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Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (Study Edition),9780205404537
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Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (Study Edition)

by ; ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205404537

ISBN10:
0205404537
Format:
Multimedia
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

Summary

Designed to give your students the extra support they need to succeed in your classroom, our Study Edition of Wilcox's Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics offers perforated chapter practice tests at the end of the textbook, an optional Practice Test Solutions Manual with access to professional tutoring, and an Instructor's Testing Manual with solutions to the practice tests and ready-made midterm and final exams. Using real-life case studies, Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics helps students better understand the basic concepts, strategies, and tactics practiced in public relations today. The text presents an engaging and comprehensive overview of the principles, concepts, and methods of public relations.

Table of Contents

PART 1 ROLE
What Is Public Relations?
1(26)
The Challenge of Public Relations
2(1)
Global Scope
2(1)
A Variety of Definitions
3(3)
Public Relations as a Process
6(2)
The Components of Public Relations
8(1)
Other Terms for Public Relations
9(3)
Some Positive Descriptive Terms
9(2)
Some Less Flattering Terms
11(1)
How Public Relations Differs from Journalism
12(2)
Scope
13(1)
Objectives
13(1)
Audiences
13(1)
Channels
14(1)
How Public Relations Differs from Advertising
14(1)
How Public Relations Differs from Marketing
15(1)
How Public Relations Supports Marketing
16(1)
Toward an Integrated Perspective
17(2)
The Values of Public Relations
19(8)
Summary
24(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
25(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
25(1)
Suggested Readings
26(1)
The Evolution of Public Relations
27(31)
The Roots of Public Relations
28(1)
The Evolving Functions
29(20)
Press Agentry
29(2)
Publicity
31(5)
Counseling
36(13)
Public Relations Comes of Age
49(9)
After World War II
49(4)
Major Developments in Today's World
53(3)
Summary
56(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
56(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
56(1)
Suggested Readings
56(2)
Ethics and Professionalism
58(23)
What Is Ethics?
59(1)
The Code of Ethics
59(7)
The New PRSA Member Code of Ethics
59(5)
Other Codes
64(1)
IABC's Code of Ethics
65(1)
Video News Release Code of Good Practice
66(1)
Professionalism, Licensing, and Accreditation
66(9)
Professionalism
66(3)
Licensing
69(2)
Accreditation
71(2)
Other Steps toward Professionalism
73(2)
Ethics in Individual Practice
75(1)
Ethical Dealings with News Media
76(5)
Gifts
77(1)
Autos: Shades of Gray
77(1)
Summary
78(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
79(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
79(1)
Suggested Readings
80(1)
The Individual in Public Relations
81(18)
The Public Relations Role
82(2)
A Changing Focus in Public Relations
82(1)
The Range of Public Relations Work
82(2)
Personal Qualifications and Attitudes
84(4)
Basic Personal Attributes
84(1)
Four Essential Abilities
85(3)
Needed: An Understanding of Economics
88(1)
Professional Support Services
89(2)
Organization and Societies
90(1)
Internships
90(1)
A Diversified Workforce
91(3)
Ethnic Groups
91(1)
Women
92(2)
What Kinds of Salaries?
