issues
344(2)
HIV in the Workplace
346(1)
Summary
347(1)
Key Terms
347(1)
Review Questions
347(1)
Additional Reading
348(2)
Stress in the Workplace
350(31)
Newsbreak: War Reporters
352(1)
Occupational Health Psychology
353(1)
Physiological Effects of Stress
354(2)
Job Satisfaction and Feelings of Control
355(1)
Individual Differences in Stress Responses
356(7)
Newsbreak: Perils of the Road Warrior
357(1)
The Type A Personality
358(1)
The Hardiness Factor
358(2)
Self-Efficacy
360(1)
Locus of Control
360(1)
Self-Esteem
361(1)
Negative Affectivity
361(1)
Type of Occupation
361(1)
Newsbreak: At Wendy's, Every Second Counts
361(1)
Sex Differences
362(1)
Work-Family Conflicts
363(3)
Newsbreak: It Gets Worse after Work
364(1)
Organizational Solutions for Work-Family Conflicts
365(1)
Causes of Stress in the Workplace
366(3)
Work Overload and Work Underload
366(1)
Organizational Change
367(1)
Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict
367(1)
Other Stressors
368(1)
The September 11th Attacks
369(1)
Effects of Stress in the Workplace
369(4)
Mass Psychogenic Illness
370(1)
Burnout
370(2)
Workaholism or Job Engagement?
372(1)
Treating Stress in the Workplace
373(4)
Organizational Techniques
373(2)
Individual Techniques
375(1)
Newsbreak: Take a Vacation---But Will It Work?
376(1)
Summary
377(1)
Key Terms
377(1)
Review Questions
378(1)
Additional Reading
378(3)
Part Five Engineering Psychology
381(36)
Engineering Psychology
383(34)
History and Scope of Engineering Psychology
384(3)
Time-and-Motion Study
387(3)
Newsbreak: World's Greatest Woman Engineer
388(2)
Person-Machine Systems
390(4)
Allocating Functions
392(2)
Newsbreak: Who's Right---The Person or the Machine?
394(1)
Workspace Design
394(5)
Displays: Presenting Information
399(6)
Visual Displays
399(4)
Newsbreak: Let Jack Do It
403(1)
Auditory Displays
403(2)
Controls: Taking Action
405(3)
Human Factors in Everyday Life
408(2)
Computers
410(3)
Newsbreak: Don't Take Your Laptop to Lunch
413(1)
Summary
413(1)
Key Terms
414(1)
Review Questions
414(1)
Additional Reading
414(3)
Part Six Consumer Psychology
417(46)
Consumer Psychology
419(44)
The Scope of Consumer Psychology
420(1)
Research Methods
421(10)
Surveys and Public Opinion Polls
421(2)
Focus Groups
423(1)
Newsbreak: How to Make a Living from Focus Groups
424(1)
Motivation Research
425(1)
Observations of Shopping Behavior
426(1)
Newsbreak: Are You a Minivan or an SUV?
427(1)
Brand Identification and Preference Research
428(1)
Testing Reactions to Advertising
429(1)
Newsbreak: Coupons Make a Lot of Cents
430(1)
The Nature and Scope of Advertising
431(18)
Types of Advertising Appeals
434(3)
Trademarks
437(2)
Product Image
439(1)
Product Packaging
440(1)
Sex in Advertisements
441(1)
Effectiveness of Advertising Campaigns
441(3)
Advertising on the Web
444(5)
Consumer Behavior and Motivation
449(10)
Brand Placement
449(1)
Newsbreak: Here's a Tip for You
450(1)
Buying Habits and Brand Loyalty
451(1)
Product Pricing
452(1)
Advertising to Ethnic Groups
453(2)
Advertising to Children and Adolescents
455(2)
Newsbreak: Does Advertising Exploit Children?
457(1)
Advertising to Older Persons
458(1)
Advertising to the Gay Community
458(1)
Summary
459(1)
Key Terms
460(1)
Review Questions
460(1)
Additional Reading
461(2)
References 463(26)
Glossary 489(10)
Credits 499(2)
Index 501


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