Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design : Choosing among Five Approaches

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-03-14
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc

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In this Third Edition of his bestselling text John W. Creswell explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry traditions: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. In his signature accessible writing style, the author relates research designs to each of the traditions of inquiry. He compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and strategies for writing introductions to studies, collecting data, analyzing data, writing a narrative, and verifying results.

Author Biography

In this Third Edition of his bestselling text, John W. Creswell explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry traditions: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. In his signature writing style, the author relates research designs to each of the traditions of inquiry in a highly accessible manner. He compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and strategies for writing introductions to studies, collecting data, analyzing data, writing a narrative, and verifying results.

Table of Contents

About the Authorp. xiv
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Analytic Table of Contents by Approachp. xvi
List of Tables and Figuresp. xx
Introductionp. 1
Purpose and Rationale for the Bookp. 2
What Is New in This Editionp. 2
Positioning Myselfp. 6
Selection of the Five Approachesp. 7
Narrative Researchp. 11
Phenomenologyp. 12
Grounded Theoryp. 12
Ethnographyp. 12
Case Studyp. 12
Audiencep. 12
Organizationp. 13
Philosophical Assumptions and Interpretive Frameworksp. 15
Questions for Discussionp. 16
Philosophical Assumptionsp. 16
A Framework for Understanding Assumptionsp. 16
Why Philosophy Is Importantp. 18
Four Philosophical Assumptionsp. 19
Writing Philosophical Assumptions Into Qualitative Studiesp. 22
Interpretive Frameworksp. 22
Postpositivismp. 23
Social Constructivismp. 24
Transformative Frameworksp. 25
Postmodern Perspectivesp. 27
Pragmatismp. 28
Feminist Theoriesp. 29
Critical Theory and Critical Race Theory (CRT)p. 30
Queer Theoryp. 32
Disability Theoriesp. 33
The Practice of Using Social Justice Interpretive Frameworks in Qualitative Researchp. 34
Linking Philosophy and Interpretive Frameworksp. 35
Summaryp. 38
Additional Readingsp. 38
Exercisesp. 40
Designing a Qualitative Studyp. 42
Questions for Discussionp. 43
The Characteristics of Qualitative Researchp. 43
When to Use Qualitative Researchp. 47
What a Qualitative Study Requires From Usp. 49
The Process of Designing a Qualitative Studyp. 49
Preliminary Considerationsp. 50
Steps in the Processp. 51
Elements in All Phases of the Researchp. 55
Ethical Issues During All Phases of the Research Processp. 56
The General Structure of a Plan or Proposalp. 61
Summaryp. 64
Additional Readingsp. 66
Exercisesp. 67
Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiryp. 69
Questions for Discussionp. 70
Narrative Researchp. 70
Definition and Backgroundp. 70
Defining Features of Narrative Studiesp. 71
Types of Narrativesp. 72
Procedures for Conducting Narrative Researchp. 73
Challengesp. 76
Phenomenological Researchp. 76
Definition and Backgroundp. 76
Defining Features of Phenomenologyp. 78
Types of Phenomenologyp. 79
Procedures for Conducting Phenomenological Researchp. 80
Challengesp. 82
Grounded Theory Researchp. 83
Definition and Backgroundp. 83
Defining Features of Grounded Theoryp. 85
Types of Grounded Theory Studiesp. 86
Procedures for Conducting Grounded Theory Researchp. 88
Challengesp. 89
Ethnographic Researchp. 90
Definition and Backgroundp. 90
Defining Features of Ethnographiesp. 91
Types of Ethnographiesp. 93
Procedures for Conducting an Ethnographyp. 94
Challengesp. 96
Case Study Researchp. 97
Definition and Backgroundp. 97
Defining Features of Case Studiesp. 98
Types of Case Studiesp. 99
Procedures for Conducting a Case Studyp. 100
Challengesp. 101
The Five Approaches Comparedp. 102
Summaryp. 107
Additional Readingsp. 107
Exercisesp. 110
Five Different Qualitative Studiesp. 111
Questions for Discussionp. 112
A Narrative Study (Chan, 2010; see Appendix B)p. 112
A Phenomenological Study (Anderson & Spencer, 2002; see Appendix C)p. 114
A Grounded Theory Study (Harley et al., 2009; see Appendix D)p. 116