94(5)
Salary Statistics
94(1)
Entering the Field
95(2)
Summary
97(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
97(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
97(1)
Suggested Readings
98(1)
Public Relations Departments and Firms
99(25)
Public Relations Departments
100(12)
Role in Various Organizational Structures
100(2)
Names of Departments
102(1)
Organization of Departments
103(1)
Line and Staff Functions
103(4)
Sources of Friction
107(2)
The Trend toward Outsourcing
109(3)
Public Relations Firms
112(12)
Services They Provide
113(2)
Global Reach
115(1)
Public Relations and Advertising Mergers
115(3)
Structure of a Counseling Firm
118(1)
Pros and Cons of Using a Public Relations Firm
118(2)
Fees and Charges
120(1)
Summary
121(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
122(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
122(1)
Suggested Readings
123(1)
PART 2 PROCESS
Research
124(20)
The Importance of Research
125(3)
Defining the Research Role
125(1)
Using Research
126(2)
Research Techniques
128(8)
Organizational Materials
129(1)
Library Methods
129(1)
Online Resources
129(1)
Online Networks
130(1)
The Internet and World Wide Web
131(1)
Content Analysis
132(1)
Interviewing
132(2)
Focus Groups
134(1)
Copy Testing
134(1)
Scientific Sampling
134(2)
Questionnaire Design
136(4)
The Problem of Semantics
137(1)
Avoid Biased Wording
137(1)
Timing and Context
137(1)
Political Correctness
138(1)
The Answer Categories
138(1)
Questionnaire Guidelines
139(1)
Ways of Reaching Respondents
140(4)
Mail Questionnaires
140(1)
Telephone Surveys
141(1)
Personal Interviews
141(1)
The Piggyback Survey
141(1)
Web and E-Mail Surveys
142(1)
Summary
142(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
143(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
143(1)
Suggested Readings
143(1)
Program Planning
144(19)
The Value of Planning
145(1)
Approaches to Planning
145(2)
Management by Objective (MBO)
145(1)
A Strategic Planning Model
146(1)
Elements of a Program Plan
147(11)
Situation
148(2)
Objectives
150(1)
Audience
151(1)
Strategy
152(1)
Tactics
153(2)
Calendar/Timetable
155(2)
Budget
157(1)
Evaluation
158(1)
Planning in Issues Management
158(5)
Issue Identification
160(1)
Issue Analysis
160(1)
Strategy Options
161(1)
Action Plan
161(1)
Evaluation
161(1)
Summary
161(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
162(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
162(1)
Suggested Readings
162(1)
Communication
163(28)
The Goals of Communication
164(2)
Implementing the Plan
164(1)
A Public Relations Perspective
164(2)
Receiving the Message
166(2)
Five Communication Elements
167(1)
The Importance of Two-Way Communication
168(1)
Paying Attention to the Message
168(2)
Some Theoretical Perspectives
168(2)
Other Attention-Getting Concepts
170(1)
Understanding the Message
170(5)
Effective Use of Language
171(1)
Writing for Clarity
171(4)
Believing the Message
175(2)
Remembering the Message
177(1)
Acting on the Message
177(3)
The Five-Stage Adoption Process
178(1)
The Time Factor
179(1)
How Decisions Are Influenced
179(1)
Crisis Communications
180(7)
What Is a Crisis?
180(1)
A Lack of Crisis Planning
181(2)
How to Communicate during a Crisis
183(1)
How Various Organizations Respond to Crises
183(2)
How Some Organizations Have Handled a Crisis
185(2)
Risk Communication
187(4)
Summary
188(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
189(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
189(1)
Suggested Readings
190(1)
Evaluation
191(17)
The Purpose of Evaluation
192(1)
Objectives: A Prerequisite for Evaluation
192(1)
Current Status of Measurement and Evaluation
193(1)
Measurement of Production
194(1)
Measurement of Message Exposure
195(5)
Media Impressions
196(1)
Hits on the Internet
196(1)
Advertising Equivalency
197(1)
Systematic Tracking
198(1)
Requests and 800 Numbers
199(1)
Cost per Person
199(1)
Audience Attendance
200(1)
Measurement of Audience Awareness
200(1)
Measurement of Audience Attitudes
201(1)
Measurement of Audience Action
202(1)
Measurement of Supplement Activities
202(6)
Communication Audits
203(1)
Pilot Test, Split Messages, Perception Analyzers, and Think-Aloud Techniques
203(1)
Meeting and Event Attendance
204(1)
Newsletter Readership
204(2)
Summary
206(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
206(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
207(1)
Suggested Readings
207(1)
PART 3 STRATEGY
Public Opinion and Persuasion
208(27)
What Is Public Opinion?
