9781402009211

Public Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Chemicals: Environmental Pollution

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781402009211

  • ISBN10:

    1402009216

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-11-01
  • Publisher: SPRINGER
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Summary

Risks to humans as a consequence of chemical exposures are a complex issue with worldwide implications, especially in our modern societies. The effective management of human exposure to a variety of chemicals present in various sectors of society has indeed become a very important public health policy issue - and risk assessment promises a systematic way for developing appropriate strategies to aid public health risk management decisions. Risk assessment generally serves as a tool that can be used to organize, structure, and compile scientific information in order to help identify existing hazardous situations or problems, anticipate potential problems, establish priorities, and provide a basis for regulatory controls and/or corrective actions. In fact, with the control and containment of most infectious conditions and diseases of the past millennium having been achieved in most developed countries, and with the resultant increase in life expectancies, much more attention seems to have shifted to degenerative health problems. Many of the degenerative health conditions have been linked to thousands of chemicals regularly encountered in human living and occupational/work environments. It is important, therefore, that human health risk assessments are undertaken on a consistent basis - in order to determine the potential impacts of the target chemicals on public health. This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the many facets/aspects relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems. It presents some very important tools and methodologies that can be used to address chemical exposure and public health risk management problems in a consistent, efficient, and cost?effective way. Overall the book represents a collection and synthesis of the principal elements of the risk assessment process that pertain to human exposures to chemicals in the human living and work environments. It offers an understanding of the scientific basis of risk assessment and its applications to public health policy decisions. Audience: The subject matter of this book should be of interest to many a professional encountering risk assessment in relation to environmental contamination and public health risk management programs &e especially public and occupational health practitioners; environmental consultants; environmental attorneys; public policy analysts; and various health, environmental, and consumer advocacy interest groups. The book is also expected to serve as a useful educational and training resource for both students and professionals in the health-related and environmental fields &e who have to deal with human exposures to chemicals, public health risk assessment issues, and/or environmental health management problems.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xv
Introduction
1(18)
Coming to Terms with the Several Chemicals in Modern Society
2(5)
The Nature of Chemical Hazards and Human Response from Exposure to Chemical Substances
7(8)
Classification of Chemical Toxicity
8(1)
Factors Influencing Chemical Toxicity to Humans and Human Response to Chemical Toxicants
9(1)
Distribution and Storage of Toxicants in the Human Body
10(1)
Scope of Chemical Hazard Problems: Lead Exposures as an Example
11(4)
`The Dose Makes the Poison' -- So, What Dose is Safe Enough?
15(1)
Managing the Chemical Exposure Problem: The Need for Public Health Risk Assessment
16(2)
Suggested Further Reading
18(1)
Human Exposure To Chemicals
19(24)
An Overview of Human Contact Sites and Target Organs Most Susceptible to Chemical Exposures
19(6)
Fundamentals of Human Physiology
20(4)
Target Organ Toxicity
24(1)
General Types of Human Exposures
25(4)
The Nature of Chemical Exposure Problems
29(5)
Human Exposures to Airborne Chemical Toxicants
30(1)
Water Pollution Problems and Human Exposures to Chemicals in Water
31(1)
Contaminated Soil Problems and Human Exposures to Chemicals on Land
32(1)
Human Exposures to Chemicals in Foods
33(1)
Public Health and Socio-Economic Implications of Chemical Exposure Problems
34(6)
The General Nature of Human Health Effects from Chemical Exposures
38(2)
Assessing Public Health Risks
40(1)
Suggested Further Reading
41(2)
