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Public Relations : Strategies and Tactics

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205491681

ISBN10:
0205491685
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Designed to give your students the extra support they need to succeed in your classroom, our Study Edition of Wilcox's Public Relations: Strategies and Tacticsoffers perforated chapter practice tests at the end of the textbook, an optional Practice Test Solutions Manual with access to professional tutoring, and an Instructor's Testing Manual with solutions to the practice tests and ready-made midterm and final exams. The role of public relations, ethics, public relations departments and firms, research in public relations, program planning, communication in public relations, public opinion and persuasion, new technologies in public relations, public relations and the law, corporations, politics and government, international public relations, nonprofit organizations, and the written, spoken, and visual tactics of public relations. Introductory public relations.

Table of Contents

PART ONE: Role
What Is Public Relations?
1(42)
The Challenge of Public Relations
2(1)
Global Scope
3(1)
A Variety of Definitions
4(4)
Public Relations as a Process
8(2)
The Components of Public Relations
10(1)
Other Terms for Public Relations
11(4)
Some Positive Descriptive Terms
12(1)
Some Stereotypes and Less Flattering Terms
13(2)
How Public Relations Differs from Journalism
15(1)
Scope
16(1)
Objectives
16(1)
Audiences
16(1)
Channels
16(1)
How Public Relations Differs from Advertising
16(1)
How Public Relations Differs from Marketing
17(1)
How Public Relations Supports Marketing
18(1)
Toward an Integrated Perspective
19(4)
Careers in Public Relations
23(9)
A Changing Focus in Public Relations
23(3)
The Range of Public Relations Work
26(1)
Personal Qualifications and Attitudes
26(1)
Five Essential Abilities
26(4)
The Value of Internships
30(2)
Salaries in Public Relations
32(4)
Entry-Level Salaries
32(1)
Salaries for Experienced Professionals
33(2)
Salaries for Women: The Gender Gap
35(1)
The Value of Public Relations
36(3)
Summary
39(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
40(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
40(1)
Suggested Readings
41(2)
The Evolution of Public Relations
43(32)
A Short History of Public Relations
44(1)
Ancient Beginnings
44(20)
The Middle Ages
44(1)
Early Beginnings in America
45(1)
American Development in the 19th Century
45(6)
1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers
51(8)
1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age
59(5)
Trend Lines in Today's Practice
64(7)
Feminization of the Field
64(4)
The Search for Diversity
68(1)
Other Major Trends
69(2)
Summary
71(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
72(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
72(1)
Suggested Readings
73(2)
Ethics and Professionalism
75(22)
What Is Ethics?
76(1)
The Ethical Advocate
76(1)
The Role of Professional Organizations
77(4)
The Public Relations Society of America
77(2)
The International Association of Business Communications
79(1)
The International Public Relations Association
79(2)
Other Groups
81(1)
Professional Codes of Conduct
81(3)
Codes for Specific Situations
83(1)
Professionalism, Licensing, and Accreditation
84(5)
Professionalism
85(1)
Licensing
86(1)
Accreditation
87(1)
Other Steps Toward Professionalism
88(1)
Ethics in Individual Practice
89(2)
Ethical Dealings with News Media
91(4)
Gifts
91(1)
Shades of Gray in the News Business
91(3)
Summary
94(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
95(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
95(1)
Suggested Readings
96(1)
Public Relations Departments and Firms
97(31)
Public Relations Departments
98(9)
