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Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach,9780205295593
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Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach

by ;
ISBN13:

9780205295593

ISBN10:
0205295592
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach brings theory and practice together in an understandable and applicable manner. Its distinctive and popular approach emphasizes the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point along the way, with marginal icons highlighting audience-related discussions. This model of public speaking serves as a foundation as the text guides students through the step-by-step process of public speaking, focuses their attention on the importance and dynamics of diverse audiences, and narrows the gap between the classroom and the real world. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction to Public Speaking
3(14)
Why Study Public Speaking
4(1)
Empowerment
4(1)
Employment
4(1)
Public Speaking and Conversation
5(2)
Public Speaking Is More Planned
6(1)
Public Speaking Is More Formal
6(1)
The Roles of Public Speakers and Audiences Are More Clearly Defined
7(1)
The Communication Process
7(3)
Communication as Action
8(1)
Communication as Interaction
9(1)
Communication as Transaction
10(1)
The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking's
10(2)
Speaker's Homepage: The Power of the Internet
12(1)
Public Speaking and Diversity
13(1)
Summary
14(3)
Overview of the Speechmaking Process
17(24)
Improving Your Confidence as Speaker
18(5)
Understanding Your Nervousness
19(1)
Building Your Confidence
20(3)
Speaker's Homepage: Resources to Help Manage Your Speaking Anxiety
23(1)
Preparing Your First Speech: An Overview of the Speechmaking Process
24(12)
Consider Your Audience
25(1)
Select and Narrow Your Topic
26(1)
Determine Your Purpose
27(1)
Develop Your Central Idea
28(1)
Generate the Main Ideas
29(1)
Gather Verbal and Visual Supporting Material
30(1)
Organize Your Speech
31(3)
Rehearse Your Speech
34(1)
Deliver Your Speech
35(1)
Summary
36(5)
Ethics and Free Speech
41(14)
Speaking Freely
43(1)
Speaking Ethically
44(5)
Have a Clear, Responsible Goal
45(1)
Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning
45(1)
Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences
46(1)
Be Honest
46(1)
Avoid Plagiarism
47(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Ethics and Free Speech
49(1)
Listening Ethically
50(2)
Communicate Your Expectation and Feedback
50(1)
Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences
51(1)
Listen Critically
51(1)
Summary
52(3)
Listening
55(26)
Stages in Listening
56(3)
Selecting
57(1)
Attending
57(1)
Understanding
58(1)
Remembering
58(1)
Barriers of Effective Listening
59(3)
Information Overload
59(1)
Personal Concerns
60(1)
Outside Distractions
60(1)
Prejudice
61(1)
Watching Speech Rate and Thought Rate Differences
61(1)
Becoming a Better Listener
62(6)
Adapt to the Speaker's Delivery
63(1)
Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears
63(1)
Avoid Jumping to Conclusions
64(1)
Be a Selfish Listener
64(1)
Listen for Major Ideas
64(1)
Identifying Your Listening Goal
65(1)
Practice Listening
66(1)
Become an Active Listener
67(1)
Improving Your Note-Taking Skills
68(1)
Listening and Critical Thinking
69(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Practicing Your Critical Listening Skills
70(1)
Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches
71(4)
Giving Feedback to Others
72(2)
Giving Feedback to Yourself
74(1)
Summary
75(6)
Analyzing Your Audience
81(28)
Becoming an Audience-Centered Speaker
82(1)
What Is Audience Analysis?
83(1)
Analyzing Your Audience Before You Speak
84(15)
Demographic Analysis
84(6)
Attitudinal Analysis
90(4)
Environmental Analysis
94(2)
Gathering Information about Your audience
96(3)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet to Gather Information About Your Audience
99(1)
Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak
100(3)
Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues
100(1)
Responding to Nonverbal Cues
101(2)
Analyzing Your Audience After You Speak
103(1)
Nonverbal Responses
103(1)
Verbal Responses
104(1)
Survey Responses
104(1)
Behavioral Responses
104(1)
Summary
104(5)
Developing Your Speech
109(24)
Select and Narrow Your Topic
110(6)
Guidelines for Selecting a Topic
111(2)
Strategies for Selecting a Topic
113(3)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Prime Your Creative Pump for a Speech Topic
116(2)
Narrowing the Topic
117(1)
Determine Your Purpose
118(4)
General Purpose
118(2)
Specific Purpose
120(2)
Develop Your Central Idea
122(2)
A Complete Declarative Statement
123(1)
Specific Language
123(1)
A Single Idea
123(1)
An Audience-Centered Idea
124(1)
Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas
124(4)
Generating Your Main Ideas
125(2)
Previewing Your Main Ideas
127(1)
Meanwhile, Back at the Computer...
