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Psychology and Work Today : An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology,9780130341310
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Psychology and Work Today : An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780130341310

ISBN10:
0130341312
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
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This is the 9th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2006.
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Summary

An invaluable preparation guide for entering today's business and industrial world, this informative, sophisticated and entertaining book teaches about the nature of work in modern society and shows how industrial-organizational psychology directly influences readers' lives as job applicants, trainees, employees, managers, and consumers. The guide explains the principles, practices, and problems of industrial-organizational psychology, the development of human resources, organizational psychology, characteristics of the workplace, engineering psychology and consumer psychology. For anyone-- employees, managers and consumers-- involved in today's business and industrial worlds.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART ONE THE PRACTICE OF INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 1(56)
Principles, Practices, and Problems
3(26)
Is Work a Four-Letter Word?
4(2)
Industrial-Organizational Psychology on the Job
6(1)
Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Everyday Life
7(1)
What I-O Psychology Means to Your Employer
7(1)
The Scope and Historical Development of I-O Psychology
8(4)
Pioneers in Personnel Selection
9(1)
World War I and the Testing Movement
10(1)
The Hawthorne Studies and Motivational Issues
10(1)
World War II and Engineering Psychology
11(1)
Challenges for I-O Psychology
12(2)
The Virtual Workplace
12(1)
Virtual Employees
13(1)
Worker Involvement
13(1)
Newsbreak: Temporarily Yours
14(3)
Changing Technology and Skills
15(1)
Diversity Issues
16(1)
I-O Psychology as a Career: Training and Employment
17(1)
Newsbreak: But What Can You Do with a B.A. in Psychology?
18(3)
Problems for I-O Psychologists
21(2)
Fraudulent Practitioners
21(1)
Credentials and Certification
21(1)
Communication with Management
22(1)
Resistance to New Ideas
22(1)
Research Versus Application?
22(1)
Areas of I-O Psychology
23(6)
Techniques, Tools, and Tactics
29(28)
Why Study Research Methods?
30(2)
Requirements of Psychological Research
30(1)
Limitations of Psychological Research
31(1)
Methods of Psychological Research
32(1)
The Experimental Method
33(3)
Designing an Experiment
33(1)
Selecting Research Participants
34(1)
On the Job: Training Effects on Turnover and Productivity
34(2)
The Naturalistic Observation Method
36(2)
On the Job: Friendly Behaviors of Store Clerks
37(1)
Surveys and Opinion Polls
38(3)
Personal Interviews
40(1)
Questionnaires
40(1)
Newsbreak: ``Push Polls'' Can Win Elections
41(2)
Telephone Surveys
42(1)
Newsbreak: Call Me Unresponsive
43(3)
Types of Questions
44(1)
Sampling Methods
44(1)
Noncompliant Employees
45(1)
Virtual Laboratories: Web-Based Research
46(1)
Methods of Data Analysis
47(10)
Descriptive Statistics
47(6)
Inferential Statistics
53(4)
PART TWO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES 57(132)
Employee Selection Principles and Techniques
59(39)
Organizational Entry
61(1)
Employee Preferences
61(1)
The Recruitment Process
62(5)
Sources for Recruiting
63(2)
Recruiter Characteristics
65(1)
Campus Recruiting
65(1)
Realistic Job Previews
66(1)
A Review of the Selection Process
67(1)
Job and Worker Analyses
67(1)
Recruitment Decisions
67(1)
Selection Techniques
68(1)
Fair Employment Practices
68(3)
Adverse Impact on Minority Groups
69(1)
Discriminatory Questions
69(1)
Reverse Discrimination
70(1)
Other Forms of Discrimination
70(1)
Newsbreak: It's No Longer the Back of the Bus
71(4)
Job Analysis
75(3)
Biographical Information
78(2)
Application Blanks
79(1)
Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired: Part I
80(2)
Biographical Inventories
81(1)
Interviews
82(2)
First Impressions
82(1)
Unstructured Interviews
83(1)
Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired: Part 2
84(5)
Structured Interviews
85(1)
Situational Interviews
86(1)
Online Interviews
87(1)
Influences on Interviewer Judgments
87(2)
References and Letters of Recommendation
89(1)
Newsbreak: A Deadly Recommendation
90(1)
Assessment Centers
91(7)
The In-Basket Technique
91(1)
Leaderless Group Discussions
91(1)
Predictive Validity of Assessment Centers
92(1)
Employee Attitudes toward Assessment Centers
92(6)
Psychological Testing
98(28)
Principles of Psychological Testing
99(5)
Standardization
99(1)
Objectivity
100(1)
Test Norms
100(1)
Reliability
101(1)
Validity
101(2)
Validity Generalization
103(1)
Fair Employment Practices
104(1)
An Overview of a Testing Program
105(2)
Newsbreak: Testing for Common Sense
107(1)
Administering Psychological Tests
108(2)
Individual and Group Tests
108(1)
Computerized Adaptive Tests
108(1)
Speed and Power Tests
109(1)
Types of Psychological Tests
110(2)
Cognitive Abilities
110(2)
Newsbreak: Too Bright for the Job?
