9780190456405

Quantitative Research Methods for Communication

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190456405

  • ISBN10:

    019045640X

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 11/2/2015
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach, Third Edition, is a comprehensive and engaging guide to quantitative research. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experience, the authors encourage students to take an active, hands-on role in the learning process. After giving students the tools they need to locate, conduct, collect, and present their research, the text provides them with the opportunity to immediately apply these skills in research scenarios.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 An Introduction to Communication Research
The History of the Social Sciences
The Nature of Communication
Understanding the Book's Format
Research outside the Walls of Academia

Chapter 2 Empirical Research
Ways of Knowing
Epistemology
Ordinary vs. Scientific Ways of Knowing

The Scientific Approach to Communication Research
Scientific Method
Theories
Predictions/Hypotheses
Observations
Empirical Generalizations

Conclusion
Research outside the Walls of Academia

Chapter 3 Research Ethics
Defining Ethics
Good means-Good End: Ethical Behavior
Bad Means-Bad End: Unethical Behavior
Bad Means-Good End: Machiavellian Ethic
Good Means-Bad End: Subjective Ethic

The Belmont Report's Effect on Research Ethics
Informed Consent
Principle of Beneficence
Justice

Institutional Review Boards
Institutional Review Board Basics
Informed Consent
Institutional Review Board Processes
Basic IRB Functions
Advanced IRB Functions

Specific Ethical Issues for Research
Data Accuracy
Data Sharing
Duplicate Data Publication
Post Hoc Hypothesis Revision
Participant Identity Disclosures
Authorship Credit
Conflicts of Interest
Plagiarism
Source Not Cited Types of Plagiarism
Source Cited Types of Plagiarism

Ethical Research outside Academia
Conclusion

Chapter 4 Searching for Previous Research and APA Style
Step One: Identifying the Topic

Step Two: Clarifying the Research Question and Generating Key Terms
Stating the Topic in the Form of a Research Question
Identifying Key Terms and Synonymous Terms

Step Three: Locating Sources of Information
Types of Information Sources
Locating Information Sources
Handbooks and Subject Encyclopedias
Electronic Databases
The World Wide Web
Working with Librarians
Evaluating Web Sources

Step Four: Organizing and Evaluating Information

Step Five: Citing Sources of Information Using the APA Format
What Information Needs to be Referenced?
Citing Sources of Information
Parenthetical Citations
Quotations and Paraphrases

APA Paper Formatting
Creating a Title Page
Creating an Abstract
Creating the First Page
Creating the Reference Page
Conclusion

Chapter 5 Research Structure and Literature Reviews
The Abstract

The Introduction
Attention-Getter
Using Statistics or Claims
Posing a Rhetorical Question
Using an Acknowledged Fact
Using a Story or Illustration
Quoting or Acknowledging a Source
Link to Topic
Significance of Topic
Espousal of Credibility
Thesis and Preview

Literature Review
Five Reasons FOR Literature Reviews
Previous Research
Chronological
Cause and Effect
Compare and Contrast
Problem-Cause-Solution
Psychological
Categorical/Topical
General to Specific
Specific to General
Known to Unknown

Study Rationale

Method Section
Participants
Apparatus
Procedure
Instrumentation

Results Section

Discussion Section

The Conclusion

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Reading & Critiquing Academic Literature

Preparing a First Draft
Step 1: Identify Your General Topic
Step 2: Determine the Type of Study you are Conducting
Step 3: Determine what Variables You will Examine
Step 4: Search for Primary Sources
Step 5: Obtain Full Text References
Step 6: Look for Other References in Obtained Materials
Step 7: Narrow Your List of References
Step 8: Organize References by Major and Subtopics
Step 9: Look for Gaps in Your References
Step 10: Find References to Fill Gaps
Step 11: Create a Literature Review Outline
Step 12: Write
Conclusion

Chapter 6 Variables
How Are Research Projects Developed?
Variables: Units of Analysis

Types of Units

Aspects of Variables
Variable attributes
Variable values
Understanding relationships and Differences
Relationships
Differences

Types of Variables

Variable Levels
Nominal Variables
Ordinal Variables
Interval Variables
Likert
Semantic Differential
Staple's
Scalogram
Ratio Variables

Communication Variables
Nominal Variables
Ordinal Variables
Interval Variables
Common Interval Variable Measures
Communication Apprehension
Ethnocentrism
Humor Assessment
Nonverbal Immediacy
Sociocommunicative Orientation
Willingness to Communicate
Beliefs and Attitudes
Ratio Variables

Writing Up Scales Using APA Style
Participants
Procedures
Instrumentation
Conclusion

Chapter 7 Measurement
Numbers and Things

Review of Measurement Levels
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio

A History of Measurement
Likert scales
Semantic differential

Measuring Communication
Personality Traits/States
Beliefs and Attitudes
Knowledge