128(1)
Summary
128(5)
Gathering Supporting Material
133(30)
Personal Knowledge and Experience
134(1)
The Internet
135(5)
The World Wide Web
135(1)
Accessing the Web
135(3)
Evaluating Web Resources
138(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Evaluating Websites
140(1)
Library Resources
141(7)
Books
142(1)
Periodicals
143(1)
Full-Text Databases
144(1)
Newspapers
145(1)
Reference Resources
145(2)
Government Documents
147(1)
Special Services
147(1)
Interviews
148(4)
Determine the Purpose of the Interview
149(1)
Setting Up the Interview
149(1)
Planning the Interview
149(2)
Conducting the Interview
151(1)
Following Up the Interview
152(1)
Resources From Special-Interest Groups and Organizations
152(1)
Research Strategies
152(7)
Develop a Preliminary Bibliography
153(2)
Locate Resources
155(1)
Consider the Potential Usefulness of Resources
156(1)
Take Notes
156(1)
Identify Possible Visual Aids
157(2)
Summary
159(4)
Supporting Your Speech
163(24)
Illustrations
164(4)
Brief Illustrations
165(1)
Extended Illustrations
166(1)
Hypothetical Illustrations
166(1)
Using Illustrations Effectively
167(1)
Descriptions and Explanations
168(2)
Describing
168(1)
Explaining How
168(1)
Explaining Why
169(1)
Using Descriptions and Explanations Effectively
169(1)
Definitions
170(1)
Definitions by Classification
170(1)
Operational Definitions
170(1)
Using Definitions Effectively
170(1)
Analogies
171(3)
Literal Analogies
171(2)
Figurative Analogies
173(1)
Using Analogies Effectively
173(1)
Statistics
174(4)
Using Statistics as Support
174(1)
Using Statistics Effectively
175(3)
Opinions
178(4)
Expert Testimony
178(1)
Lay Testimony
179(1)
Literary Quotations
179(1)
Using Opinions Effectively
180(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet to Find Interesting Supporting Material
182(1)
Selecting the Best Supporting Material
183(1)
Summary
183(4)
Organizing Your Speech
187(26)
Organizing Your Main Ideas
189(8)
Ordering Ideas Chronologically
190(1)
Organizing Ideas Topically
191(2)
Arranging Ideas Spatially
193(1)
Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect
194(1)
Organizing Ideas by Problem and Solution
194(2)
Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization
196(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Internet Resources to Help You Organize Your Speech
197(1)
Subdividing Your Main Ideas
198(1)
Integrating Your Supporting Material
198(2)
Organizing Your Supporting Material
200(3)
Primacy or Recency
200(1)
Specificity
201(1)
Complexity
201(1)
``Soft'' to ``Hard'' Evidence
202(1)
Developing Signposts
203(5)
Transitions
203(2)
Previews
205(1)
Summaries
206(2)
Supplementing Signposts With Visual Aids
208(1)
Summary
208(5)
Introducing and Concluding Your Speech
213(24)
Purposes of Introductions
214(4)
Get the Audience's Attention
215(1)
Introduce the Subject
215(1)
Give the Audience a Reason to Listen
216(1)
Establish Your Credibility
216(1)
Preview Your Main Ideas
217(1)
Effective Introductions
218(8)
Illustrations or Anecdotes
219(1)
Startling Facts or Statistics
220(1)
Quotations
220(1)
Humor
221(1)
Questions
222(1)
References to Historical Events
223(1)
References to Recent Events
224(1)
Personal References
224(1)
References to the Occasion
225(1)
References to Preceding Speeches
225(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Find an Attention-Catching Introduction
226(1)
Purposes of Conclusions
227(3)
Summarize the Speech
227(1)
Reemphasize the Central Idea in a Memorable Way
228(1)
Motivate the Audience to Respond
228(1)
Provide Closure
229(1)
Effective Conclusions
230(2)
Methods Also Used for Introductions
230(1)
References to the Introduction
231(1)
Inspirational Appeals or Challenges
232(1)
Appeals to Action
232(1)
Summary
233(4)
Outlining Your Speech
237(16)
Preparation Outline
238(7)