Role in Various Organizational Structures
98(2)
Names of Departments
100(1)
Organization of Departments
101(1)
Line and Staff Functions
102(2)
Sources of Friction
104(1)
The Trend Toward Outsourcing
105(2)
Public Relations Firms
107(18)
Services They Provide
109(2)
Global Reach
111(3)
The Rise of Communication Conglomerates
114(2)
Structure of a Counseling Firm
116(2)
Pros and Cons of Using a Public Relations Firm
118(1)
Fees and Charges
119(6)
Summary
125(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
126(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
126(1)
Suggested Readings
127(1)
PART TWO: Process
Research
128(24)
The Importance of Research
129(2)
Defining the Research Role
129(1)
Using Research
129(2)
Research Techniques
131(8)
Organizational Materials
132(1)
Library and Online Database Methods
133(1)
The Internet and World Wide Web
134(1)
Content Analysis
135(1)
Interviews
136(1)
Focus Groups
136(2)
Copy Testing
138(1)
Other Research Techniques
139(1)
Scientific Sampling
139(2)
Random Sampling
139(2)
Sample Size
141(1)
Questionnaire Construction
141(4)
The Problem of Semantics
141(1)
Avoid Biased Wording
142(1)
Timing and Context
142(1)
Political Correctness
142(1)
Answer Categories
143(1)
Questionnaire Guidelines
144(1)
Reaching Respondents
145(5)
Mail Questionnaires
145(1)
Telephone Surveys
146(1)
Personal Interviews
146(1)
Piggyback Surveys
146(1)
Web and E-Mail Surveys
147(3)
Summary
150(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
150(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
150(1)
Suggested Readings
151(1)
Program Planning
152(19)
The Value of Planning
153(1)
Approaches to Planning
153(3)
Management by Objective
153(1)
A Strategic Planning Model
154(2)
Elements of a Program Plan
156(13)
Situation
157(1)
Objectives
158(3)
Audience
161(1)
Strategy
162(1)
Tactics
163(2)
Calendar/Timetable
165(1)
Budget
166(2)
Evaluation
168(1)
Summary
169(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
169(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
169(1)
Suggested Readings
170(1)
Communication
171(22)
The Goals of Communication
172(2)
Implementing the Plan
172(1)
A Public Relations Perspective
172(2)
Receiving the Message
174(2)
Five Communication Elements
175(1)
The Importance of Two-Way Communication
176(1)
Paying Attention to the Message
176(3)
Some Theoretical Perspectives
176(2)
Other Attention-Getting Concepts
178(1)
Understanding the Message
179(6)
Effective Use of Language
179(1)
Writing for Clarity
179(6)
Believing the Message
185(1)
Remembering the Message
186(1)
Acting on the Message
187(4)
The Five-Stage Adoption Process
187(2)
The Time Factor
189(1)
How Decisions Are Influenced
189(2)
Summary
191(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
192(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
192(1)
Suggested Readings
192(1)
Evaluation
193(21)
The Purpose of Evaluation
194(1)
Objectives: A Prerequisite for Evaluation
194(1)
Current Status of Measurement and Evaluation
195(1)
Measurement of Production
196(1)
Measurement of Message Exposure
197(5)
Media Impressions
197(1)
Hits on the Internet
198(1)
Advertising Equivalency
199(1)
Systematic Tracking
200(1)
Requests and 800 Numbers
201(1)
Cost per Person
201(1)
Audience Attendance
202(1)
Measurement of Audience Awareness
202(1)
Measurement of Audience Attitudes
203(1)
Measurement of Audience Action
204(1)
Measurement of Supplemental Activities
205(6)
Communication Audits
205(1)
Pilot Tests, Split Messages, Perception Analyzers, and Think-Aloud Techniques
206(1)
Meeting and Event Attendance
207(1)
Newsletter Readership
207(4)
Summary
211(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
212(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
212(1)
Suggested Readings
213(1)
PART THREE: Strategy
Public Opinion and Persuasion
214(28)
What Is Public Opinion?