Principles and Concepts in Risk Assessment
43(28)
Fundamental Principles of Chemical Hazard, Exposure, and Risk Assessments
43(8)
The Nature of Chemical Hazard, Exposure, and Risk
44(2)
Basis for Measuring Risks
46(2)
What is Risk Assessment?
48(1)
The Nature of Risk Assessments
49(1)
Recognition of Uncertainty as an Integral Component of Risk Assessments
50(1)
Fundamental Concepts in Risk Assessment Practice
51(4)
Qualitative versus Quantitative Risk Assessments
51(1)
Conservatisms in Risk Assessments
52(1)
Individual versus Group Risks
53(1)
Consideration of Risk Perception Issues
54(1)
Risk Acceptability and Risk Tolerance Criteria
55(2)
The de Minimis or `Acceptable' Risk
56(1)
General Attributes of Risk Assessment
57(4)
The Purpose
58(1)
The Attributes
59(1)
Risk Assessment versus Risk Management
60(1)
Risk Assessment as a Diagnostic Tool
61(7)
Baseline Risk Assessments
62(1)
Comparative Risk Assessments
62(2)
Public Health Risk Assessments
64(3)
Risk Assessment Implementation Strategy
67(1)
Risk Assessment as an Holistic Tool for Environmental and Public Health Management
68(1)
Suggested Further Reading
69(2)
Principal Elements of a Public Health Risk Assessment For Chemical Exposure Problems
71(16)
Characterization of Chemical Exposure Problems
71(2)
Factors Affecting Exposure Characterization
72(1)
The Risk Assessment Process
73(4)
Hazard Identification and Accounting
74(1)
Exposure-Response Evaluation
75(1)
Exposure Assessment and Analysis
76(1)
Risk Characterization and Consequence Determination
76(1)
General Considerations in Public Health Risk Assessments
77(6)
Determining Exposure-related Health Effects
78(1)
Evaluating Factors that Influence Adverse Health Outcome
79(4)
Human Health Risk Assessment in Practice
83(3)
Suggested Further Reading
86(1)
Chemical Hazard Determination
87(18)
Chemical Hazard Identification: Sources of Chemical Hazards
87(1)
Data Collection and Evaluation Considerations
88(4)
Data Collection and Analysis Strategies
89(1)
Reporting of `Censored' Laboratory Data
90(2)
Statistical Evaluation of Chemical Sampling Data
92(7)
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics
93(2)
Statistical Evaluation of `Non-detect' Values
95(1)
Selection of Statistical Averaging Techniques
95(4)
Estimating Chemical Exposure Point Concentrations from Limited Data
99(3)
Determination of the Level of Chemical Hazard
102(1)
Suggested Further Reading
103(2)
Exposure Assessment: Analysis Of Human Intake of Chemicals
105(32)
Fundamental Concepts and Requirements in the Human Exposure Assessment Process
105(6)
Factors Affecting Human Exposure to Chemical Hazards
106(1)
Development of Human Exposure Scenarios
106(2)
Chemical Intake versus Dose
108(1)
Chronic versus Subchronic Exposures
109(1)
Incorporating Chemical Bioavailability Adjustments into Exposure Calculations
109(1)
Chemical Transformation Products in Risk Assessment: Incorporating Chemical Degradation into Exposure Calculations
110(1)
Human Exposure Quantification: The Exposure Estimation Model
111(11)
Potential Receptor Inhalation Exposures
113(3)
Potential Receptor Ingestion Exposures
116(5)
Potential Receptor Dermal Exposures
121(1)
Establishing `Exposure Intake Factors' for Use in the Computation of Chemical Intakes and Doses
122(10)
Illustrative Example for Inhalation Exposures
123(5)
Illustrative Example for Ingestion Exposures
128(1)
Illustrative Example for Dermal Exposures
129(3)
Receptor Age Adjustments to Human Exposure Factors
132(1)
Spatial and Temporal Averaging of Chemical Exposure Estimates
132(3)
Suggested Further Reading
135(2)
Evaluation of Chemical Toxicity
137(36)
Fundamental Concepts and Principles in Toxicology
137(7)
Mechanisms of Toxicity
138(1)
Categorization of Human Toxic Effects from Chemical Exposures: Carcinogenicity vs. Non-carcinogenicity
138(2)
Manifestations of Toxicity
140(1)
Dose-Response Relationships
141(3)
Carcinogen Classification Systems
144(5)
Weight-of-Evidence Classification
145(3)
Strength-of-Evidence Classification
148(1)
Evaluation of Chemical Toxicity
149(6)
Hazard Effects Assessment
150(2)
Dose-Response Assessment and Quantification
152(3)
Determination of Toxicological Parameters for Human Health Risk Assessments
155(16)
Toxicity Parameters for Non-carcinogenic Effects
155(6)
Toxicity Parameters for Carcinogenic Effects
161(4)
The Use of Surrogate Toxicity Parameters
165(6)
Mechanisms of Action and the Determination of Human Health Hazard Effects
171(1)
Suggested Further Reading
172(1)
Chemical Risk Characterization And Uncertainty Analyses
173(40)