209(1)
Opinion Leaders as Catalysts
210(4)
Types of Leaders
211(1)
The Flow of Opinion
211(1)
The Role of Mass Media
212(2)
Persuasion: Pervasive in Our Lives
214(2)
The Dominant View of Public Relations
215(1)
Uses of Persuasion
216(1)
Factors in Persuasive Communication
216(13)
Audience Analysis
216(2)
Source Credibility
218(3)
Appeal to Self-Interest
221(1)
Clarity of Message
222(1)
Timing and Context
223(1)
Audience Participation
223(1)
Suggestions for Action
224(1)
Content and Structure of Messages
224(4)
Persuasive Speaking
228(1)
Propaganda
229(1)
Persuasion and Manipulation
230(1)
Lack of Message Penetration
230(1)
Competing Messages
231(1)
Self-Selection
231(1)
Self-Perception
231(1)
The Ethics of Persuasion
231(4)
Summary
233(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
233(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
234(1)
Suggested Readings
234(1)
The Audience and How to Reach It
235(28)
The Nature of the Public Relations Audience
236(1)
Senior and Ethnic Markets
237(3)
Seniors
237(1)
Ethnic Groups
238(2)
Characteristics of the Audience
240(1)
Matching Audience and Media
241(1)
Media Relations
242(1)
The Print Media
243(8)
Newspapers
243(2)
Public Relations Opportunities in Newspapers
245(1)
Created Events: Making News Happen
246(1)
Magazines
246(3)
Public Relations Opportunities in Magazines
249(1)
Books
250(1)
Public Relations Opportunities in Books
251(1)
The Spoken and Visual Media
251(9)
Radio
252(1)
Public Relations Opportunities in Radio
253(1)
Television
254(2)
Public Relations Opportunities in Television
256(3)
Motion Pictures
259(1)
Sponsored Films and Videotape
259(1)
Online Media
260(3)
Summary
260(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
261(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
261(1)
Suggested Readings
262(1)
The Internet and Other New Technologies
263(26)
The Communications Explosion
264(2)
The Computer
266(1)
The Internet
266(7)
The Internet and Public Relations
267(4)
Key Aspects of the Internet
271(1)
Internet Problems
272(1)
Other Computer Uses
273(6)
Dictation and Voice Generation
275(1)
Expert Systems
275(1)
Public Relations Management Tools
275(1)
Processing of News Releases
275(1)
Electronic Mail
275(2)
Desktop Publishing
277(1)
Mailing Lists
277(1)
Online Conferences
278(1)
Graphics
278(1)
Facsimile Transmission
279(1)
Satellite Transmission
279(2)
News Release Delivery
280(1)
Video and Audio News Release Distribution
281(1)
Teleconferencing
281(3)
Webconferencing
283(1)
Satellite Media Tours
283(1)
Other Tools
284(2)
Cellular Phones
284(1)
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
284(1)
The CD-ROM and CD-RW
284(1)
Electronic Blackboards
285(1)
A Peek at the Future of New Technologies
286(3)
Summary
287(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
287(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
287(1)
Suggested Readings
288(1)
Public Relations and the Law
289(30)
A Sampling of Legal Problems
290(1)
Libel and Defamation
291(3)
Avoiding Libel Suits
292(1)
The Fair Comment Defense
293(1)
Invasion of Privacy
294(3)
Employee Newsletters
294(1)
Photo Releases
295(1)
Product Publicity and Advertising
295(1)
Media Inquiries about Employees
296(1)
Copyright Law
297(6)
Fair Use versus Infringement
299(1)
Photography and Artwork
300(1)
The Rights of Freelance Writers
300(1)
Copyright Issues on the Internet
301(1)
Copyright Guidelines
302(1)
Trademark Law
303(4)
The Protection of Trademarks
303(2)
The Problem of Trademark Infringement
305(1)
Misappropriation of Personality
306(1)
Regulations by Government Agencies
307(5)
Federal Trade Commission
307(2)
Securities and Exchange Commission
309(2)
Other Regulatory Agencies
311(1)
Corporate/Employee Free Speech
312(1)
Some Recent Cases
312(1)
Employee Free Speech
312(1)
Liability for Sponsored Events
313(1)
Plant Tours and Open Houses
313(1)
Promotional Events
314(1)
Working with Lawyers
314(5)
Summary
316(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
317(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
317(1)
Suggested Readings
317(2)
PART 4 APPLICATION