215(3)
Opinion Leaders as Catalysts
218(2)
Types of Leaders
219(1)
The Flow of Opinion
219(1)
The Role of Mass Media
220(2)
Agenda-Setting Theory
221(1)
Media-Dependency Theory
221(1)
Framing Theory
222(1)
Persuasion: Pervasive in Our Lives
222(2)
The Dominant View of Public Relations
223(1)
Uses of Persuasion
223(1)
Factors in Persuasive Communication
224(12)
Audience Analysis
224(1)
Source Credibility
225(2)
Appeal to Self-Interest
227(3)
Clarity of Message
230(1)
Timing and Context
230(1)
Audience Participation
230(1)
Suggestions for Action
231(1)
Content and Structure of Messages
231(3)
Persuasive Speaking
234(2)
Propaganda
236(1)
Persuasion and Manipulation
237(2)
Lack of Message Penetration
238(1)
Competing Messages
238(1)
Self-Selection
238(1)
Self-Perception
238(1)
The Ethics of Persuasion
239(1)
Summary
240(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
240(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
241(1)
Suggested Readings
241(1)
Conflict Management: Dealing with Issues, Risks, and Crises
242(28)
Strategic Conflict Management
243(3)
The Proactive Phase
243(1)
The Strategic Phase
244(1)
The Reactive Phase
245(1)
Recovery Phase
246(1)
It Depends---A System for Managing Conflict
246(5)
Two Basic Contingency Principles
247(4)
Issues Management
251(3)
Issue Identification
253(1)
Issue Analysis
253(1)
Strategy Options
253(1)
Action Plan
253(1)
Evaluation
253(1)
Risk Communication
254(3)
Variables Affecting Risk Perceptions
255(1)
Health Communication: A Burgeoning Communication Specialty
256(1)
Crisis Management
257(7)
What Is a Crisis?
258(1)
A Lack of Crisis Planning
258(2)
How to Communicate During a Crisis
260(1)
How Various Organizations Respond to Crises
261(1)
How Some Organizations Have Handled Crises
262(2)
Reputation Management
264(6)
The Three Foundations of Reputation
264(2)
Image Restoration
266(1)
Deja vu---All Over Again
266(1)
Summary
267(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
268(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
268(1)
Suggested Readings
269(1)
The Audience and How to Reach It
270(25)
Nature of the Public Relations Audience
271(1)
Senior and Ethnic Markets
271(4)
Seniors
272(1)
Ethnic Groups
272(3)
Audience Characteristics
275(1)
Matching the Audience with the Media
276(1)
Media Relations
277(1)
The Print Media
278(6)
Newspapers
278(2)
Public Relations Opportunities in Newspapers
280(1)
Magazines
280(1)
Public Relations Opportunities in Magazines
281(2)
Books
283(1)
Public Relations Opportunities in Books
284(1)
The Spoken and Visual Media
284(7)
Radio
284(1)
Public Relations Opportunities in Radio
285(1)
Television
286(1)
Public Relations Opportunities in Television
287(2)
Motion Pictures
289(1)
Sponsored Films and Videotape
289(2)
Online Media
291(1)
Summary
292(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
293(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
294(1)
Suggested Readings
294(1)
Public Relations and the Law
295(33)
A Sampling of Legal Problems
296(1)
Libel and Defamation
297(2)
Avoiding Libel Suits
298(1)
The Fair Comment Defense
299(1)
Invasion of Privacy
299(3)
Employee Newsletters
300(1)
Photo Releases
300(1)
Product Publicity and Advertising
301(1)
Media Inquiries about Employees
301(1)
Copyright Law
302(6)
Length of Copyright
303(1)
Fair Use versus Infringement
303(2)
Photography and Artwork
305(1)
The Rights of Freelance Writers
305(1)
Copyright Issues on the Internet
306(1)
Copyright Guidelines
307(1)
Trademark Law
308(4)
The Protection of Trademarks
308(1)
The Problem of Trademark Infringement
309(3)
Misappropriation of Personality
312(1)
Regulations by Government Agencies
312(6)
The Federal Trade Commission
313(1)
The Securities and Exchange Commission
314(2)
Other Regulatory Agencies
316(2)
Corporate/Employee Free Speech
318(4)
Nike's Free Speech Battle
319(1)
Employee Free Speech
320(2)
Liability for Sponsored Events
322(2)
Plant Tours and Open Houses
323(1)
Promotional Events
323(1)
Working with Lawyers
324(1)
Summary
325(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
326(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
326(1)
Suggested Readings
327(1)
New Technologies In Public Relations
328(28)
The Communications Explosion
329(2)
The Computer
331(1)
The Internet
332(6)
The Internet and Public Relations
332(3)
Key Aspects of the Internet
335(1)
Internet Problems
336(2)
Other Computer Applications
338(6)
Dictation and Voice Generation
339(1)
Expert Systems
339(1)
Public Relations Management Tools
339(3)
Processing of News Releases
342(1)
E-Mail
342(1)
Desktop Publishing
342(1)
Mailing Lists
343(1)
Online Conferences
343(1)
Graphics
343(1)
Facsimile Transmission
344(1)
