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Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences,9780205318476

Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences

by
ISBN13:

9780205318476

ISBN10:
0205318479
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $55.20
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Summary

This book offers the most comprehensive and straightforward coverage of doing qualitative research on the market, now with a new chapter on Action Research.The author's central purpose remains a desire to instruct inexperienced researchers in ways of effectively collecting, organizing, and making sense of qualitative data, while stressing the importance of ethics in research and in taking the time to properly design and think through any research endeavor. After reading this book, fledgling researchers should be able to design, collect, and analyze data and then present their results to the scientific community.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction
1(14)
Quantitative versus Quanlitative Schools of Thought
2(2)
Use of Triangulation Research Methodology
4(2)
Qualitative Strategies: Defining an Orientation
6(2)
From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
8(2)
Why Use Qualitative Methods?
10(1)
A Plan of Presentation
11(1)
References
12(3)
Designing Qualitative Research
15(24)
Theory and Concepts
15(1)
Ideas and Theory
16(3)
Literature Review
19(5)
The Two-Card Method
21(3)
Framing Research Problems
24(1)
Operationalization and Conceptualization
25(3)
Designing Projects
28(5)
Setting and Population Appropriateness
29(1)
Sampling Strategies
30(3)
Data Collection and Organization
33(3)
Data Storage, Retrieval, and Analysis
35(1)
Dissemination
36(1)
Trying it Out
37(1)
References
37(2)
Ethical Issues
39(27)
Research Ethics in Historical Perspective
40(4)
From Guidelines to Law: Regulations on the Research Process
44(1)
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
45(7)
IRBs and Their Duties
46(2)
Clarifying the Role of IRBs
48(2)
Active versus Passive Consent
50(1)
Membership Criteria for IRBs
51(1)
Ethical Codes
52(1)
Some Common Ethical Concerns in Behavioral Research
53(1)
Physical and Ethical Dangers in Covert Research
54(2)
Informed Consent and Implied Consent
56(1)
Confidentiality and Anonymity
57(2)
Keeping Identifying Records
58(1)
Strategies for Safeguarding Confidentiality
58(1)
Securing the Data
59(1)
Objectivity and Careful Research Design
60(2)
Trying it Out
62(1)
References
63(3)
A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewing
66(45)
Dramaturgy and Interviewing
67(1)
Types of Interviews
68(4)
The Standardized Interview
69(1)
The Unstandardized Interview
69(1)
The Semistandardized Interview
70(2)
The Interview Schedule
72(2)
Schedule Development
74(3)
Question Order, Content, and Style
74(3)
Communicating Effectively
77(1)
A Few Common Problems in Question Formulation
78(2)
Affectively Worded Questions
78(1)
The Double-Barreled Question
79(1)
Complex Questions
79(1)
Question Sequencing
79(1)
Pretesting the Schedule
80(1)
Long Versus Short Interviews
80(2)
Telephone Interviews
82(2)
Conducting an Interview: A Natural or an Unnatural Communication?
84(1)
The Dramaturgical Interview
85(8)
Interviewer Roles and Rapport
86(3)
The Interviewer as a Self-Conscious Performer
89(1)
Social Interpretations and the Interviewer
90(3)
The Interviewer's Repertoire
93(7)
Interviewers' Attitudes and Persuading a Subject
95(1)
Developing an Interviewer Repertoire
96(1)
Techniques to Get New Researchers Started
97(1)
Taking the Show on the Road
98(1)
The Ten Commandments of Interviewing
99(1)
Know Your Audience
100(2)
Curtain Calls
101(1)
Analyzing Data Obtained from the Dramaturgical Interview
102(3)
Beginning an Analysis
103(1)
Systemetic Filling Systems
103(2)
Short-Answer Sheets
105(1)
Analysis Procedures: A Concluding Remark
105(1)
Trying it Out
105(2)
Notes
107(1)
References
107(4)
Focus Group Interviewing
111(22)
What Are Focus Group Interviews?
111(1)
The Evolution of Focus Group Interviews
112(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Group Interviewing
114(6)
Focus Group Interviewing and Face-to-Face Interviewing
115(2)
Focus Group Interviewing and Participant Observation
117(1)
Focus Group Interviewing and Unobtrusive Measures
118(2)
Facilitating Focus Groups Dynamics: How Focus Groups Work
120(1)
The Moderator's Guide
121(2)
Introduction and Introductory Activities
121(1)
Statement of the Basic Rules or Guidelines for the Interview
122(1)
Short Question-and-Answer Discussions
122(1)
Special Activities or Exercises
122(1)
Guidance for Dealing with Sensitive Issues
123(1)
Basic Ingredients in Focus Groups
123(4)
Confidentiality and Focus Group Interviews
127(2)
Recent Trends in Focus Groups
129(1)
Conclusion
130(1)
Trying it Out