Fundamental Issues and Considerations Affecting the Risk Characterization Process
173(10)
Corrections for `Non-Standard' Population Groups
174(2)
Adjustments for Chemical Absorption: Administered vs. Absorbed Dose
176(1)
Aggregate Effects of Chemical Mixtures and Multiple Exposures
177(2)
Fundamental Considerations in the Health Assessment of Carcinogens
179(4)
Carcinogenic Risk Effects: Estimation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human Health
183(5)
Population Excess Cancer Burden
184(2)
Carcinogenic Risk Computations: Illustration of the Processes for Calculating Carcinogenic Risks
186(2)
Non-cancer Risk Effects: Estimation of Non-carcinogenic Hazards to Human Health
188(5)
Chronic versus Subchronic Non-carcinogenic Effects
190(1)
Non-carcinogenic Hazard Computations: Illustration of the Processes for Calculating Non-carcinogenic Hazards
191(2)
Risk Presentation
193(8)
Graphical Presentation of the Risk Summary Information
196(5)
Uncertainty and Variability Issues in Risk Assessment
201(5)
Types and Nature of Variability
201(1)
Types and Nature of Uncertainty
202(1)
Common Sources of Uncertainty in Public Health Endangerment Assessments
203(3)
The Need for Uncertainty and Variability Analyses
206(1)
Characterization of Data Variability and Uncertainties
206(5)
Qualitative Analysis of Uncertainties
207(1)
Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainties
208(3)
Presenting and Managing Uncertain Risks: The Role of Sensitivity Analyses
211(1)
Suggested Further Reading
212(1)
Determination Of `Acceptable' And `Safe' Levels Of Chemical Exposure
213(24)
Requirements and Criteria for Establishing Risk-Based Chemical Exposure Levels
213(4)
Miscellaneous Methods for Establishing Environmental Quality Goals
214(3)
Assessing the Safety of Chemicals in Consumer Products
217(1)
Determination of `Tolerable' Chemical Concentrations
217(1)
Determination of Risk-Based Chemical Exposure Levels
218(6)
RBCELs for Carcinogenic Constituents
219(3)
RBCELs for Non-carcinogenic Effects of Chemical Constituents
222(2)
Establishing Risk-Based Cleanup Limits for Contaminated Lands
224(5)
Soil Chemical Limits for Carcinogenic Contaminants
226(1)
Soil Chemical Limits for the Non-carcinogenic Effects of Site Contaminants
227(2)
Establishing Risk-Based Cleanup Limits for Contaminated Waters
229(3)
Water Chemical Limits for Carcinogenic Contaminants
229(2)
Water Chemical Limits for the Non-carcinogenic Effects of Site Contaminants
231(1)
A `Preferable' Health-Protective Chemical Level
232(3)
The Modified RBCEL for Carcinogenic Chemicals
232(1)
The Modified RBCEL for Non-carcinogenic Constituents
233(1)
Incorporating Degradation Rates into the Estimation of Environmental Quality Criteria
234(1)
Public Health Goals vs. Risk-Based Chemical Exposure Levels
235(1)
Suggested Further Reading
235(2)
Design Of Public Health Risk Management Programs
237(20)
Risk Assessment as a Cost-Effective Tool in the Formulation of Public Health and Environmental Management Decisions
237(2)
Comparative Risk Analysis: Application of Environmental Decision Analysis Methods to Public Health Risk Management Programs
239(6)
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
240(1)
Risk-Cost-Benefit Optimization
240(1)
Multi-attribute Decision Analysis and Utility Theory Applications
241(4)
The General Nature of Risk Management Programs
245(2)
A Framework for Risk Management Programs
247(2)
Risk Communication as a Facilitator of Risk Management
249(2)
Designing an Effectual Risk Communication Program
250(1)
The Use of Contemporary Risk Mapping Tools: GIS in Public Health Risk Management Applications
251(4)
Utilization of GIS in Risk Assessment and Environmental Management Programs
252(3)
The Role of GIS Applications in Environmental Management
255(1)
Suggested Further Reading
255(2)
The Role Of Risk Assessment In Public Health Policy Decisions
257(18)
General Scope of Public Health Risk Assessment Practice
257(7)
Illustrative Examples of Public Health Risk Assessment in Practice
258(6)
The Public Health Risk Assessment Paradigm
264(8)
Suggested Further Reading
272(3)
List of References And Bibliography 275(22)
Appendix A: Glossary of Selected Terms and Definitions 297(28)
Appendix B: Selected Tools, Chemical Exposure Models, and Chemical Databases for Public Health Risk Policy Decision-Making 325(12)
Appendix C: Toxicity Index Parameters for Selected Chemicals 337(4)
Appendix D: Selected Units of Measurements & Noteworthy Expressions 341(4)
Index 345

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