Satellite Transmissions
344(5)
News Release Delivery
344(1)
Video and Audio News Release Distribution
345(1)
Teleconferencing
345(2)
Webconferencing
347(1)
Satellite Media Tours
348(1)
Other Tools
349(2)
Cellular Phones
349(1)
Personal Digital Assistants
349(1)
Memory: The CD-R/RW, DVD-R/RW, and Flash Memory
350(1)
Electronic Blackboards
351(1)
Blogs and Moblogs
351(1)
A Peek at Future Technologies
351(2)
Summary
353(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
354(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
354(1)
Suggested Readings
354(2)
PART FOUR: Tactics
New Releases, Newsletters, and Brochures
356(30)
The News Release
357(7)
Planning a News Release
357(1)
The Format of a News Release
358(1)
The Content of a News Release
358(3)
Publicity Photos
361(3)
Media Advisories and Fact Sheets
364(3)
Media Kits
367(1)
Pitch Letters
368(2)
Distributing of Media Materials
370(4)
Mail
370(1)
Fax
370(1)
E-Mail
371(1)
Electronic News Services
372(1)
Web Newsrooms
372(2)
Newsletters and Magazines
374(3)
Electronic Newsletters
375(1)
E-zines on Intranets
376(1)
Brochures
377(1)
Annual Reports
378(1)
Public Relations Advertising
378(5)
Image Building
378(1)
Financial Relations
379(1)
Advocacy
380(1)
Public Service
380(3)
Summary
383(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
384(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
384(1)
Suggested Readings
384(2)
Radio, Television, and the Web
386(31)
The Reach of Radio and Television
387(1)
Radio
387(8)
Audio News Releases
389(3)
Radio Public Service Announcements
392(1)
Radio Media Tours
393(2)
Television
395(9)
Video News Releases
395(7)
Satellite Media Tours
402(2)
Personal Appearances
404(3)
Talk Shows
405(1)
Magazine Shows
406(1)
Booking a Guest
406(1)
Product Placements
407(4)
Issues Placement
410(1)
Other Forms of Placement
411(1)
The Web
411(3)
Weblogs
412(1)
Organizational Webcasts
413(1)
Summary
414(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
415(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
415(1)
Suggested Readings
416(1)
Speechwriting, Presentations, and Media Interviews
417(32)
The Art of Speechwriting
418(6)
Research Is the First Step
418(1)
Objectives and Approach
419(2)
Writing the Speech
421(1)
Coaching the Speaker
422(2)
Giving a Speech or Presentation
424(7)
Appealing to the Ear
425(1)
Keeping the Audience in Mind
425(1)
Length of the Presentation
426(1)
Eye Contact and Gestures
427(1)
Visual Aids
427(4)
Speaker Training and Placement
431(7)
Executive Training
431(1)
Media Training
431(1)
Speaker Bureaus
432(2)
Publicity Opportunities
434(2)
Media Interviews
436(1)
Purpose and Objective
436(1)
Print Differs from Broadcast
437(1)
Know When to Say No
437(1)
The Print Interview
437(1)
Radio and Television Interviews
438(1)
News Conferences
438(4)
Planning and Conducting a News Conference
440(1)
Preparing the Location
441(1)
The Press Party and the Media Tour
442(4)
The Press Party
443(1)
The Media Tour
443(2)
Organizing a Press Party or Media Tour
445(1)
Summary
446(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
447(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
448(1)
Suggested Readings
448(1)
PART FIVE: Application
Corporations
449(31)
Today's Modern Corporation
450(2)
The Role of Public Relations
450(2)
Media Relations
452(1)
Customer Relations
453(7)
Reaching Diverse Markets
455(1)
Consumer Activism
456(3)
Consumer Boycotts
459(1)
Employee Relations
460(5)
Layoffs and Outsourcing
463(1)
Minorities in the Workforce
464(1)
Employee Volunteerism
464(1)
Investor Relations
465(1)
Marketing Communications
466(6)
Product Publicity
467(1)
Cause-Related Marketing
468(1)
Corporate Sponsorships
469(3)
Environmental Relations
472(1)
Corporate Philanthropy
473(3)
Summary
476(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
477(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
478(1)
Suggested Readings
478(2)
Politics and Government
480(35)
Government Relations
481(1)
Lobbying
482(6)
The Nature of Lobbying
483(2)
The Problem of Influence Peddling
485(1)
A Lobbying Reform Bill
486(1)
Grassroots Lobbying
487(1)
Election Campaigns
488(7)
Campaign Finance Reform
492(1)
527s Become an Issue
493(2)
Public Affairs in Government
495(16)
``Public Information'' versus ``Public Relations''
495(1)
Scope of Federal Government Information
496(10)
State Information Services
506(3)
City Information Services
509(1)
Criticism of Government Information Efforts
510(1)
Summary
511(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
512(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
512(1)
Suggested Readings
513(2)
International Public Relations
515(25)
What Is International Public Relations?
