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Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques,9780321070142
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Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780321070142

ISBN10:
0321070143
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

The Fourth Edition of Public Relations Writing & Media Techniques is the most comprehensive and up-to-date PR writing text available. The text thoroughly integrates new communication technologiesthe Internet, World Wide Web, Webcasting, etc.and shows students the many techniques on the horizon and currently in use to reach a variety of audiences. An abundance of real-world examples and illustrations showcase outstanding work by public relations professionals and provide models for students. Clearly-written and well-organized, this book places emphasis on the "nuts and bolts" of daily work in public relations, giving students step-by-step procedures for creating and distributing a variety of successful public relations materials. An engaging and highly effective text for students, Public Relations Writing & Media Techniques is also an invaluable resource for public relations practitioners.

Table of Contents

Foreword xvii
Preface xix
PART ONE The Basics of Public Relations Writing 1(116)
Preparing for Writing
3(32)
The Public Relations Writer
4(3)
The Objectives
4(2)
Audience
6(1)
Channels
6(1)
Preparation for Writing
7(14)
Equipment
7(2)
References
9(6)
Research: Prelude to Writing
15(3)
Online Networks
18(1)
The Internet and the World Wide Web
19(2)
Writing Guidelines
21(4)
Outlining the Purpose
21(1)
Sentences
22(1)
Paragraphs
22(1)
Word Choice
23(1)
Active Verbs/Present Tense
24(1)
Imagery
25(1)
Errors to Avoid
25(6)
Spelling
26(1)
Gobbledygook and Jargon
26(1)
Poor Sentence Structure
26(1)
Wrong Words
27(1)
``Sound-alike'' Words
27(1)
Redundancies
28(1)
Too Many Numbers
28(1)
Hype
28(1)
Bias and Stereotypes
29(1)
Politically Incorrect Language
30(1)
Summary
31(1)
Exercise
31(2)
Additional Resources
33(2)
Persuasive Writing
35(25)
The Basics of Communication
36(1)
Receiver
36(1)
Media
37(1)
Message
37(1)
Sender
37(1)
Theories of Communication
37(8)
Two-Step Flow Theory
38(1)
Media Uses and Gratification
38(1)
Cognitive Dissonance
38(1)
Media Effects
38(1)
Framing
39(1)
Diffusion and Adoption
39(2)
Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory
41(1)
Applying Theory to Practice
41(4)
Persuasive Writing
45(9)
Audience Analysis
46(1)
Source Credibility
46(1)
Appeal to Self-interest
47(1)
Clarity of the Message
48(1)
Timing and Context
48(1)
Symbols, Slogans, and Acronyms
48(1)
Semantics
49(1)
Suggestions for Action
49(1)
Content and Structure
50(4)
The Ethics of Persuasion
54(2)
Summary
56(1)
Exercises
57(2)
Additional Resources
59(1)
Finding and Generating News
60(28)
Barriers to Media Coverage
61(1)
What Makes News
62(7)
Timeliness
62(2)
Prominence
64(1)
Proximity
64(2)
Significance
66(1)
Unusualness
67(1)
Human Interest
67(1)
Conflict
68(1)
Newness
69(1)
How to Find News
69(5)
Internal News Sources
69(4)
External News Sources
73(1)
How to Create News
74(11)
Brainstorming
75(1)
Special Events
76(2)
Contests
78(1)
Polls and Surveys
78(2)
Top 10 Lists
80(1)
Stunts
81(1)
Product Demonstrations
81(1)
Rallies and Protests
81(3)
Personal Appearances
84(1)
Summary
85(1)
Exercises
85(2)
Additional Resources
87(1)
Legal and Ethical Guidelines