112(8)
Interests
113(1)
Aptitudes
114(1)
Motor Skills
115(1)
Personality
116(4)
Integrity Tests
120(1)
Limitations of Psychological Testing
120(2)
Newsbreak: Store Sued Over Personality Test
122(4)
Are Personality Tests Color-Blind?
123(3)
Performance Appraisal
126(33)
Fair Employment Practices
127(1)
Performance Appraisal: Why Do It?
128(2)
Opposition to Performance Appraisal
129(1)
Newsbreak: Tough Graders Get Low Scores
130(1)
Techniques of Performance Appraisal
131(1)
Objective Performance Appraisal Methods
131(4)
Output Measures
132(1)
Computerized Performance Monitoring
133(2)
Job-Related Personal Data
135(1)
Newsbreak: Big Brother in a Black Box
135(1)
Judgmental Performance Appraisal Methods
136(8)
Written Narratives
137(1)
Merit Rating Techniques
137(6)
Management by Objectives (MBO)
143(1)
Performance Appraisal For Managers
144(2)
Evaluation Techniques
144(2)
Newsbreak: Rating Your Boss: No Names, Please!
146(1)
360-Degree Feedback
147(1)
Bias in Performance Appraisal
147(5)
The Halo Effect
147(1)
Other Sources of Error
148(4)
How to Improve Performance Appraisals
152(1)
The Postappraisal Interview
153(2)
Performance Appraisal: A Poor Rating?
155(4)
Training and Development
159(30)
The Scope of Organizational Training Programs
160(1)
Newsbreak: Employees Who Can't Read Directions
161(2)
Goals of Organizational Training Programs
163(1)
Staffing for Organizational Training Programs
164(1)
The Pretraining Environment
165(2)
Pretraining Attributes of Employees
165(2)
How People Learn: Psychological Factors
167(3)
Training Methods
170(8)
On-the-Job Training
170(2)
Vestibule Training
172(1)
Apprenticeship
172(1)
Computer-Assisted Instruction
173(1)
Net-Based Training
173(1)
Behavior Modification
174(1)
Job Rotation
175(1)
Case Studies
175(1)
Business Games
175(1)
In-Basket Training
176(1)
Role Playing
177(1)
Self-Management Training
177(1)
Behavior Modeling
177(1)
Newsbreak: Virtual Training
178(2)
Executive Coaching
179(1)
Diversity Training
179(1)
Career Development and Planning
180(2)
Career Development and Life Stages
181(1)
Career Self-Management
181(1)
Newsbreak: It's Your Job: Make the Most of It!