516(1)
International Corporate Public Relations
516(9)
The New Age of Global Marketing
516(3)
Language and Cultural Differences
519(3)
Representing Foreign Corporations in the United States
522(1)
Representing U.S. Corporations in Other Nations
523(2)
International Government Public Relations
525(7)
Influencing Other Countries
525(4)
U.S. Firms Working for Foreign Governments
529(3)
The Rise of NGOs
532(1)
Public Relations Development in Other Nations
533(2)
Opportunities in International Work
535(2)
Summary
537(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
537(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
538(1)
Suggested Readings
538(2)
Nonprofit Organizations
540(30)
The Role of Public Relations
541(1)
Basic Needs of Nonprofits
541(1)
Membership Organizations
541(3)
Trade Associations
541(1)
Labor Unions
542(1)
Professional Associations
542(2)
Chambers of Commerce
544(1)
Advocacy Groups
544(3)
Environmental Groups
544(1)
Other Activist Groups
545(1)
Methods of Operation
545(2)
Fund-Raising
547(1)
Social Issue Organizations
547(1)
Social Organizations
547(19)
Categories of Social Agencies
548(3)
Public Relations Goals
551(5)
Fund-Raising
556(10)
Hospital Public Relations
566(1)
Hospital Audiences
567(1)
A Sampling of Public Relations Efforts
567(1)
Summary
567(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
568(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
568(1)
Selected Readings
569(1)
Education
570(17)
Colleges and Universities
571(8)
Development and Public Relations Offices
571(1)
News Bureaus
571(1)
Serving the Publics
571(7)
Support for Advancement Officers
578(1)
Elementary and Secondary Schools
579(6)
Response to Contemporary Issues
580(1)
Reaching the Publics
581(4)
Summary
585(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
585(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
585(1)
Suggested Readings
586(1)
Entertainment, Sports, and Travel
587(24)
Fascination with Celebrity
588(1)
Enduring Celebrity: When the Good and Beautiful Die Young
588(1)
The Mystique of Personality
588(3)
Fame
589(1)
Notoriety
589(1)
Self-Glorification
589(1)
Repair of a Bad Image
589(1)
Desire for Money
590(1)
Psychological Explanations
590(1)
The Practitioner's Responsibility
591(2)
Damage Control
591(1)
Ethical Problems for Publicists
592(1)
Conducting a Personality Campaign
593(3)
Interview the Client
593(1)
Prepare a Biography of the Client
593(1)
Plan a Marketing Strategy
593(1)
Conduct the Campaign
594(2)
Record the Results
596(1)
Promoting an Entertainment Event
596(4)
Publicity to Stimulate Ticket Sales
596(1)
An Example: Publicizing a Play
597(1)
The ``Drip-Drip-Drip'' Technique
598(1)
A Look at the Movie Industry
598(2)
Sports Publicity
600(2)
Travel Promotion
602(6)
Phases of Travel Promotion
603(1)
Fear of Terrorism
604(1)
Travel Business on the Internet Takes Off
605(1)
Appeals to Target Audiences
605(1)
Times of Crisis
606(2)
Summary
608(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
609(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
609(1)
Suggested Readings
609(2)
Directory of Useful Web Sites 611(1)
Bibliography of Selected Books, Directories, and Periodicals 611(4)
Index 615
Practice Tests 1


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