Corporations
319(28)
The Corporate Role
320(1)
The Human Factor
320(4)
The Public Perception
321(1)
Downsizing Stirs Resentment
321(1)
What Can Happen when Businesses Overlook the Human Factor
322(1)
Computers versus Humans
323(1)
Consumerism
324(3)
Development of the Consumer Movement
324(1)
Consumerism Today
325(2)
Product Recalls
327(1)
Business Public Affairs
328(2)
Community Relations
330(1)
Corporate Aid to Education
331(1)
Corporate Philanthropy
331(2)
Corporations and the Environment
333(3)
The Public Relations Role
334(1)
The ``Green'' Image
335(1)
One Company's Program
335(1)
The Business--Media Relationship
336(1)
Financial Information
337(1)
Stockholders
338(1)
Financial Analysts
338(1)
Sensitivity to Minority Groups
338(2)
Marketing Communications
340(3)
Product Publicity
340(1)
Information Bureaus
341(1)
School Promotions
341(1)
Cause-Related Marketing
341(1)
Corporate Sponsorships
341(2)
Employee Communications
343(4)
The Internal Audience
343(1)
Health and Social Issues
343(1)
Summary
344(2)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
346(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
346(1)
Suggested Readings
346(1)
Politics and Government
347(30)
Government Relations
348(1)
Lobbying
349(8)
The Nature of Lobbying
351(1)
The Problem of Influence Peddling
352(1)
A Lobbying Reform Bill
353(2)
Grassroots Lobbying
355(2)
Political Action Committees
357(1)
Fund-Raising by Candidates
358(1)
Public Relations and Campaigning
359(1)
Ethical Guidelines for Political Public Relations
360(1)
Public Affairs in Government
361(16)
``Public Information'' versus ``Public Relations''
362(1)
Scope of Federal Government Information
363(8)
State Information Services
371(1)
City Information Services
371(2)
Attacks on Government Information Services
373(1)
Summary
374(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
375(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
375(1)
Suggested Readings
375(2)
International Public Relations
377(24)
What Is International Public Relations?
378(1)
International Corporate Public Relations
378(8)
The New Age of Global Marketing
378(2)
Language, Cultural Differences, and Other Issues
380(2)
Representing Foreign Corporations in the United States
382(1)
Representing U.S. Corporations in Other Countries
383(3)
International Government Public Relations
386(7)
Influencing Other Countries
386(3)
U.S. Firms Working for Foreign Governments
389(4)
The Rise of NGOs
393(1)
Foreign Public Relations Organizations
394(1)
Opportunities in International Work
395(6)
Summary
398(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
399(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
399(1)
Suggested Readings
400(1)
Nonprofit Organizations
401(33)
The Role of Public Relations
402(1)
Basic Needs of Nonprofits
402(1)
Membership Organizations
402(3)
Trade Associations
402(1)
Labor Unions
403(1)
Professional Associations
403(1)
Chambers of Commerce
404(1)
Advocacy Groups
405(5)
Environmental Groups
405(2)
Other Activist Groups
407(1)
Methods of Operation
407(1)
Fund-Raising
408(1)
Social Issue Organizations
408(2)
Social Organizations
410(17)
Categories of Social Agencies
411(3)
Public Relations Goals
414(4)
Fund-Raising
418(9)
Case Study: A Lesson in Fund-Raising
427(1)
Health Care Public Relations
428(6)
Public Relations for Hospitals
430(1)
Hospital Audiences
430(1)
A Sample of Public Relations Efforts
431(1)
Summary
432(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
432(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
433(1)
Suggested Readings
433(1)
Education
434(17)
Colleges and Universities
435(8)
Development and Public Relations Offices
435(1)
Public Information Bureau
435(1)
Serving the Publics
435(8)
Support for Advancement Officers
443(1)
Elementary and Secondary Schools
443(8)
Response to Contemporary Issues
444(1)
Reaching the Publics
445(3)
Summary
448(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
449(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
449(1)
Suggested Readings
450(1)
Entertainment, Sports, and Travel
451(23)
Fascination with Celebrity