130(1)
Notes
130(1)
References
131(2)
Ethnographic Field Strategies
133(45)
Accessing a Field Setting: Getting in
136(3)
Reflectivity and Ethnography
139(8)
The Attitude of the Ethnographer
139(1)
The Researcher's Voice
140(4)
Gaining Entry
144(3)
Becoming Invisible
147(4)
Dangers of Invisibility
148(2)
A New Problem in Data Protection: The Case of Mario Brajuha
150(1)
Other Dangers During Ethnographic Reserach
151(2)
Watching, Listening, and Learning
153(12)
How to Learn: What to Watch and Listen for
155(3)
Field Notes
158(6)
Analyzing Ethnographic Data
164(1)
Other Analysis Strategies: Typologies, Sociograms, and Metaphors
165(6)
Typologies
166(1)
Sociograms
167(4)
Metaphors
171(1)
Disengaging: Getting Out
171(2)
Trying it Out
173(1)
Note
173(1)
References
173(5)
Action Research
178(11)
The Basics of Action Research
180(1)
Identifying the Research Question(s)
181(1)
Gathering the Information to Answer the Question(s)
182(1)
Analyzing and Interpreting the Information
182(2)
Procedures for Using Interview and Ethnographic Data
183(1)
Guiding Questions of Analysis: Why, What, How, Who, Where, When?
183(1)
Descriptive Accounts and Reports
184(1)
Sharing The Results with the Participants
184(1)
The Action Researcher's Role
185(1)
Types of Action Research
185(2)
Technical/Scientific/Collaborative Mode
186(1)
A Practical/Mutual Collaborative/Deliberate Mode
186(1)
Emancipating/Enhancing/Critical Science Mode
187(1)
Trying it Out
187(1)
References
188(1)
Unobtrusive Measures in Research
189(21)
Archival Strategies
190(13)
Public Archives
191(9)
Private Archives: Solicited and Unsolicited Documents
200(3)
A Last Remark about Archival Records
203(1)
Physical Erosion and Accretion: Human Traces as Data Sources
203(3)
Erosion Measures
203(1)
Accretion Measures
204(1)
Some Final Remarks about Physical Traces
205(1)
Trying it Out
206(1)
References
207(3)
Historiography and Oral Traditions
210(15)
What is Historical Research?
210(3)
Life Histories and Historiography
213(1)
What are the Sources of Data of Historical Researchers?
214(1)
Doing Historiography: Tracing Written History as Data
214(5)
External Criticism
216(2)
Internal Criticism
218(1)
What are Oral Histories?
219(3)
Trying it Out
222(1)
References
222(3)
Case Studies
225(13)
The Nature of Case Studies
225(1)
The Individual Case Study
226(3)
The Use of Interview Data
226(1)
The Use of Personal Documents
227(2)
Intrinsic, Instrumental, and Collective Case Studies
229(1)
Case Study Design Types
229(2)
Exploratory Case Studies
230(1)
Explanatory Case Studies
230(1)
Descriptive Case Studies
230(1)
The Scientific Benefit of Case Studies
231(2)
Objectivity and the Case Method
231(1)
Generalizability
232(1)
Case Studies of Organizations
233(1)
Case Studies of Communities
233(3)
Data Collection for Community Case Studies
234(1)
Community Groups and Interests
235(1)
Trying it Out
236(1)
References
236(2)
An Introduction to Content Analysis
238(30)
Analysis of Qualitative Data
238(2)
Interpretative Approaches
239(1)
Social Anthropological Approaches
239(1)
Collaborative Social Research Approaches
240(1)
Content Analysis as a Technique
240(1)
Content Analysis: Quantitative or Qualitative?
241(2)
Manifest versus Latent Content Analysis
242(1)
Blending Manifest and Latent Content Analysis Strategies
243(1)
Communication Components
243(1)
What to Count: Levels and Units of Analysis
244(1)
Category Development: Building Grounded Theory
245(6)
What to Count
246(1)
Combinations of Elements
247(1)
Units and Categories
248(2)
Classes and Categories
250(1)
Open Coding
251(2)
Coding Frames
253(5)
A Few More Words on Analytic Induction
255(1)
Interrogative Hypothesis Testing
256(2)
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Content Analysis Process
258(1)
Computers and Qualitative Analysis
259(4)
Word Processors
261(1)
Text Retrievers
261(1)
Textbase Managers
261(1)
Code-and-Retrieve Programs
262(1)
Code-Based Theory Builders
262(1)
Conceptual Network Builders
262(1)
Qualitative Research at the Speed of Light
263(2)
Trying it Out
265(1)
References
265(3)
Writing Research Papers: Sorting the Noodles from the Soup
268(21)
Identifying the Purpose of the Writing: Arranging the Noodles
268(1)
Delineating a Supportive Structure: Visual Signals for the Reader
269(11)
The Abstract
271(2)
The Introduction
273(1)
Literature Review
273(2)
Methodology
275(1)
Findings or Results
276(1)
Discussion/Conclusion
277(1)
References, Notes, and Appendices
278(2)
Presenting Research Material
280(4)
Disseminating the Research: Professional Meetings and Publications
280(4)
A Word About the Content of Papers and Articles
284(1)
Write it, Rewrite it, Then Write it Again!
284(2)
A Final Note
286(1)
Notes
287(1)
References
287(2)
Name Index 289(7)
Subject Index 296


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