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Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences,9780205482634
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Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205482634

ISBN10:
0205482635
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2009.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

This text uses hands-on activities and real-life examples to provide the most comprehensive and straightforward coverage of doing qualitative research on the market. The author's central purpose is to show inexperienced researchers how to design, collect, and analyze data and then present their results to the scientific community, while stressing the importance of ethics in research and taking the time to properly design and think through any research endeavor.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1(18)
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Schools of Thought
2(3)
Use of Triangulation in Research Methodology
5(3)
Qualitative Strategies: Defining an Orientation
8(1)
From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
9(4)
Why Use Qualitative Methods?
13(2)
A Plan of Presentation
15(1)
References
16(3)
Chapter 2 Designing Qualitative Research 19(34)
Theory and Concepts
19(2)
Ideas and Theory
21(4)
Reviewing the Literature
25(8)
Evaluating Web Sites
27(3)
The Two-Card Method
30(3)
Theory, Reality, and the Social World
33(1)
Framing Research Problems
34(1)
Operationalization and Conceptualization
35(3)
Designing Projects
38(7)
Setting and Population Appropriateness
39(2)
Sampling Strategies
41(4)
Data Collection and Organization
45(1)
Data Storage, Retrieval, and Analysis
46(2)
Dissemination
48(1)
Trying It Out
49(1)
References
49(4)
Chapter 3 Ethical Issues 53(36)
Research Ethics in Historical Perspective
54(6)
From Guidelines to Law: Regulations on the Research Process
60(1)
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
61(10)
IRBs and Their Duties
62(3)
Clarifying the Role of IRBs
65(2)
Active Versus Passive Consent
67(2)
Active Versus Passive Consent in Internet Research
69(1)
Membership Criteria for IRBs
70(1)
Ethical Codes
71(1)
Some Common Ethical Concerns in Behavioral Research
71(2)
New Areas for Ethical Concern: Cyberspace
73(2)
Protection for Children
74(1)
Debriefing the Subjects
74(1)
Physical and Ethical Dangers in Covert Research
75(3)
Informed Consent and Implied Consent
78(1)
Confidentiality and Anonymity
79(2)
Keeping Identifying Records
79(1)
Strategies for Safeguarding Confidentiality
80(1)
Securing the Data
81(1)
Objectivity and Careful Research Design
82(1)
Trying It Out
83(1)
References
84(5)
Chapter 4 A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewing 89(55)
Dramaturgy and Interviewing
90(2)
Types of Interviews
92(5)
The Standardized Interview
92(2)
The Unstandardized Interview
94(1)
The Semistandardized Interview
95(2)
The Interview Schedule
97(2)
Schedule Development
99(3)
Question Order, Content, and Style
99(3)
Communicating Effectively
102(1)
A Few Common Problems in Question Formulation
103(2)
Affectively Worded Questions
104(1)
The Double-Barreled Question
104(1)
Complex Questions
105(1)
Question Sequencing
105(1)
Pretesting the Schedule
105(1)
Long Versus Short Interviews
106(2)
Telephone Interviews
108(2)
Advantages of the Telephone Interview
109(1)
Disadvantages of the Telephone Interview
110(1)
Computer-Assisted Interviewing
110(4)
Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)
110(1)
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)
111(1)
Web-Based In-Depth Interviews
112(2)
Conducting an Interview: A Natural or an Unnatural Communication?
114(1)
The Dramaturgical Interview
115(8)
Interviewer Roles and Rapport
116(2)
The Role of the Interviewee
118(1)
The Interviewer as a Self-Conscious Performer
119(1)
Social Interpretations and the Interviewer
120(3)
The Interviewer's Repertoire
123(8)
Interviewers' Attitudes and Persuading a Subject
125(2)
Developing an Interviewer Repertoire
127(1)
Techniques to Get New Researchers Started
127(2)
Taking the Show on the Road
129(1)
The Ten Commandments of Interviewing
129(2)
Know Your Audience
131(2)
Curtain Calls
132(1)
Analyzing Data Obtained from the Dramaturgical Interview
133(4)
Beginning an Analysis
134(1)
Systematic Filing Systems
134(2)
Short Answer Sheets
136(1)
Analysis Procedures: A Concluding Remark
136(1)
Trying It Out
137(1)
Notes
138(1)
References
139(5)
Chapter 5 Focus Group Interviewing 144(27)
What Are Focus Group Interviews?
144(2)
The Evolution of Focus Group Interviews
146(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Group Interviewing
148(7)
Focus Group Interviewing and Face-to-Face Interviewing
149(2)
Focus Group Interviewing and Participant Observation
151(1)
Focus Group Interviewing and Unobtrusive Measures
152(3)
Facilitating Focus Group Dynamics: How Focus Groups Work
155(1)
The Moderator's Guide
155(3)
Introduction and Introductory Activities
156(1)
Statement of the Basic Rules or Guidelines for the Interview
156(1)
Short Question-and-Answer Discussions
157(1)
Special Activities or Exercises
157(1)
Guidance for Dealing with Sensitive Issues
157(1)
Basic Ingredients in Focus Groups
158(4)
Analyzing Focus Group Data
162(1)
Confidentiality and Focus Group Interviews
