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Public Speaking : Concepts and Skills for a Diverse Society,9780495006565

Public Speaking : Concepts and Skills for a Diverse Society

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780495006565

ISBN10:
0495006564
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/24/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $138.95

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Summary

Groundbreaking and critically acclaimed from the first edition, PUBLIC SPEAKING: CONCEPTS AND SKILLS FOR A DIVERSE SOCIETY, Fifth Edition, continues to train students to be effective speakers and listeners in the context of our multicultural society. Jaffe explores the intertwining nature of diversity and public speaking?with expanded coverage of basic public speaking skills, rhetorical foundations and technology. Topics covered include technology, the canons of rhetoric diverse listening styles, civility and speechmaking, the culture of narrative and non-traditional speech organization patterns such as the wave and the exemplum. With a keen sense of what students need to excel, Jaffe infuses each chapter with the concepts, skills, theories, applications, and critical thinking proficiencies essential for success in today's diverse world.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction to Public Speaking and Culture
1(16)
Case Study: Lorna Owens's Mission
2(1)
How Can This Course Help You?
3(2)
Gain Confidence and Competence
3(1)
Stop and Check: Assess Your Current Competence
3(1)
Develop Your Professional and Personal Skills
4(1)
Increase Your Critical Thinking Skills
4(1)
Diversity in Practice: Public Speaking in Ancient Cultures
5(1)
Why Take a Cultural Perspective?
5(1)
Culture Affects Public Speaking
6(4)
Cultures Provide Core Resources
6(1)
Cultures Provide Technological Aids
7(1)
Cultures Provide Expectations About Speaking and Listening
7(2)
Public Speaking Influences Culture
9(1)
Stop and Check: Recognize Your Cultural Speaking Traditions
10(1)
A Theory and a Model of Communication
10(3)
The Dialogical Theory of Communication
10(1)
The Transactional Model of Communication
11(2)
Summary
13(1)
Study and Review
13(2)
Sample Speech
``Graduation Party Speech''
15(2)
Alexandria Reed
Giving Your First Speech: Developing Confidence
17(16)
Case Study: Reese Wilson: Public Speaking Anxiety (PSA)
18(1)
Develop Skills to Overcome Process Anxiety
19(7)
Create Your Speech: The Canon of Invention
20(1)
Diversity in Practice: Your Classroom Culture
20(3)
Organize Your Ideas: The Canon of Disposition or Arrangement
23(1)
Build Your Speech: Your First Speech
23(1)
Choose Suitable Language: The Canon of Style
24(1)
Learn and Present Your Speech: The Canons of Memory and Delivery
24(1)
Build Your Speech: Your First Speech
25(1)
Develop Strategies to Overcome Performance Anxiety
26(3)
Develop Strategies to Deal with Physiological Responses
26(1)
Develop Strategies to Deal with Psychological Anxiety
27(1)
Stop and Check: Assess Your Public Speaking Anxiety
28(1)
Summary
29(1)
Study and Review
29(2)
Student Speech with Commentary
``Self-Introduction''
31(2)
Mona Bradsher
Ethics and Diversity
33(20)
Case Study: Heckling
34(1)
Responses to Diversity
35(2)
Stop and Check: Your Responses to Diversity
37(1)
Speaking Ethically
37(5)
Use Dialogical Principles
37(2)
Diversity in Practice: Seeds of Peace
39(1)
Practice Democratic Principles
39(1)
Diversity in Practice: NCA Credo for Ethical Communication
40(1)
Stop and Check: Civility in Public Life
41(1)
Listening Ethically
42(1)
Academic Honesty
43(3)
Avoid Plagiarism
43(2)
Diversity in Practice: Plagiarism and Culture
45(1)
Avoid Fabrication
46(1)
Stop and Check: Would You Use Questionable Statistics?