Developing a Preparation Outline
238(3)
Sample Preparation Outline
241(4)
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Improve Your Outlining Skill
245(1)
Delivery Outline
246(4)
Developing a Delivery Outline
246(1)
Sample Delivery Outline
247(1)
Speaking Notes
248(2)
Summary
250(3)
Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style
253(20)
Oral Versus Written Language Style
255(2)
Oral Style Is More Personal
255(1)
Oral Style Is Less Formal
255(1)
Oral Style Is More Repetitious
256(1)
Using Words Effectively
257(4)
Use Concrete Words
257(1)
Use Unbiased Words
257(2)
Use Vivid Words
259(1)
Use Simple Words
259(1)
Use Words Correctly
260(1)
Crafting Memorable Word Structures
261(5)
Creating Figurative Images
262(1)
Creating Drama
262(1)
Creating Cadence
263(3)
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Polish Your Spoken Prose
266(2)
Analyzing a Memorable Word Structure
266(2)
Tips for Using Language Effectively
268(1)
Summary
268(5)
Delivering Your Speech
273(30)
Rehearsing Your Speech
274(1)
Importance of Delivery
275(2)
The Role of Nonverbal Behavior in Delivery
275(1)
Communicating Emotions and Attitudes
276(1)
Audiences Believe What They See
276(1)
Methods of Delivery
277(4)
Manuscript Speaking
277(1)
Memorized Speaking
278(1)
Impromptu Speaking
278(2)
Extemporaneous Speaking
280(1)
Characteristics of Effective Delivery
281(12)
Body Language
281(5)
Eye Contact
286(1)
Facial Expression
287(1)
Vocal Delivery
287(6)
Personal Appearance
293(1)
Audience Diversity and Delivery
293(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Net Resources to Help You Evaluate Speaker Delivery
294(1)
Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips
295(1)
Delivering Your Speech
296(2)
Adapting Your Speech Delivery for Television
298(1)
Summary
299(4)
Visual Aids
303(28)
Why Use Visual Aids?
304(2)
Types of Visual Aids
306(12)
Three-Dimensional Visual Aids
306(2)
Two-Dimensional Visual Aids
308(8)
Audiovisual Aids
316(2)
Guidelines for Developing Visual Aids
318(2)
Make Them Easy to See
318(1)
Keep Them Simple
318(1)
Select the Right Visual Aids
319(1)
Prepare Polished Visual Aids
320(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet as a Source for Visuals for Your Speech
320(1)
Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Visual Aids
320(1)
Guidelines for Using Visual Aids
321(5)
Rehearse with Your Visual Aids
321(1)
Have Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not Your Visual Aids
322(1)
Explain Your Visual Aids
322(1)
Do Not Pass Objects Among Your Audience
322(1)
Use Animals with Caution
323(1)
Use Handouts Effectively
323(1)
Time Your Visuals to Control Your Audience's Attention
324(1)
Use Technology Effectively
324(1)
Remember Murphy's Law
325(1)
Summary
326(5)
Speaking to Inform
331(24)
Goals of Informative Speaking
332(1)
Types of Informative Speeches
333(7)
Speeches About Objects
334(1)
Speeches About Procedures
335(1)
Speeches About People
336(1)
Speeches About Events
337(1)
Speeches About Ideas
338(2)
Strategies for Informing Your Listener
340(4)
Strategies to Explain New Ideas
340(1)
Strategies to Clarify Complex Processes
341(1)
Strategies to Change Common Misconceptions
342(2)
Speaker's Homepage: What's Happening Now: Finding Late-Breaking News and Information for Your Speech
344(1)
Making Your Informative Speech Memorable
345(5)
Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners
345(1)
Establish a Motive for Your Audience to Listen to You
346(1)
Build in Redundancy
346(1)
Use Simple Ideas Rather Than Complex Ones
346(1)
Reinforce Key Ideas Verbally
347(1)
Reinforce Key Ideas Nonverbally
347(1)
Pace Your Information Flow
347(1)
Relate New Information to Old
348(1)
Create Memorable Visual Aids
348(2)
Summary
350(5)
Principles of Persuasive Speaking
355(24)
What Is Persuasion?