163(2)
Recent Trends in Focus Groups: Online Focus Groups
165(1)
Conclusion
166(1)
Trying It Out
167(1)
Notes
167(1)
References
168(3)
Chapter 6 Ethnographic Field Strategies 171(51)
Accessing a Field Setting: Getting in
175(3)
Reflectivity and Ethnography
178(8)
The Attitude of the Ethnographer
179(1)
The Researcher's Voice
179(5)
Gaining Entry
184(2)
Becoming Invisible
186(4)
Dangers of Invisibility
188(2)
Other Dangers During Ethnographic Research
190(2)
Watching, Listening, and Learning
192(12)
How to Learn: What to Watch and Listen For
194(3)
Field Notes
197(7)
Computers and Ethnography
204(1)
Analyzing Ethnographic Data
205(2)
Other Analysis Strategies: Typologies, Sociograms, and Metaphors
207(6)
Typologies
207(1)
Sociograms
208(5)
Metaphors
213(1)
Disengaging: Getting Out
213(2)
Trying It Out
215(1)
References
215(7)
Chapter 7 Action Research 222(17)
The Basics of Action Research
224(2)
Identifying the Research Question(s)
226(1)
Gathering the Information to Answer the Question(s)
227(1)
Analyzing and Interpreting the Information
227(2)
Procedures for Using Interview and Ethnographic Data
227(1)
Guiding Questions of Analysis: Why, What, How, Who, Where, When?
228(1)
Descriptive Accounts and Reports
228(1)
Sharing the Results with the Participants
229(1)
The Action Researcher's Role
230(1)
Types of Action Research
230(3)
Technical/Scientific/Collaborative Mode
231(1)
A Practical/Mutual Collaborative/Deliberate Mode
231(1)
Emancipating/Enhancing/Critical Science Mode
232(1)
Photovoice and Action Research
233(2)
The Goal in Photovoice
234(1)
Action Research: A Reiteration
235(1)
Trying It Out
236(1)
References
237(2)
Chapter 8 Unobtrusive Measures in Research 239(25)
Archival Strategies
241(15)
Public Archives
242(10)
Private Archives: Solicited and Unsolicited Documents
252(4)
A Last Remark about Archival Records
256(1)
Physical Erosion and Accretion: Human Traces as Data Sources
256(3)
Erosion Measures
256(1)
Accretion Measures
257(1)
Some Final Remarks about Physical Traces
258(1)
Trying It Out
259(1)
References
260(4)
Chapter 9 Historiography and Oral Traditions 264(19)
What is Historical Research?
264(4)
Life Histories and Historiography
268(1)
What are the Sources of Data of Historical Researchers?
268(1)
Doing Historiography: Tracing Written History as Data
269(6)
External Criticism
271(3)
Internal Criticism
274(1)
What are Oral Histories?
275(4)
Trying It Out
279(1)
References
279(4)
Chapter 10 Case Studies 283(20)
The Nature of Case Studies
283(1)
Theory and Case Studies
284(2)
The Individual Case Study
286(5)
The Use of Interview Data
288(1)
The Use of Personal Documents
289(2)
Intrinsic, Instrumental, and Collective Case Studies
291(1)
Case Study Design Types
292(2)
Exploratory Case Studies
292(1)
Explanatory Case Studies
292(1)
Descriptive Case Studies
293(1)
The Scientific Benefit of Case Studies
294(2)
Objectivity and the Case Method
294(1)
Generalizability
295(1)
Case Studies of Organizations
296(1)
Case Studies of Communities
297(3)
Data Collection for Community Case Studies
298(1)
Community Groups and Interests
298(2)
Trying It Out
300(1)
References
300(3)
Chapter 11 An Introduction to Content Analysis 303(37)
What is Content Analysis
303(1)
Analysis of Qualitative Data
304(2)
Interpretative Approaches
304(1)
Social Anthropological Approaches
305(1)
Collaborative Social Research Approaches
305(1)
Content Analysis as a Technique
306(1)
Content Analysis: Quantitative or Qualitative?
307(2)
Manifest versus Latent Content Analysis
308(1)
Blending Manifest and Latent Content Analysis Strategies
309(1)
Communication Components
309(1)
What to Count: Levels and Units of Analysis
310(1)
Category Development: Building Grounded Theory
310(7)
What to Count
312(1)
Combinations of Elements
313(1)
Units and Categories
314(2)
Classes and Categories
316(1)
Open Coding
317(3)
Coding Frames
320(5)
A Few More Words on Analytic Induction
322(1)
Interrogative Hypothesis Testing
323(2)
Stages in the Content Analysis Process
325(2)
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Content Analysis Process
327(2)
Computers and Qualitative Analysis
329(5)
Word Processors
331(1)
Text Retrievers
331(1)
Textbase Managers
331(1)
Code-and-Retrieve Programs
331(1)
Code-Based Theory Builders
332(1)
Conceptual Network Builders
332(2)
Qualitative Research at the Speed of Light
334(1)
Trying It Out
335(1)
References
336(4)
Chapter 12 Writing Research Papers: Sorting the Noodles from the Soup 340(27)
Plagiarism: What It Is, Why It's Bad, and How to Avoid It
341(3)
Why Plagiarism Occurs
341(1)
How to Avoid Plagiarism
342(2)
Identifying the Purpose of the Writing: Arranging the Noodles
344(1)
Delineating a Supportive Structure: Visual Signals for the Reader
345(12)
The Title
347(1)
The Abstract
348(1)
The Introduction
349(1)
Literature Review
350(1)
Methodology
351(2)
Findings or Results
353(1)
Discussion/Conclusion
354(1)
References, Notes, and Appendices
354(3)
Presenting Research Material
357(4)
Disseminating the Research: Professional Meetings and Publications
357(4)
A Word About the Content of Papers and Articles
361(1)
Write It, Rewrite It, Then Write It Again!
361(2)
A Final Note
363(1)
Notes
364(1)
References
364(3)
Index 367


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