46(1)
Summary
46(1)
Study and Review
47(2)
Professional Speaker's Speech with Commentary
``Lay Your Hammer Down: Defend Your Convictions''
49(4)
Edwin J. Feulner
Effective Listening
53(16)
Case Study: Service Advisers Who Listen
54(1)
Listening Skills Are Valuable
55(1)
Barriers to Listening
56(3)
Linguistic Barriers
56(1)
Cultural Barriers
56(1)
Personal Barriers
57(1)
Stop and Check: Listening Skills Self-Assessment
58(1)
Strategies to Improve Listening
59(4)
Use Cultural Schemas
59(1)
Diversity in Practice: Cultural Listening Skills
60(1)
Know Your Listening Purpose
60(3)
Stop and Check: Develop Strategies to Listen More Effectively
63(1)
Practice Dialogical Listening
63(3)
Give Appropriate Nonverbal Feedback
63(1)
Give Verbal Feedback
64(1)
Diversity in Practice: Saving Face
65(1)
Provide Written Feedback
65(1)
Stop and Check: Write a Critique
65(1)
Summary
66(1)
Study and Review
66(3)
Audience Analysis
69(20)
Case Study: Pope John Paul II
70(1)
Analyze Who Is Listening
71(8)
Consider Audience Motivations
71(1)
Analyze Audience Demographics
72(4)
Stop and Check: Analyze Your Audience
76(1)
Analyze the Audience's Psychological Profile
76(2)
Stop and Check: Construct a Questionnaire
78(1)
Assess the Situation
79(2)
Consider the Time
79(1)
Consider the Environment
80(1)
Stop and Check: Do A Situational Analysis
81(1)
Consider Your Audience's Perception of You
81(2)
Be Aware of Prior Credibility
81(1)
Demonstrate Credibility in Your Speech
81(1)
Take Terminal Credibility Into Account
82(1)
Diversity in Practice: Prior Credibility in Other Cultures
82(1)
Summary
83(1)
Study and Review
83(2)
Speech with Commentary
``The Biology of Your Lunch: You Are What You Eat''
85(4)
Amara Sheppard
Selecting Your Topic and Purpose
89(18)
Case Study: Speech Coach Southwick on Topic Selection
90(1)
Choose Your Topic
91(3)
Assess Your Audience's Need to Know
91(1)
Consider Your Personal Interests
92(1)
Look for Topics from Other Courses
93(1)
Investigate Current Events
93(1)
Consider International and Cultural Topics
93(1)
Diversity in Practice: Does Requiring Speech on ``Communication and Culture'' Increase Students Empathy?
94(1)
Narrow Your Topic
94(2)
Stop and Check: Identify Several Usable Topics
96(1)
Choose Your Purpose and Focus
96(6)
Identify Your General Purpose
96(1)
Stop and Check: Narrow Your Purpose
97(1)
Identify Your Specific Purpose
98(1)
Write Your Thesis Statement
99(2)
Build Your Speech: General Purpose. Specific Purpose, and Central Idea
101(1)
Summary
102(1)
Study and Review
102(1)
Speech Outline with Commentary
``The Benefits of Pet Ownership''
103(4)
Jill Lacey
Researching Your Speech in an Electronic Culture
107(26)
Case Study: Luke and Jonathan Research Their Speeches
108(1)
Gather Materials for Your Speech
108(5)
Plan Your Research
109(1)
Stop and Check: Begin Your Research Plan
110(1)
Distinguish Between Primary and Secondary Sources
110(1)
Draw From Your Personal Experiences
111(1)
Interview a Knowledgeable Person
111(1)
Attend Lectures and Performances
112(1)
Stop and Check: Revisit Your Research Plan
112(1)
Use Internet Resources
113(4)
Stop and Check: Critical Thinking and the Internet
117(1)
Use the Library and Online Resources
117(5)
Diversity in Practice: Research in Kenya
119(2)
Diversity in Practice: International and Ethnic Presses
121(1)
Record Your Information
122(4)
Write Note Cards
122(2)
Photocopy or Print Your Materials
124(1)
Create a Mind Map
124(2)
Use a Standard Format to Cite Your Sources
126(1)
Stop and Check: Complete Your Research Plan
126(1)
Summary
126(1)
Study and Review
127(1)
Student Outline with Commentary
``Medical Misinformation on the Internet''
128(5)
Quianna Clay
Choosing Supporting Materials
133(22)
Case Study: Is Global Warming a Problem?