88(29)
Examples of Legal Problems
89(1)
Libel and Slander
90(1)
The Fair Comment Defense
91(1)
Invasion of Privacy
91(3)
Releases for Advertising and Promotion
92(2)
Regulations of Government Agencies
94(3)
Securities and Exchange
94(1)
Commission
94(2)
Federal Trade Commission
96(1)
Other Regulatory Agencies
97(1)
Copyright Law
97(5)
The Rights of Free-lancers
98(1)
Fair Use and Infringement
98(4)
Trademark Law
102(5)
Working With Lawyers
107(1)
Ethics and Professionalism
108(3)
Summary
111(2)
Exercises
113(1)
Additional Resources
114(3)
PART TWO Writing for Mass Media 117(216)
The Values of News Releases
120(30)
Planning a News Release
120(3)
The Basic Questions
120(1)
Selection of Paper
121(1)
Spacing and Margins
121(2)
Use AP Style
123(1)
Types of News Releases
123(4)
Announcements
123(2)
Spot Announcements
125(1)
Reaction Releases
126(1)
Bad News
126(1)
Local News
126(1)
Parts of a News Release
127(10)
Letterhead
127(4)
Contacts
131(1)
Headline
131(1)
Dateline
132(1)
The Lead
132(3)
Body of Text
135(2)
Fact Sheets
137(3)
Frequently Asked Questions
139(1)
Placement
140(5)
Gatekeepers
143(1)
Deadlines
143(1)
Getting Maximum Results
144(1)
Mistakes to Avoid
145(1)
Summary
146(1)
Exercises
147(2)
Additional Resources
149(1)
The Feature Story
150(25)
The Value of Features
151(1)
Planning a Feature
152(1)
Ways to Proceed
152(1)
Types of Features
153(14)
Case Study
154(3)
Application Story
157(1)
Research Study
158(1)
Backgrounder
158(1)
Personality Profile
158(9)
Historical Piece
167(1)
Parts of a Feature
167(3)
The Lead
167(1)
Body of the Feature
168(2)
Summary
170(1)
Photos and Graphics
170(1)
Placement Opportunities
170(2)
Newspapers
171(1)
General Magazines
171(1)
Specialty/Trade Magazines
171(1)
Internal Publications
172(1)
Summary
172(1)
Exercises
173(1)
Additional Resources
174(1)
Photos and Graphics
175(27)
Elements of Good Publicity Photo
176(10)
Quality
176(1)
Subject Matter
176(2)
Composition
178(1)
Action
179(1)
Scale
180(1)
Camera Angle
180(2)
Lighting and Timing
182(2)
Color
184(2)
Working With Photographers
186(4)
Finding Photographers
186(1)
Contracts
186(1)
The Photo Session
187(1)
Cropping and Retouching
187(2)
Computer Altering of Photos
189(1)
Writing Photo Captions
190(3)
Format of a Caption
192(1)
Attaching the Caption
193(1)
Packaging and Distribution
193(1)
Graphics
194(4)
Charts
194(3)
Diagrams
197(1)
Rendering and Models
197(1)
Maps
197(1)
Line Drawing and Clip Art
197(1)
Photo and Art Files
198(1)
Summary
199(1)
Exercises
200(1)
Additional Resources
201(1)
Pitch Letter, Media Alerts, Press Kits, and Op-Ed
202(23)
Pitch Letters
203(5)
Researching the Publication
203(2)
Preparing the Pitch Letter
205(3)
Follow Up Your Letter
208(1)
Media Alerts
208(1)
Press Kits
209(5)
Corporate Profile
211(2)
Backgrounder
213(1)
Compiling a Press Kit
214(2)
Electronic Press Kits
216(1)
Op-Ed
216(6)
Op-Ed: A Case History
219(2)
Letters to the Editor
221(1)
Summary
222(1)
Exercises
223(1)
Additional Resources
224(1)
Radio, Television, and Webcasting
225(45)
Radio
226(10)
Radio News Releases
226(3)
Audio News Releases
229(2)
Public Service Announcements
231(4)
Radio Media Tours
235(1)
Television
236(20)
Video News Releases
237(13)
Public Service Announcements
250(2)
Satellite Media Tours
252(4)
Personal Appearances and Product Placements
256(9)
Talk Shows
257(3)
Public Service Programs
260(1)
Magazine Shows
261(1)
Entertainment Programs
261(1)