Developing Your Operationalization
Conceptualization
Operationalization

Constructing Questions

One Measure, Multiple Factors
Finding Mental Measures

Measurement and Statistical Analysis
Research Outside the Walls of Academia
Conclusion

Chapter 8 Reliability and Validity
Reliability
Scalar Reliability
Test-Retest Reliability
Alternate Forms Reliability
Split-Half Reliability
Cronbach's Alpha Reliability
Computer Printouts of Cronbach's Alpha
SPSS and Cronbach's Alpha
Excel and Cronbach's Alpha
APA Discussion
Alpha Reliabilities from this Book
Reliabilities in the Real World

Improving Reliability of Measurement

Validity
Face or Content Validity
Criterion Validity
Predictive
Concurrent
Retrospective
Construct or Factorial Validity

Validity Threats

Problems with Measurement

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Conclusion

Chapter 9 Survey Research
When to Use a Survey
Do You Know What You Want to Ask?
Do You Really Need to Collect New Data?
Do Your Participants Know Anything or Will They Even Tell You?

Is Your Goal Generalizability?

How to Conduct Survey Research
STEP 1: Picking Your Questions
Nominal Level Questions
Ordinal Level Questions
Interval Level Questions
Ratio Level Questions
Open-Ended Questions
STEP 2: Creating Clear Instructions
STEP 3: Study Design
STEP 4: Data Processing and Analysis
STEP 5: Pilot Testing
Use Actual Survey Population Members
Anticipate Survey Context
Test Parts of the Survey
Determining a Pilot Sample Size
Ask Questions After Someone Completes the Survey

Disseminating Your Surveys
Interviewing
Face-to-Face Interviewing
Telephone Interviewing
Self-Administration
Mass Administration
Mailed Administration
Internet Administration
Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveying

Problem Areas Associated with Survey Research
Response Rate
Unit Nonresponse
Item Nonresponse
Effects of Nonresponse
Improving Response Rates

Translating Surveys into Other Languages
Semantic Equivalence
Conceptual Equivalence
Normative Equivalence
Simple Direct Translation
Modified Direct Translation
Translation/Back-Translation
Parallel Blind Technique
Random Probe

Using the Research Project Worksheet
Question
Design
Setting
Participants
Specific Characteristics
Recruitment
Consent
Variables
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
Hypotheses/Research Questions
Statistical Testing
Tentative Study Title
Principal Researcher(s)

Measurement outside of Academia
Conclusion

Chapter 10 Content Analysis
Conducting a Content Analysis
Theory and Rationale
conceptualization
Operationalization
Coding schemes
Sampling
Training and Pilot Reliability
Introduction to Coding Book
Sample Coding
Coding of Initial Data
Initial Reliability
Retraining
Final Coding
Final Reliability
Tabulation and Reporting
Conclusion

Chapter 11 Experimental Design
What Are Experiments and Why Do We Do Them?
Rationale for Experimental Research
Aspects of Experimental Design
Random Assignment
Manipulation of the Independent Variable
Measurement of the Dependent Variable
Controlling an Experiment
Conducting an Experiment
Introducing the Experiment and Obtaining Consent
Random Assignment
Manipulate the Independent Variable
Measure the Dependent Variable
Debriefing

Threats to Experimental Validity
Historical flaw
Maturation
Testing flaw
Regression to the Mean
Selection Threat
Attrition

Common Experimental Designs
Preexperimental Designs
One-Shot Case Study
One-Group Pretest Posttest Design
Static Group Comparisons
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Pretest-Posttest Design
Time Series
Multiple Time Series
Switching Replications Design
True Experimental Designs
Pretest-Posttest Design
Two-Group Posttest-Only Design
Randomized Switching Replications Design
Solomon Four-Group Design

Final Thoughts on Experiments
Conclusion

Chapter 12 Big Data
What is the Data in Big Data?
Human Generated Data
Machine Generated Data

Big Data?
Big Data Explained
Laney's 3Vs
Volume
Velocity
Variety
Four More V's
Veracity
Variability
Visualization
Value

Big Data and the Cloud
Understanding the Cloud
The Cloud and Data
Big Data in the Cloud

Big Data Analysis
Data Mining
Monitoring & Anomalies

Communication and Big Data

Big Data Ethics
Privacy
Identity
Ownership
Reputation

Chapter 13 Sampling Methods
Why Use a Sample?
Population
Sample
The Sampling Process
Selecting a Sample Design

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Simple Random Samples
Stratified Random Samples
Cluster Samples
Systematic Samples

Sampling Error

Nonprobability Samples
Convenience Samples
Volunteer Samples
Purposive Samples
Quota Samples
Network Sample