134(1)
Provide Facts
135(2)
Use Definitions
135(1)
Provide Vivid Descriptions
136(1)
Stop and Check: Think Critically About Facts
136(1)
Use Examples
137(3)
Use Real Examples
138(1)
Consider Hypothetical Examples for Sensitive Topics
138(1)
Combine Brief Examples
139(1)
Create Emotional Connections with Extended Examples
139(1)
Stop and Check: Think Critical About Examples
140(1)
Quote Culturally Acceptable Authorities
140(4)
Diversity in Practice: Visual Evidence: Chicano Murals
141(1)
Quote Culturally Accepted Experts
141(1)
Quote Credible Peers or Laypeople
142(1)
Diversity in Practice: Proverbs in a West African Culture
142(1)
Quote Sayings, Proverbs, and Words of Wisdom
142(1)
Stop and Check: Think Critically About Quoting Authorities
143(1)
Use Statistics Carefully
144(4)
Provide a Count
144(1)
Choose Statistics with a Critical Eye
144(2)
Use Visual Aids to Clarify Numerical Data
146(1)
Stop and Check: Critically Analyze Numerical Data
147(1)
Find Compelling Comparisons
148(1)
Use Literal Analogies
148(1)
Create Vivid Figurative Analogies
148(1)
Stop and Check: Think Critically About Analogies
149(1)
Summary
149(1)
Study and Review
150(2)
Student Speech with Questions
``Lifegems: Cremains Into Diamonds''
152(3)
Chris Russie
Organizing Your Speech
155(18)
Case Study: Career Advice
156(1)
Organize Your Main Points
156(2)
Limit the Number of Points
157(1)
Support Each Point with Evidence
157(1)
Order Your Points Effectively
158(1)
Traditional Patterns
158(6)
Chronological Organization
158(1)
Spatial Organization
159(1)
Causal Organization
160(1)
Diversity in Practice: Some African Organization Patterns
160(1)
Problem-Solution Organization
161(1)
Pro-Con Organization
162(1)
Topical Organization
162(1)
Choosing the Best Pattern
163(1)
Build Your Speech: Developing Your Main Points
163(1)
Alternative Patterns
164(3)
The Wave Pattern
164(1)
The Spiral Pattern
165(1)
The Star Pattern
166(1)
Stop and Check: Develop Your Speech Using an Alternative Pattern
167(1)
Summary
167(1)
Study and Review
168(1)
Student Outline With Commentary
``You Have My Deepest Sympathy: You Just Won the Lottery''
169(4)
Maria DiMaggio
Completing Your Speech
173(18)
Case Study: Two Introductions
174(1)
Plan Your Introduction
174(8)
Gain Attention
175(3)
Diversity in Practice: Considering Organizational Culture
178(1)
Give Your Audience a Reason to Listen
179(1)
Establish Your Credibility
179(1)
Diversity in Practice: A Navajo (Dine) Speech Introduction
180(1)
Preview Your Ideas
181(1)
Stop and Check: Create An Interesting Introduction
181(1)
Conclude with Impact
182(4)
Signal the Ending
182(1)
Review Your Main Ideas
182(1)
Provide Psychological Closure
182(1)
End Memorably
183(1)
Stop and Check: Evaluating Introductions and Conclusions
183(1)
Connect Your Ideas
184(1)
Signposts and Transitions
185(1)
Internal Previews and Internal Summaries
185(1)
Summary
186(1)
Study and Review
186(1)
Student Speech with Commentary
``Driving While Drowsy''
187(4)
Bonita Persons
Putting It All Together: Outlining Your Speech
191(16)
Case Study: The Benefits of Outlining
192(1)
How to Prepare a Content Outline
192(4)
Begin with a Heading
193(1)
Use a Standard Format
193(1)
Write Your Points in Sentence Form
194(1)
Use the Principle of Subordination
195(1)
Student Outline with Commentary
The Five Stages of Culture Shock by John Streicher
196(2)
Build Your Speech: Evaluate Your Content Outline
198(1)
How to Create Speaking Notes
198(3)
Use Note Cards
198(2)
Create a Speaking Outline
200(1)
Build Your Speech: Evaluate Your Speaking Outline
201(1)
How to Work with an Alternative Pattern
201(3)
Diversity in Practice: Individual Cognitive Style