Community Calendars
261(1)
Editorials
262(1)
Free-speech Messages
263(1)
Radio Promotions
263(1)
Creative Publicity
264(1)
Feature Films and Videos
264(1)
Proud Placement
265(1)
Webcasting
265(1)
Summary
266(1)
Exercises
267(2)
Additional Resources
269(1)
Distribution: Snail Mail to the Internet
270(30)
Finding the Media
271(6)
Media Directories
271(3)
Editorial Calendars
274(1)
Tip Sheets
275(2)
Distribution of Materials
277(10)
Mail
277(1)
Fax
278(2)
Electronic Wire Services
280(3)
Feature Placement Firms
283(2)
Diskettes
285(1)
CD-ROM
286(1)
The Internet: New Kid on the Block
287(7)
E-mail
288(2)
The World Wide Web
290(3)
Usenet and Listserv
293(1)
The Internet's Limitations
294(2)
Summary
296(1)
Exercises
297(2)
Additional Resources
299(1)
Working with the Media
300(33)
Media Dependence on Public Relations
301(1)
Public Relations Dependence on the Media
301(1)
Areas of Friction
302(5)
Hype and other Irritations
302(2)
Name Calling
304(1)
Sloppy/Biased Reporting
304(1)
Tabloid Journalism
305(1)
Advertising Influence
306(1)
Working with Journalists
307(14)
Individual Interviews
307(2)
News Conferences
309(4)
Teleconferences
313(1)
Media Tours
314(1)
Previews and Parties
315(4)
Press Junkets
319(1)
Editorial Board Meetings
320(1)
A Media Relations Checklist
321(4)
Media Etiquette
323(2)
Crisis Communication
325(2)
Summary
327(1)
Exercises
328(2)
Additional Resources
330(3)
PART THREE Writing for other Media 333(160)
Newsletters, E-zines, and Brochures
335(37)
The Value of Print Publications
336(1)
The Dual Role of the Editor
337(6)
Mission Statement and Editorial Plan
340(3)
Newsletters and Magazines
343(8)
Meeting Audience Interests
343(1)
Design
344(7)
Electronic Newsletters
351(2)
Using an Intranet
352(1)
Brochures
353(11)
Planning
356(1)
Writing
357(2)
Production
359(1)
Paper
360(1)
Type Fonts
361(2)
Ink and Color
363(1)
Desktop Publishing
364(4)
Working with Graphic Designers
366(2)
Summary
368(1)
Exercises
369(2)
Additional Resources
371(1)
The World Wide Web
372(27)
The Growth of the World Wide Web
373(1)
The Web: A Major Source for Journalists
374(5)
Creating a Press-Friendly Web Site
377(2)
Writing for the Web
379(3)
Building an Effective Web Site
382(13)
Making the Site Interactive
387(1)
Using Audio and Video Components
388(1)
Who Controls the Site?
389(2)
The Cost of a Site
391(1)
Promoting the Site
392(1)
Tracking Site Visitors
393(2)
Summary
395(1)
Exercises
396(1)
Additional Resources
397(2)
Direct Mail and Advertising
399(31)
The Basics of Direct Mail
400(2)
Advantages of Direct Mail
400(1)
Disadvantages of Direct Mail
401(1)
Creating a Direct Mail Package
402(5)
The Letter
404(2)
Brochure
406(1)
Reply Card
407(1)
Return Envelope
407(1)
The Basics of Public Relations Advertising
407(3)
Advantages of Advertising
409(1)
Disadvantages of Advertising
409(1)
Types of Public Relations Advertising
410(8)
Investor and Financial Relations
412(1)
Public Service
413(2)
Advocacy/Issues
415(3)
Announcements
418(1)
Creating a Print AD
418(3)
Headline
419(1)
Text
420(1)
Artwork
420(1)
Layout
420(1)
Using an Advertising Agency
421(1)
Other Advertising Channels
422(4)
Billboards
422(1)
Transit Panels
422(1)
Buttons and Bumper Stickers
422(1)
Posters
422(2)
Sponsored Books
424(1)
T-Shirts
424(1)
Promotional Items
425(1)
Product Placements
425(1)
Summary
426(1)
Exercises
427(2)
Additional Resources
429(1)
Letters, E-mail, and Reports
430(22)