452(1)
A Case Study: Princess Diana
452(1)
The Mystique of Personality
452(3)
Fame
453(1)
Notoriety
453(1)
Self-Glorification
453(1)
Repair of a Bad Image
453(1)
Desire for Money
454(1)
Psychological Explanations
455(1)
The Practitioner's Responsibility
455(1)
Damage Control
456(1)
Ethical Problems for Publicists
456(1)
Conducting a Personality Campaign
456(4)
Interview the Client
456(1)
Prepare a Biography of the Client
457(1)
Plan a Marketing Strategy
458(1)
Conduct the Campaign
458(2)
Record the Results
460(1)
Promoting an Entertainment Event
460(2)
Publicity to Stimulate Ticket Sales
460(1)
An Example: Publicizing a Play
461(1)
The ``Drip-Drip-Drip'' Technique of Publicity
461(1)
A Look at the Motion Picture Industry
461(1)
Sports Publicity
462(3)
Travel Promotion
465(9)
Phases of Travel Promotion
466(2)
Fear of Terrorism
468(1)
Travel Business on the Internet Takes Off
468(1)
Appeals to Target Audiences
468(2)
Times of Crisis
470(1)
Summary
471(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
472(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
472(1)
Suggested Readings
472(2)
PART 5 TACTICS
Written Tactics
474(22)
The News Release
475(4)
Physical Appearance
476(1)
Content
476(2)
Delivery of News Releases
478(1)
Localizing a News Release
479(1)
Fact Sheets and Media Advisories
479(3)
The Pitch Letter
480(1)
The Press Kit
481(1)
The Newsletter
482(1)
Company Magazines
483(3)
Magazines for Employees and Retirees
484(1)
Magazines for Stockholders and Employees
485(1)
Magazines for Marketing Staff Members and Wholesalers of Company Products
485(1)
Magazines for Customers and Association Members
486(1)
Brochures and Handbooks
486(2)
Informational Brochures
487(1)
Handbooks
487(1)
Corporate Brochures for External Use
488(1)
Corporate Brochures for Internal Use
488(1)
Glossaries
488(1)
The Annual Report
488(3)
Corporate Advertising
491(5)
Image-Building
491(1)
Financial Relations Programs
492(1)
Advocacy
492(1)
Evaluating Corporate Advertising
493(1)
Summary
493(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
494(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
494(1)
Suggested Readings
495(1)
Spoken Tactics
496(31)
Face-to-Face Discussion
497(1)
Assignment: Speechwriting
498(4)
The Basic Points of Speechwriting
499(1)
An Example of Speechwriting
500(2)
Speechwriting Techniques
502(1)
Visual Aids for a Speech
503(1)
Staging a Speech
503(2)
The Practitioner's Role
504(1)
Speech Training Programs
504(1)
Helping the Speaker Polish and Present the Speech
505(1)
Speakers' Bureaus and Hotlines
506(1)
Special Types of Speaking Opportunities
507(13)
The News Conference
507(4)
The Press Party and the Press Tour
511(4)
The Interview
515(4)
Conducting a Meeting
519(1)
Audio News Releases
520(1)
Word-of-Mouth
521(6)
The Insidious Problem of Rumors
521(3)
Measuring the Effects of Word-of-Mouth Communication
524(1)
Summary
524(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
525(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
526(1)
Suggested Readings
526(1)
Visual Tactics
527(21)
Television
528(5)
News Releases
528(4)
News on Cable Television
532(1)
Personal Appearances on Television
532(1)
Other Uses of Videotape
533(2)
Videotaped Financial Reports
533(1)
Internal Corporate TV News Programs
533(1)
Videotaped Training and Marketing Programs
534(1)
Videotaped Sales Messages
534(1)
Home Video
534(1)
Motion Pictures
535(2)
Hollywood Entertainment Films
535(1)
Sponsored Films and Videos
536(1)
Still Images for Projection
537(2)
Slide Shows
538(1)
Overhead Transparencies
539(1)
Still Photography
539(4)
Newspaper Requirements
539(4)
Magazine Requirements
543(1)
Comic Books and Cartoons
543(1)
Outdoor Displays
543(2)
Corporate Design
545(3)
Summary
546(1)
Case Activity: What Would You Do?
546(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
547(1)
Suggested Readings
547(1)
Directory of Useful Web Sites 548(1)
A Public Relations Glossary 549(4)
Bibliography of Selected Books, Directories, and Periodicals 553(8)
Credits 561(1)
Index 562
Practice Tests 1


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