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Race and Racisms, A Critical Approach, Brief Edition, is a topical critical text that engages students in significant questions related to racial dynamics in the United States and around the world. Approximately thirty percent shorter than Golash-Boza's highly acclaimed comprehensive text, the Brief Edition features a streamlined narrative and is enhanced by its own unique features. It is ideal for instructors who want the flexibility to assign additional readings.
Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach engages students in significant questions related to racial dynamics in the U.S. and around the world. Written in accessible, straightforward language, the book discusses and critically analyzes cutting-edge scholarship in the field. Organized into topics and concepts rather than discrete racial groups, the text addresses:
* How and when the idea of race was created and developed * How structural racism has worked historically to reproduce inequality * How we have a society rampant with racial inequality, even though most people do not consider themselves to be racist * How race, class, and gender work together to create inequality and identities * How immigration policy in the United States has been racialized * How racial justice could be imagined and realized
Centrally focused on racial dynamics, Race and Racisms, Brief Edition also incorporates an intersectional perspective, discussing the intersections of racism, patriarchy, and capitalism.
Tanya Maria Golash-Boza is Associate Professor in the School of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts at the University of California, Merced.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with a Conclusion and Discussion, Thinking about Racial Justice, Key Terms, Check Your Understanding, and Critical Thinking features
Chapter 1: The Origin of the Idea of Race
Defining Race and Ethnicity Race: The Evolution of an Ideology - Historical Precedents to the Idea of Race - Slavery before the Idea of Race - European Encounters with Indigenous Peoples of the Americas Voices: The Spanish Treatment of Indigenous Peoples - The Enslavement of Africans - The Need for Labor in the Thirteen Colonies - The Legal Codification of Racial Differences Voices: From Bullwhip Days Slavery and the Ideal of Freedom in the United States The Indian Removal Act: The Continuation of Manifest Destiny The Rise of Scientific Racism - European Taxonomies - Scientific Racism in the Nineteenth Century - From Taxonomy and Skull Measurement to Intelligence Testing in the Twentieth Century
Chapter2: Racisms, Racial Ideologies, and Sociological Theories of Racism
Racial Prejudice, Discrimination, and Institutional Racism - Individual Racism Voices: Microaggressions - Institutional Racism Systemic and Structural Racism - Systemic Racism - Structural Racism Racial Ideologies - Biological Racism - Cultural Racism - Color-Blind Racism Racial Formation White Supremacy and Settler Colonialism Intersectional Theories of Race and Racism White Privilege
Chapter 3: Racism and Nativism in Immigration Policy
Voices: Robert Bautista-Denied Due Process The Racialized History of U.S. Immigration Policy - Race and the Making of U.S. Immigration Policies: 1790 to 1924 - Nativism between 1924 and 1964 - The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act and the Changing Face of Immigration Illegal Immigration and Policy Response - The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and Nativism - Proposition 187 and the Lead-Up to the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) - The 1996 Laws and the Detention and Deportation of Black and Latino Immigrants Voices: Hector, a Guatemalan Deportee - The DREAM Act Nativism in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter4: The Spread of Ideology: "Controlling Images" and Racism in the Media
Portrayals of People of Color on Television and in Other Media - Portrayals of Blacks - Portrayals of Latinos/as - Portrayals of Arabs and Arab Americans - Portrayals of Asians and Asian Americans - Portrayals of Native Americans - Racial Stereotypes in Films New Media Representations - Video Games - Social Media Voices: I Am Not Trayvon Martin Media Images and Racial Inequality Raced, Classed, and Gendered Media Images
Chapter 5: Colorism and Skin-Color Stratification
The History of Colorism - The Origins of Colorism in the Americas - Does Colorism Predate Colonialism? The Origins of Colorism in Asia and Africa The Global Color Hierarchy - Asia and Asian Americans Voices: The Fair-Skin Battle - Latin America and Latinos/as - Africa and the African Diaspora Voices: Colorism and Creole Identity Skin Color, Gender, and Beauty
Chapter6: Educational Inequality
The History of Educational Inequality - Indian Schools - Segregation and Landmark Court Cases - The Persistence of Racial Segregation in the Educational System - Affirmative Action in Higher Education Educational Inequality Today The Achievement Gap: Sociological Explanations for Persistent Inequality - Parental Socioeconomic Status - Cultural Explanations: "Acting White" and Other Theories - Tracking - Social and Cultural Capital and Schooling - Hidden Curricula and the School-to-Prison Pipeline Voices: Moesha
Chapter7: Income and Labor Market Inequality
Income Inequality by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Dimensions of Racial Disparities in the Labor Market - Disparities among Women - Disparities among Latinos and Asian Americans - Underemployment, Unemployment, and Joblessness Voices: Jarred Sociological Explanations for Income and Labor Market Inequality - Individual-Level Explanations Voices: Francisco Pinto's Experiences in 3-D Jobs - Structural Explanations Affirmative Action Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment
Chapter8: Inequality in Housing and Wealth
Land Ownership after Slavery Residential Segregation - The Creation of Residential Segregation - Discriminatory and Predatory Lending Practices Voices: A Tale of Two Families - Neighborhood Segregation Today Wealth Inequality - Inequality in Homeownership and Home Values - Wealth Inequality beyond Homeownership Explaining the Wealth Gap in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter 9: Racism and the Criminal Justice System
Mass Incarceration in the United States - The Rise of Mass Incarceration - Mass Incarceration in a Global Context - Race and Mass Incarceration Voices: Kemba Smith - The Inefficacy of Mass Incarceration - Mass Incarceration and the War on Drugs - Race, Class, Gender, and Mass Incarceration Institutional Racism in the Criminal Justice System - Racial Profiling - Sentencing Disparities - The Ultimate Sentence: Racial Disparities in the Death Penalty Voices: Troy Davis The Economics of Mass Incarceration - Private Prisons - The Prison-Industrial Complex Beyond Incarceration: Collateral Consequences - The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Families and Children - The Lifelong Stigma of a Felony: "The New Jim Crow"
Chapter10: Health Inequalities, Environmental Racism, and Environmental Justice
The History of Health Disparities in the United States - Involuntary Experimentation on African Americans - Free Blacks as Mentally and Physically Unfit Explaining Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Today - Socioeconomic Status and Health Disparities by Race/Ethnicity - Segregation and Health - The Effects of Individual Racism on the Health of African Americans - Life-Course Perspectives on African American Health - Culture and Health - Genetics, Race, and Health Environmental Racism Voices: The Holt Family of Dickson, Tennessee Movements for Environmental Justice