An Ethnographic Study (Haenfler, 2004; see Appendix E)p. 118
A Case Study (Asmussen & Creswell, 1995; see Appendix F)p. 119
Differences Among the Approachesp. 121
Central Features of Each Approachp. 121
Selecting Your Approachp. 123
Summaryp. 124
Additional Readingsp. 125
Exercisesp. 128
Introducing and Focusing the Studyp. 129
Questions for Discussionp. 130
The Research Problem Statementp. 130
The Purpose Statementp. 134
The Research Questionsp. 138
The Central Questionp. 138
Subquestionsp. 140
Summaryp. 142
Additional Readingsp. 143
Exercisesp. 143
Data Collectionp. 145
Questions for Discussionp. 145
The Data Collection Circlep. 146
The Site or Individualp. 147
Access and Rapportp. 151
Institutional Review Boardsp. 152
Access and Rapport Within the Five Approachesp. 153
Purposeful Sampling Strategyp. 154
Participants in the Samplep. 155
Types of Samplingp. 156
Sample Sizep. 157
Forms of Datap. 157
Interviewingp. 163
Observationp. 166
Recording Proceduresp. 168
Field Issuesp. 171
Access to the Organizationp. 171
Observationsp. 172
Interviewsp. 172
Documents and Audiovisual Materialsp. 174
Ethical Issuesp. 174
Storing Datap. 175
Five Approaches Comparedp. 176
Summaryp. 177
Additional Readingsp. 177
Exercisesp. 178
Data Analysis and Representationp. 179
Questions for Discussionp. 179
Three Analysis Strategiesp. 180
The Data Analysis Spiralp. 182
Organizing the Datap. 182
Reading and Memoingp. 183
Describing, Classifying, and Interpreting Data Into Codes and Themesp. 184
Interpreting the Datap. 187
Representing and Visualizing the Datap. 187
Analysis Within Approaches to Inquiryp. 189
Narrative Research Analysis and Representationp. 189
Phenomenological Analysis and Representationp. 193
Grounded Theory Analysis and Representationp. 195
Ethnographic Analysis and Representationp. 197
Case Study Analysis and Representationp. 199
Comparing the Five Approachesp. 200
Computer Use in Qualitative Data Analysisp. 201
Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 201
A Sampling of Computer Programsp. 203
Use of Computer Sofware Programs With the Five Approachesp. 204
How to Choose Among the Computer Programsp. 209
Summaryp. 211
Additional Readingsp. 211
Exercisesp. 212
Writing a Qualitative Studyp. 213
Questions for Discussionp. 213
Several Writing Strategiesp. 214
Reflexivity and Representations in Writingp. 214
Audience for Our Writingsp. 217
Encoding Our Writingsp. 217
Quotes in Our Writingsp. 219
Overall and Embedded Writing Strategiesp. 220
Narrative Writing Structurep. 220
Overall Structurep. 220
Embedded Structurep. 224
Phenomenological Writing Structurep. 225
Overall Structurep. 226
Embedded Structurep. 228
Grounded Theory Writing Structurep. 229
Overall Structurep. 229
Embedded Structurep. 231
Ethnographic Writing Structurep. 232
Overall Structurep. 233
Embedded Structurep. 234
Case Study Writing Structurep. 236
Overall Structurep. 236
Embedded Structurep. 238
A Comparison of Narrative Structuresp. 239
Summaryp. 240
Additional Readingsp. 240
Exercisesp. 241
Standards of Validation and Evaluationp. 243
Questions for Discussionp. 243
Validation and Reliability in Qualitative Researchp. 244
Perspectives on Validationp. 244
Validation Strategiesp. 250
Reliability Perspectivesp. 253
Evaluation Criteriap. 255
Qualitative Perspectivesp. 255
Narrative Researchp. 258
Phenomenological Researchp. 259
Grounded Theory Researchp. 260
Ethnographic Researchp. 262
Case Study Researchp. 264
Comparing the Evaluation Standards of the Five Approachesp. 265
Summaryp. 265
Additional Readingsp. 266
Exercisesp. 268
"Turning the Story" and Conclusionp. 269
Turning the Storyp. 269
A Case Studyp. 271
A Narrative Studyp. 272
A Phenomenologyp. 273
A Grounded Theory Studyp. 273
An Ethnographyp. 274
Conclusionp. 277
Exercisesp. 280
An Annotated Glossary of Termsp. 282
A Narrative Research Study-"Living in the Space Between Participant and Researcher as a Narrative Inquirer: Examining Ethnic Identity of Chinese Canadian Students as Conflicting Stories to Live By"p. 303
A Phenomenological Study-"Cognitive Representations of AIDS"p. 327
A Grounded Theory Study-"Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study With African American Women"p. 347
An Ethnography-"Rethinking Subcultural Resistance: Core Values of the Straight Edge Movement"p. 370
A Case Study-"Campus Response to a Student Gunman"p. 399
Referencesp. 417
Author Indexp. 435
Subject Indexp. 442
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