357(2)
Motivating Listeners
359(7)
Using Dissonance to Motivate Listeners
359(3)
Using Needs to Motivate Listeners
362(2)
Using Positive Motivation
364(1)
Using Negative Motivation
364(2)
Developing Your Persuasive Speech
366(6)
Choosing a Persuasive Speech Topic
367(1)
Developing Your Purpose
368(4)
Putting Persuasive Principles into Practice
372(1)
Summary
373(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Finding Out About Congressional Legislation for Persuasive Speeches
374(5)
Strategies for Speaking Persuasively
379(36)
Establishing Credibility
380(3)
Enhancing Your Credibility
381(2)
Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade
383(9)
Understanding Types of Reasoning
383(4)
Persuading the Diverse Audience
387(1)
Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence
388(1)
Avoiding Faulty Reasoning: Ethical Issues
389(3)
Using Emotion to Persuade
392(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Information Triage---Identifying Reasoning Fallacies
393(4)
Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade
395(1)
Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues
396(1)
Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas
397(3)
Persuading the Receptive Audience
398(1)
Persuading the Neutral Audience
399(1)
Persuading the Unreceptive Audience
399(1)
Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages
400(10)
Problem---Solution
401(1)
Refutation
402(1)
Cause and Effect
403(1)
The Motivated Sequence
404(6)
Summary
410(5)
Special-Occasion Speaking
415(16)
Public Speaking in the Workplace
416(2)
Reports
416(1)
Public-Relations Speeches
417(1)
Ceremonial Speaking
418(2)
Introductions
418(1)
Toasts
419(1)
Speaker's Homepage: A Toast To You and Yours: Tips for Making Toasts
420(6)
Award Presentations
420(1)
Nominations
421(1)
Acceptances
422(1)
Keynote Addresses
423(1)
Commencement Addresses
424(1)
Commemorative Addresses and Tributes
424(1)
Eulogies
425(1)
After-Dinner Speaking
426(1)
Summary
427(4)
Speaking in Small Groups
431(2)
Solving Problems in Groups
433(1)
Identify and Define the Problem
433(1)
Analyze the Problem
434(1)
Generate Possible Solutions
434(1)
Select the Best Solution
435(1)
Test and Implement the Solution
436(1)
Tips for Participating in Small Groups
436(1)
Come Prepared for Group Discussions
436(1)
Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem
437(1)
Evaluate Evidence
437(1)
Help Summarize the Group's Progress
437(1)
Listen and Respond Courteously to Others
437(1)
Help Manage Conflict
437(1)
Using the Power of Technology in Groups
438(1)
Leadership in Small Groups
439(1)
Leadership Responsibilities
439(1)
Leadership Styles
439(2)
Managing Meetings
441(1)
How to Give Meetings Structure
442(1)
How to Foster Group Interaction
443(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Using Parliamentary Procedures to Give Structure to Large Groups
444(1)
Presenting Group Recommendations
445(1)
Symposium Presentation
446(1)
Forum Presentation
446(1)
Panel Discussion
446(1)
Written Report
446(1)
Tips for Planning a Group Presentation
447(1)
Summary
448(5)
Epilogue
453
Appendix A: The Classical Tradition of Rhetoric A-1
The Earliest Teachers of Rhetoric
A-1
Beginning of the Greek Tradition: The Sophists
A-2
Plato
A-3
Aristotle
A-4
The Roman Tradition
A-6
Conclusion
A-7
Appendix B: Suggested Speech Topics A-10
Informative Speech Topics
A-10
Persuasive Speech Topics
A-13
Appendix C: Preparing Visual Aids for Presentations A-14
Storyboarding
A-14
Designing Your Visual Aids
A-16
Keep Your Graphics Simple
A-16
Include a Manageable Amount of Information
A-16
Group Related Elements into Visual Units
A-17
Repeat Elements to Unify Your Presentation
A-18
Vary Your Typefaces and Point Sizes Judiciously
A-19
Choosing a Typeface
A-19
Choosing Type Sizes
A-20
Use Color to Create a Mood and Sustain Attention
A-20
Using Black and White Effectively
A-20
Using PowerPoint and Other Graphic Programs
A-21
Walkthrough: Preparing a Visual Display with PowerPoint
A-23
Publishing the Web
A-25
Appendix D: Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-27
``I Have a Dream,''
A-27
Martin Luther King, Jr.
``The Danger of Model Immunology,''
A-30
Nancy Riffe
``The American Drug Cartel,''
A-32
Mike Wagner
``Schadenfreude,''
A-35
Karon Bowers
Notes N-1
Index I-1


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