182(1)
Evaluating Organizational Training Programs
183(6)
PART THREE ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 189(100)
Leadership
191(32)
Newsbreak: A Bad Boss Can Ruin Your Day
193(1)
Approaches to Leadership
194(1)
Scientific Management
194(1)
The Human Relations Approach
194(1)
Theory X and Theory Y
195(1)
Theories of Leadership
195(5)
Contingency Theory
195(1)
Cognitive Resource Theory
196(1)
Path-Goal Theory
197(1)
Normative Decision Theory
198(1)
The Leader-Member Exchange
198(2)
Styles of Leadership
200(1)
Newsbreak: The Deputy Assistant to the Assistant Deputy
200(3)
Authoritarian and Democratic Leaders
201(1)
Transactional and Transformational Leaders
201(2)
The Role of Power in Leadership
203(1)
Types of Power
203(1)
Effects and Uses of Power
203(1)
The Role of Expectations: The Pygmalion Effect
204(1)
The Functions of Leadership
205(1)
The Consideration Dimension
205(1)
Newsbreak: Management Always Wins: The Canoe Race
206(1)
The Initiating Structure Dimension
207(1)
Characteristics of Successful Leaders
207(3)
First-Line Supervisors
207(1)
Managers and Executives
208(2)
Management Teams
210(1)
Problems of Leadership
211(2)
First-Line Supervisors
211(1)
Managers and Executives
212(1)
Newsbreak: Teaching the Boss
213(1)
Women in Management
214(3)
Newsbreak: Tips for Hiring Women: 1943 Version
217(1)
Minority Employees in Management
218(5)
Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement
223(34)
Content Theories of Motivation
225(5)
Achievement Motivation Theory
225(1)
Needs Hierarchy Theory
226(1)
ERG Theory
227(1)
Motivator-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory
228(1)
Job-Characteristics Theory
229(1)
Process Theories of Motivation
230(1)
Newsbreak: Driven by the Work Ethic
231(4)
Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory
232(1)
Equity Theory
232(1)
Goal-Setting Theory
233(1)
The High Performance Cycle
234(1)
Job Satisfaction: The Quality of Life at Work
235(1)
Newsbreak: How Does Your Job Rate?
236(9)
Measuring Job Satisfaction
238(1)
Job Facet Satisfaction
239(1)
Job Satisfaction Data
239(1)
Impact of Personal Characteristics
240(3)
Losing Your Job
243(2)
Newsbreak: Grades Slipping? Maybe It's Not Your Fault
245(1)
Job Satisfaction and On-The-Job Behavior
246(3)
Newsbreak: Keep Good Employees from Quitting: Give Them BMWs!
249(1)
Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Pay
250(1)
Perceived Pay Equity
250(1)
Merit Pay
250(1)
Wage-Incentive Pay Systems
250(1)
Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment
251(6)
Personal Factors
251(1)
Organizational Factors
252(1)
Job Satisfaction
252(1)
Types of Commitment
253(4)
The Organization of the Organization
257(32)
Bureaucracy: The Classic Organizational Style
258(3)
Participatory Democracy: The Modern Organizational Style
261(1)
Newsbreak: The Workers are Taking Over!
262(1)
Quality-Of-Work-Life Programs
263(6)
Why Programs Fail
266(1)
Quality Control Circles
266(1)
Self-Managing Work Groups
267(2)
Virtual Self-Managing Work Groups
269(1)
Newsbreak: Everybody Wanted to Go Home Early
269(1)
Introducing Organizational Change
270(2)
Organizational Development (OD)
271(1)
Socialization of New Employees
272(3)
Resocialization
274(1)
Organizational Culture
275(1)
Person-Organization Fit
275(1)
Newsbreak: Gimme an Order of Fries-Sir!
276(1)
Labor Unions
277(2)
Union Grievances
278(1)
Informal Groups: The Organization Within the Organization
279(2)
The Hawthorne Studies
279(1)
Social Loafing
279(1)
Group Cohesiveness
280(1)
Technological Change and Organizational Structure
281(3)
Newsbreak: Beware of Big Brother
284(5)
PART FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORKPLACE 289(94)
Working Conditions
291(29)
Physical Working Conditions
292(4)
Work Sites
293(1)
Child-Care and Dependent-Care Facilities
293(1)
Office and Workplace Design
294(1)
Environmental Psychology and Landscaped Offices
295(1)
Newsbreak: Clothes Encounters
296(6)
Illumination
297(1)
Noise
298(2)
Color
300(1)
Music
301(1)
Temperature and Humidity
301(1)
Newsbreak: Wear Your Walkman to Work
302(1)
Work Schedules
303(6)
Working Hours
303(2)
Permanent Part-Time Employment
305(1)
The Four-Day Workweek
305(1)
Flexible Work Schedules
306(1)
Rest Pauses
307(1)
Shift Work
308(1)
Newsbreak: Asleep on the Job? Good for You!