204(1)
Summary
204(1)
Study and Review
205(2)
Visual Aids: From Chalkboard to Computer
207(24)
Case Study: Neil Wolkodoff, Fitness Specialist
208(1)
Visual Aids Transcend Culture
208(1)
Diversity in Practice: If Your First Language Is Not English
209(1)
Planning Your Visual or Audio Aids
209(1)
Choosing the Right Type of Aid
210(4)
Objects
210(1)
Models
211(1)
People
211(1)
Lists
212(1)
Charts
212(1)
Photographs
212(1)
Graphs
212(2)
Drawings, Diagrams, and Maps
214(3)
Video and Audio Recordings
216(1)
Stop and Check: Continue Your Audiovisual Presentation Plan
217(1)
Choosing the Right Type of Presentation Technology
217(4)
Overhead Projectors
217(1)
Slide Projectors
218(1)
Presentation Software and LCD Projectors
218(1)
Document Cameras
218(1)
Chalkboards or Whiteboards
219(1)
Poster Boards and Flip Charts
219(1)
Diversity in Practice: Traveling and Talking
220(1)
Handouts
221(1)
Stop and Check: Continue Your Audiovisual Aid Plan
221(1)
Using Proven Design Principles to Create Visuals
221(3)
Choose a Readable Font
222(1)
Use Formatting Features Wisely
222(1)
Color and Emphasis
223(1)
Stop and Check: Complete Your Audiovisual Aid Plan
224(1)
General Guidelines for Using Visual and Audio Aids
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
Study and Review
225(2)
Student Outline with Visual Aids with Commentary
``Pumpkins''
227(4)
Anna Riedl
Choosing Effective Language
231(24)
Case Study: Pay Attention to Words
232(1)
Language Reflects Culture
233(5)
Words and Meaning
234(1)
Diversity in Practice: Dialects
235(3)
Stop and Check: Think Critically About Denotative and Connotative Words
238(1)
Use Language Ethically: Inclusive Language
238(2)
Avoid Language That Privileges One Group Over Another
238(1)
Avoid Stereotyping
239(1)
Avoid Creating Invisibility
239(1)
Avoid Demeaning Epithets or Slurs
239(1)
Avoid Dismissive Language
239(1)
Avoid Undue Emphasis on Differences
240(1)
Stop and Check: Avoiding Discriminatory Language
240(1)
Use Language Effectively
240(6)
Be Accurate
240(1)
Be Appropriate
241(1)
Be Concise
241(1)
Diversity in Practice: Understanding Aristide
241(1)
Be Clear
242(1)
Be Concrete
242(1)
Stop and Check: Choosing More Precise Wording
243(1)
Be Interesting
243(3)
Language and Pluralistic Audiences
246(3)
Adapt to Multilingual Situations
247(1)
Adapt to an Interpreter
247(2)
Summary
249(1)
Study and Review
249(2)
Professional Speech with Commentary
``I Have a Dream''
251(4)
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Delivering Your Speech
255(16)
Case Study: Winston Churchill's Oratory
256(1)
Maximize Your Personal Appearance
257(2)
Make the Most of Your Physical Appearance
257(1)
Choose Appropriate Clothing and Accessories
258(1)
Stop and Check: Managing Impressions
258(1)
Develop Effective Mannerisms
259(2)
Control Your Gestures
259(1)
Make Eye Contact
260(1)
Vary Your Vocal Behaviors
261(3)
Pronounce Your Words Clearly
261(1)
Diversity in Practice: Immigrants, Don't Be in Such a Hurry to Shed Your Accents
262(1)
Use Vocal Variation
262(2)
Pause for Effect
264(1)
Put It All Together
264(3)
Stop and Check: Think Critically About Delivery
265(1)
Select the Appropriate Type of Delivery
265(2)
Summary
267(1)
Study and Review
267(4)
Telling Narratives
271(16)
Case Study: Storytelling for Healing and Peace
272(1)
Narrative Functions
273(5)
Informative Narratives
273(2)
Diversity in Practice: Who Should Tell Native Stories
275(1)
Persuasive Narratives
275(2)
Entertaining Narratives
277(1)
Stop and Check: Your Narrative Purposes
278(1)
Guidelines for Narratives
278(3)
Identify Your Purpose
278(1)
Develop the Characters
279(1)
Develop the Plot
