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In Race in North America, Audrey Smedley shows that #x1C;race#x1D; is a cultural invention that has been used variously and opportunistically since the eighteenth century. Race, in its origin, was not a product of science but of a folk ideology reflecting a new form of social stratification and a rationalization for inequality among the peoples of North America. New coauthor Brian Smedley joins Audrey Smedley in updating this renowned and groundbreaking text. The fourth edition includes a compelling new chapter on the health impacts of the racial worldview, as well as a thoroughly rewritten chapter that explores the election of Barack Obama and the evolving role of race in American political history. This edition also incorporates recent findings on the human genome and the implications of genomics. Drawing on new understandings of DNA expression, the authors scrutinize the positions of contemporary race scientists who maintain that race is a valid biological concept.
Audrey Smedley is professor emerita of anthropology and African American studies at Virginia Commonwealth University. Brian D. Smedley is vice president and director of the Health Policy Institute of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies.
Table of Contents
|Preface to the Fourth Edition||p. ix|
|Some Theoretical Considerations||p. 11|
|Race as a Modern Idea||p. 13|
|Ideas, Ideologies, and Worldviews||p. 15|
|The Social Reality of Race in America||p. 17|
|On the Relationship Between Biology and Race||p. 20|
|The Primordialists' Argument||p. 21|
|Race as a Worldview: A Theoretical Perspective||p. 24|
|Race and Ethnicity: Biology and Culture||p. 27|
|The Etymology of the Term Race in the English Language||p. 35|
|Antecedents of the Racial Worldview||p. 41|
|The Age of European Exploration||p. 41|
|The Rise of Capitalism and the Transformation of English Society||p. 45|
|Social Organization and Values of Early Capitalism||p. 50|
|English Ethnocentrism and the Idea of the Savage||p. 52|
|English Nationalism and Social Values in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries||p. 62|
|Hereditary Social Identity: The Lesson of Catholic Spain||p. 65|
|The Growth of the English Ideology About Human Differences in America||p. 73|
|Earliest Contacts||p. 73|
|The Ensuing Conflicts||p. 78|
|The Backing of God and Other Justifications for Conquest||p. 81|
|The New Savages||p. 85|
|The Arrival of Africans and Descent into Slavery||p. 93|
|The First Africans||p. 96|
|The Descent into Permanent Slavery||p. 98|
|Was There Race Before Slavery?||p. 102|
|Why the Preference for Africans?||p. 105|
|The Problem of Labor||p. 106|
|A Focus on Physical Differences and the Invention of Social Meanings||p. 113|
|Comparing Slave Systems: The Significance of ˘Racial÷ Servitude||p. 121|
|The Background Literature and the Issues of Slavery||p. 122|
|The Nature of Slavery||p. 126|
|A Brief History of Old World Slavery||p. 127|
|Colonial Slavery Under the Spanish and Portuguese||p. 139|
|Uniqueness of the English Experience of Slavery||p. 145|
|The Significance of Slavery in the Creation of Race Ideology||p. 149|
|Eighteenth-Century Thought and the Crystallization of the Ideology of Race||p. 159|
|Social Values of the American Colonists||p. 160|
|Nature's Hierarchy||p. 164|
|Dominant Themes in North American Racial Beliefs||p. 171|
|Anglo-Saxonism: The Making of a Biological Myth||p. 173|
|And the American Dilemma||p. 177|
|Antislavery and the Entrenchment of a Racial Worldview||p. 189|
|A Brief History of Antislavery Thought||p. 190|
|The Proslavery Response||p. 200|
|The Sociocultural Realities of Race and Slavery||p. 203|
|The Priority of Race over Class||p. 208|
|The Rise of Science and Scientific Racism||p. 213|
|Early Classifications of Humankind||p. 217|
|The Impact of Eighteenth-Century Classifications||p. 222|
|Growth of the Racial Worldview in Nineteenth-Century America||p. 227|
|Polygeny vs. Monogeny: The Debate over Race and Species||p. 229|
|The Unnatural Mixture||p. 237|
|Scientific Race Ideology in the Judicial System||p. 239|
|White Supremacy||p. 243|
|Immigrants and the Extension of the Race Hierarchy||p. 245|
|Science and the Expansion of Race Ideology Beyond the United States||p. 251|
|The Continuing Power of Polygenist Thinking||p. 252|
|European Contributions to the Ideology of Race||p. 253|
|Herbert Spencer and the Rise of Social Darwinism||p. 256|
|The Measurement of Human Differences: Anthropometry||p. 259|
|Typological Models of Races||p. 261|
|The Measurement of Human Differences: Psychometrics||p. 262|
|Extension of Race Ideology Overseas||p. 265|
|Twentieth-Century Developments in Race Ideology||p. 269|
|Social Realities of the Racial Worldview||p. 269|
|Psychometrics: The Measuring of Human Worth by IQ||p. 274|
|The Eugenics Movement||p. 280|
|The Racial World of the Nazis||p. 282|
|The Continuing Influence of Racial Ideology in Science||p. 285|
|Changing Perspectives on Human Variation in Science||p. 289|
|The Decline of the Idea of Race as Biology in Science||p. 290|
|Physical Anthropology and Attempts to Transform the Meaning of Race||p. 292|
|Population Genetics||p. 296|
|Is There a Genetic Basis for Race?||p. 299|
|The Ecological Perspective: Human Variations as Products of Adaptation||p. 301|
|The Genetic Conception of Human Variation||p. 303|
|Monogeny Reconsidered: The Nonproblem of Race Mixture||p. 304|
|Dismantling the Folk Idea of Race: Transformations of an Ideology||p. 307|
|The Meaning and Legacy of Race as Identity||p. 309|
|The Quest for a Mixed-Race Census Category||p. 316|
|Barack Obama and the Meaning of Race||p. 318|
|The Future of the Racial Worldview||p. 319|
|The Persistence of Racial Thinking||p. 323|
|The Health and Other Consequences of the Racial Worldview||p. 331|
|The Extent of Racial Health Disparities in the United States||p. 331|
|The Causes of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in the United States||p. 334|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|