The Challenge of Information Overload
431(1)
Letters
432(3)
Purpose
432(1)
Content
432
Format
343(92)
E-mail
435(3)
Purpose
435(1)
Content
436(1)
Format
437(1)
Memorandums
438(2)
Purpose
438(1)
Content
438(2)
Format
440(1)
Proposals
440(2)
Purpose
440(1)
Organization
441(1)
Special Reports
442(1)
Basic Formats
443(1)
Annual Reports
443(5)
Preparing an Annual Report
446(1)
Trends in Annual Reports
447(1)
Summary
448(2)
Exercises
450(1)
Additional Resources
451(1)
Writing and Giving Speeches
452(23)
The Basics of Speech Writing
453(5)
Researching Audience and Speaker
453(1)
Laying the Groundwork
454(2)
Writing the Speech
456(2)
The Basics of Giving a Speech
458(5)
Know Your Objective
458(1)
Structure the Message for the Ear
459(1)
Tailor Remarks to the Audience
460(1)
Give Specifics
461(1)
Keep it Short
461(1)
Eye Contact and Gestures
462(1)
Other Speech Formats
463(3)
Panels
464(1)
Debates
464(1)
Media Interviews
465(1)
Speaker Training and Placement
466(5)
Executive Training
467(1)
Speaker's Bureaus
468(1)
Placement of Speakers
468(2)
Publicity Opportunities
470(1)
Summary
471(2)
Exercises
473(1)
Additional Resources
474(1)
Audiovisual Aids
475(18)
The Importance of Audiovisuals
476(1)
Charts
476(2)
Advantages
477(1)
Preparation
477(1)
Presentation
477(1)
Overhead Transparences
478(2)
Advantages
478(1)
Production
479(1)
Presentation
480(1)
Powerpoint Presentations
480(2)
Slide Presentations
482(4)
Advantages
482(1)
Production
482(2)
Projection
484(2)
Multiple Projection
486(1)
CD-ROM
486(1)
Video
486(2)
Film
488(1)
Production
488(1)
Summary
489(1)
Exercises
490(1)
Additional Resources
490(3)
PART FOUR Managing Programs and Campaigns 493(68)
Meetings and Events
495(26)
Staff and Committee Meetings
496(1)
Club Meetings and Workshops
497(6)
Planning
497(3)
Registration
500(1)
Program
500(3)
Banquets
503(2)
Working with Banquet Managers
503(1)
Logistics and Timing
504(1)
Cocktail Parties and Receptions
505(1)
Open House and Plant tours
506(3)
Conventions
509(3)
Planning
510(1)
Program
511(1)
Trade shows
512(3)
Exhibit Booths
512(2)
Press Rooms
514(1)
Planning Guidelines
515(1)
Promotional Events
515(3)
Summary
518(1)
Exercises
519(1)
Additional Resources
520(1)
Program Planning
521(18)
Developing a Plan
522(2)
Gathering Information
522(2)
Analyzing the Information
524(1)
Elements of a Plan
524(10)
Situation
524(2)
Objectives
526(1)
Audience
527(2)
Strategy
529(1)
Tactics
529(2)
Calendar
531(1)
Budget
532(2)
Evaluation
534(1)
Reviewing the Final Draft
534(1)
Summary
535(1)
Exercises
535(3)
Additional Resources
538(1)
Program Evaluation
539(22)
The Importance of Evaluation
540(2)
Start with Objectives
541(1)
Measurement of Production/Distribution
542(1)
Measurement of Message Exposure
543(8)
Impressions
544(1)
Advertising Equivalency
545(1)
Systematic Tension
546(2)
Monitoring the Internet
548(1)
Requests and 800 Numbers
549(1)
Cost per Person
550(1)
Event Attendance
550(1)
Measurement of Audience Awareness
551(1)
Measurement of Audience Attitudes
552(1)
Other Forms of Feedback
552(1)
Measurement of Audience Action
553(1)
Evaluation of Newsletters and Brochures
554(3)
Content Analysis
554(1)
Readership Surveys
554(1)
Article Recall
555(1)
Readability
556(1)
Advisory Boards and Focus Groups
557(1)
Writing an Evaluation Report
557(1)
Summary
558(1)
Exercises
559(1)
Additional Resources
560(1)
Glossary 561(4)
Index 565


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