279(1)
Select Vivid Language
279(2)
Stop and Check: Analyzing a Folktale
281(1)
Organizing Your Narrative Speech
281(1)
Evaluating Narrative Reasoning
282(1)
Summary
282(1)
Study and Review
283(1)
Student Speech with Commentary
``Spanking? There's Gotta Be a Better Way''
284(3)
Gail Grobey
Informative Speaking
287(22)
Case Study: Back-Up Speaker at the Spring Fling
288(1)
Information Is Important Globally
289(1)
Analyze Your Audience's Current Knowledge
290(2)
Presenting New Information
290(1)
Presenting Supplemental Information
290(1)
Presenting Review or Updated Information
291(1)
Countering Misinformation
291(1)
Stop and Check: Analyze Your Audience's Knowledge
292(1)
Types of Informative Speeches
292(9)
Doing Demonstrations and Providing Instructions
292(2)
Giving Descriptions
294(1)
Presenting Reports
295(3)
Diversity in Practice: Informative Speaking in Africa
298(1)
Explaining Concepts
298(3)
Guidelines for Informative Speaking
301(2)
Stop and Check: Do an Obstacle Analysis and Strategic Plan
302(1)
Summary
303(1)
Study and Review
303(2)
Student Outline with Commentary
``The Dun Dun Drum''
305(4)
Joshua Valentine
Persuasive Speaking
309(22)
Case Study: A Teenage Activist
310(1)
Diversity in Practice: Persuasion in Other Cultures
310(1)
Select Your Persuasive Topic
311(4)
Finding Your Subject
311(1)
Stop and Check: Select Your Topic
312(1)
Making Persuasive Claims
312(3)
Stop and Check: Make Fact, Definition, Value, and Policy Claims
315(1)
Narrow Your Persuasive Purpose
315(5)
Focus on Beliefs and Actions
315(2)
Focusing on Values
317(1)
Focusing on Attitudes
317(2)
Stop and Check: Adapt to the Audience's Attitude
319(1)
Choose a Persuasive Pattern
320(4)
Problem-Solution Pattern
320(1)
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
321(1)
Stop and Check: Use Monroe's Motivated Sequence
322(1)
Direct Method Pattern
322(1)
Comparative Advantages Pattern
322(1)
Criteria Satisfaction Pattern
323(1)
Negative Method Pattern
324(1)
Summary
324(1)
Study and Review
325(1)
Student Outline with Commentary
``Restricting Alcohol Advertising''
326(5)
Brittany Farrer
Persuasive Reasoning Methods
331(24)
Case Study: Quintilian
332(1)
Use Toulmin's Reasoning Model
333(2)
Claims
333(1)
Grounds, Data, or Evidence
333(1)
Warrants
334(1)
Backing
334(1)
Qualifiers
334(1)
Rebuttal
334(1)
Diversity in Practice: The Influence of Culture on Reasoning
334(1)
Use Logos or Rational Proofs
335(7)
Reasoning by Analogy: Figurative and Literal
335(2)
Reasoning Inductively
337(1)
Reasoning Deductively
337(2)
Reasoning Causally
339(1)
Diversity in Practice: Reasoning and the Sexes
339(1)
Recognizing Logical Fallacies
340(2)
Stop and Check: Identifying Fallacies
342(1)
Include Pathos or Emotional Proofs
342(3)
Appeals to Positive Emotions
343(1)
Appeals to Negative Emotions
343(1)
Appealing to Needs
344(1)
Understanding Complex Motivations
344(1)
Testing Emotional Appeals
345(1)
Develop Ethos or Speaker Credibility
345(3)
Demonstrating Good Sense
346(1)
Diversity in Practice: Composure in Other Cultures
346(1)
Exhibiting Good Character
346(1)
Expressing Goodwill
347(1)
Showing Dynamism
347(1)
Stop and Check: Evaluating Ethos
347(1)
Incorporate Principles and Forms of Invitational Rhetoric
348(1)
Combining Three Principles
348(1)
Including Two Forms
348(1)
Summary
349(1)
Study and Review
350(1)
Student Speech with Questions
``The Benefits of Hunting''
351(4)
Anonymous
Appendix A. Speaking in Small Groups 355(8)
Appendix B. Speaking on Special Occasions 363(8)
Appendix C. Sample Speeches 371(20)
References 391(10)
Credits 401(2)
Index 403


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