Determining Sample Size

Common Sense Sample Recruiting
Ethical Recruitment

Conclusion

Chapter 14 Hypothesis Testing
Hypotheses
One-Tailed Hypotheses
Two-Tailed Hypotheses
Research Questions
Directional Research Questions
Nondirectional Research Questions
Alternative & Null Hypotheses

Hypothesis Testing Case Study
Hypothesis Testing in the Case Study

From Random Samples to a Whole Population

Testing for Significance
Step 1: Set the Probability Level
Step 2: Conduct a Statistical Test
Step 3: Comparing Calculated and Critical Values

Testing for Power

Effect Sizes

Understanding Error
The Confidence Interval
Power
Type I Error
Type II Error

Conclusion

Chapter 15 Descriptive Statistics
The Benefits of Statistics

Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode
Frequency Distributions
SPSS and Frequency Distributions
Excel and Frequency Distributions
Frequency Distributions and Charts
Skewness & Kurtosis

Measures of Variability
Range
Sum of Squares
Variance
Standard deviation

Data Set Variability
Conclusion

Chapter 16 Chi-Square Test of Independence
Case Study Introduction

Chi-Square Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the Chi-Square Test of Independence

Computer Printouts of the Chi-Square Test of Independence
SPSS and Chi-Squares
Excel and Chi-Squares
APA Write-Up
Discussion of Findings
Post-Hoc APA Write-Up

Biological Sex and Book Edition

Discussion of Brummans and Miller's Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results

Chi-Squares outside Academia
Conclusion

Chapter 17 Independent Samples t-Tests
Case Study Introduction

Independent Samples t-Test Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the Independent t-Test

Computer Printouts of the Independent t-Test
SPSS and t-Tests
Excel and t-Tests
APA Write-Up (SPSS)
APA Write-Up (Excel)
Discussion of Findings

Biological Sex and Communication Apprehension
APA Write-Up (SPSS)
Discussion

Calculating Effect Sizes

Discussion of the Weber, Fornash, Corrigan, and Neupauer Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results

Paired t-Tests

t-Tests outside Academia

Conclusion

Chapter 18 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Case Study Introduction

One-Way ANOVA Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the One-Way ANOVA

Computer Printouts of the One-Way ANOVA
SPSS and One-Way Anovas
Multiple Comparison Tests
Excel and One-Way Anovas
APA Write-Up (Without Chart)
APA Write-Up (With Chart)
Discussion of Findings

Political Affiliation and Humor Assessment
APA Write-Up
Discussion

Discussion of the Boiarsky, Long, and Thayer Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results

One-way ANOVAs outside Academia

Conclusion

Chapter 19 Correlation
Correlation Background Information
Types of Relationships
Correlation Not Causation
Correlation Assumptions

Case Study Introduction

Step-by-Step Approach to the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

Computer Printouts of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation
SPSS and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations
Excel and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations
APA Write-Up
Discussion

Relationships Between Communication Apprehension, Willingness to Communicate, and Beliefs About Public Speaking
APA Write-Up
A Note about R

Reading Large Correlation Tables

Discussion of the Chesebro Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results

Discussion of the Punyanunt Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results

Correlations outside Academia

Conclusion

Chapter 20 Regression
Case Study Introduction

Regression Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to a Linear Regression

Computer Printouts of the Linear Regression
SPSS and Simple Linear Regressions
Excel and the Simple Linear Regression
APA Write-Up
Discussion

Relationships Between Communication Apprehension and Beliefs About Public Speaking
APA Write-Up

Understanding Multiple Linear Regressions
APA Write-Up
Discussion

Discussion of the Wrench and Booth-Butterfield Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results

Discussion of the Rocca and Vogl-Bauer Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results

Regressions outside Academia

Conclusion

Chapter 21 Advanced Statistical Procedures
Difference Tests
Factorial Anova
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion
Analysis of Covariance
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion
Repeated Measures Anova
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion

Relationship Tests
Path Analysis
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion
Structural Equation Modeling
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion
Factor Analysis
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion
Canonical Correlations
Example
Explanation
APA Write-Up
Discussion

Conclusion

Chapter 22 Presenting Research
Writing a Discussion Section
Providing a Summary of Major Findings
Providing an Interpretation of Findings
Discussing the Relationship Between Findings and Previous Studies
Acknowledging Limitations
Discussing Implications and future directions

Writing the Abstract

Presenting at Conferences

Divisions and Interest Groups
Submitting Research for Conference Review
Types of Conference Presentations
Paper Presentations
Poster Presentations
Scholar-to-Scholar Posters
Panel Discussions

Publication
Journal Review Process
Submission Process
Review Process

Research outside the Walls of Academia
Writing for Business
Research and the General Public
Writing Statistical Stories
Infographics
Conclusion

Appendix A Qualitative Research

Appendix B Textbook Questionnaire

Appendix C Open-Source Statistical Software Alternatives

Rewards Program

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