309(1)
Psychological and Social Issues
310(10)
Job Simplification
311(1)
Boredom and Monotony
312(1)
Fatigue
312(1)
Ethnic Harassment
313(1)
Gender Harassment
314(1)
Telecommuting: The Virtual Workplace at Home
315(5)
Safety, Violence, and Health in the Workplace
320(32)
Work-Related Health Problems
321(1)
Newsbreak: The Sick Building Syndrome
322(2)
Accident Statistics
324(1)
Causes of Accidents
325(5)
Workplace Factors
325(4)
Personal Factors
329(1)
Newsbreak: Look Out! The Driver Behind You May Be Asleep
330(2)
Accident Prevention
332(1)
Accident Reports
333(1)
Newsbreak: Accidents and Adolescents
333(4)
Workplace Design
334(1)
Safety Training
334(1)
Management Support
334(2)
Safety Publicity Campaigns
336(1)
Violence in the Workplace
337(3)
Protecting Employees from Violence
339(1)
Alcoholism in the Workplace
340(3)
Effects on Job Performance
340(2)
The Alcoholic Executive
342(1)
Rehabilitation Programs
342(1)
Drug Use in the Workplace
343(4)
Effects on Job Performance
344(1)
Drug Testing Programs
344(3)
Computers and Physical Health Issues
347(5)
Stress in the Workplace
352(31)
Occupational Health Psychology
354(1)
Physiological Effects of Stress
355(2)
Job Satisfaction and Feelings of Control
356(1)
Individual Differences in Stress Responses
357(1)
Newsbreak: Perils of the Road Warrior
358(6)
The Type A Personality
359(2)
The Hardiness Factor
361(1)
Self-Efficacy
361(1)
Locus of Control
362(1)
Self-Esteem
362(1)
Negative Affectivity
362(1)
Type of Occupation
362(1)
Sex Differences
363(1)
Work-Family Conflicts
364(1)
Newsbreak: At Wendy's, Every Second Counts
364(3)
Organizational Solutions for Work-Family Conflicts
365(2)
Causes of Stress in the Workplace
367(1)
Work Overload and Work Underload
367(1)
Newsbreak: It Gets Worse After Work
368(3)
Organizational Change
369(1)
Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict
369(1)
Other Stressors
370(1)
Effects of Stress in the Workplace
371(4)
Mass Psychogenic Illness
372(1)
Burnout
373(1)
Workaholism
374(1)
Treating Stress in the Workplace
375(2)
Organizational Techniques
375(1)
Individual Techniques
376(1)
Newsbreak: Take a Vacation! But Will It Work?
377(6)
PART FIVE ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY 383(38)
Engineering Psychology
385(36)
History and Scope of Engineering Psychology
386(2)
Time-and-Motion Study
388(2)
Newsbreak: World's Greatest Woman Engineer
390(2)
Person-Machine Systems
392(4)
Allocating Functions
394(2)
Workspace Design
396(5)
Displays: Presenting Information
401(5)
Visual Displays
401(4)
Auditory Displays
405(1)
Newsbreak: Let Jack Do It
406(2)
Controls: Taking Action
408(3)
Computers
411(1)
Newsbreak: Don't Take Your Laptop to Lunch
412(2)
Industrial Robots
414(7)
PART SIX CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY 421(40)
Consumer Psychology
423(38)
The Scope of Consumer Psychology
424(1)
Research Methods
424(2)
Surveys and Public Opinion Polls
425(1)
Focus Groups
425(1)
Newsbreak: Are You a Minivan or an SUV?
426(6)
Projective Techniques
427(1)
Observations of Shopping Behavior
428(1)
Brand Identification and Preference Research
429(1)
Testing Reactions to Advertising
430(2)
Television Programming Research
432(1)
Newsbreak: Coupons Make a Lot of Cents
432(2)
The Nature and Scope of Advertising
434(14)
Types of Advertising Appeals
437(3)
Trademarks
440(2)
Product Image
442(1)
Product Packaging
442(1)
Sex in Advertisements
443(1)
Women in Advertisements
444(1)
Effectiveness of Advertising Campaigns
444(3)
Advertising on the Web
447(1)
Consumer Behavior and Motivation
448(1)
Newsbreak: Here's a Tip for You
448(6)
Buying Habits and Brand Loyalty
450(1)
Product Pricing
450(1)
Advertising to Ethnic Groups
451(2)
Advertising to Children and Adolescents
453(1)
Newsbreak: Should Psychologists Help Deceive Children?
454(7)
Advertising to Older Persons
455(1)
Advertising to the Gay Community
456(1)
Advertising to Persons with Disabilities
456(5)
References 461(18)
Glossary 479(10)
Photo Credits 489(2)
Index 491


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