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Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA,9780205181889
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Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205181889

ISBN10:
0205181880
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/2013
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

Helps students understand and analyze race and ethnic issues

 

Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA applies contemporary theories to race and ethnic relations. The text explores issues inherent in race and ethnicity and then applies these issues to the four largest minority ethnic groups in the U.S. This foundation will enable readers to discuss how diversity will change in the future.

 

MySocLab is an integral part of the Schaefer program. Engaging activities and assessments provide a teaching and learning system that helps students discover sociology in their lives. With MySocLab, students can watch videos on sociological core concepts, explore real-world sociology through the new Social Explorer, and develop critical thinking skills through writing.

 

This learning program is available in a variety of formats and prices — digital and print. Pearson offers its titles on the devices students love through Pearson’s MyLab products, CourseSmart, Amazon, and more. To learn more about our programs, pricing options and customization.

Table of Contents

Features xiii

Preface xv

About the Author xxi

 

1 Exploring Race and Ethnicity in the United States 1

 

Highlights 2

 

Ranking Groups 4

 

Types of Groups 5

 

Racial Groups 5

 

Ethnic Groups 7

 

Religious Groups 7

 

Speaking Out: Problem of the Color Line, by W. E. B. Du Bois 8

 

Gender Groups 8

 

Other Subordinate Groups 9

 

Does Race Matter? 9

 

Biological Meaning 9

 

Absence of Pure Races 9

 

Intelligence Tests 10

 

Social Construction of Race 11

 

Biracial and Multiracial Identity: Who Am I? 12

 

Research Focus: Multiracial Identity 13

 

Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity 14

 

Stratification by Class and Gender 15

 

Theoretical Perspectives 15

 

Functionalist Perspective 15

 

Conflict Perspective 16

 

Labeling Theory 17

 

The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status 19

 

Migration 19

 

Annexation 19

 

Colonialism 20

 

The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status 21

 

Extermination 21

 

Expulsion 22

 

Secession 22

 

Segregation 23

 

Fusion 25

 

Assimilation 26

 

The Pluralist Perspective 27

 

Resistance and Change 28

 

2 Prejudice 33

 

Highlights 34

 

Prejudice and Discrimination 35

 

Merton’s Typology 36

 

LaPiere’s Study 36

 

Research Focus: Islamophobia 38

 

White Privilege 39

 

Theories of Prejudice 40

 

Scapegoating Theory 40

 

Authoritarian Personality Theory 40

 

Exploitation Theory 41

 

Normative Approach 41

 

Stereotypes 42

 

What Are Stereotypes? 42

 

Speaking Out: National Media Should Stop Using Obscene Words, by Tim Giago 43

 

Stereotyping in Action: Racial Profiling 44

 

Color-Blind Racism 45

 

The Mood of the Oppressed 46

 

Intergroup Hostility 48

 

Reducing Prejudice 51

 

Education 52

 

Mass Media 52

 

Avoidance versus Friendship 54

 

The Social Distance Scale 54

 

Equal Status Contact 54

 

Avoidance Via the Internet 55

 

Corporate Response: Diversity Training 56

 

3 Discrimination 62

 

Understanding Discrimination 64

 

Hate Crimes 65

 

What Are Hate Crimes? 65

 

Why Do Hate Crimes Carry Harsher Penalties? 66

 

Institutional Discrimination 67

 

Discrimination Today 68

 

Discrimination Hits the Wallet 68

 

Eliminating Discrimination 71

 

Wealth Inequality: Discrimination’s Legacy 73

 

Research Focus: The Unequal Wealth Distribution 74

 

Environmental Justice 75

 

Affirmative Action 76

 

Affirmative Action Explained 77

 

The Legal Debate 77

 

Speaking Out: The Enduring Relevance of Affirmative Action, by Randall Kennedy 79

 

Reverse Discrimination 80

 

The Glass Ceiling 81

 

4 Immigration and Ethnicity 87

 

Patterns of Immigration to the United States 88

 

Today’s Foreign-Born Population 89

 

Early Immigration 91

 

The Anti-Chinese Movement 91

 

Restrictionist Sentiment Increases 93

 

The National Origin System 93

 

Speaking Out: Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, by Judy Chu 94

 

The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 96

 

Contemporary Social Concerns 97

 

The Brain Drain 97

 

Population Growth 98

 

Mixed-Status Families 99

 

Language Barriers 99

 

Illegal Immigration 102

 

Refugees 105

 

Ethnic Diversity 106

 

Studying Whiteness 106

 

Rediscovering Ethnicity 108

 

The Third-Generation Principle 108

 

Ethnic Paradox 109

 

Symbolic Ethnicity 109

 

Religious Pluralism 110

 

Research Focus: Blended Identity and Self-Identifying as “Muslim American”  and “Arab American” 111

 

5 Native Americans 119

 

Early European Contacts 121

 

Treaties and Warfare 122

 

The Allotment Act 123

 

The Reorganization Act 124

 

Reservation Life and Federal Policies 125

 

Legal Claims 126

 

The Termination Act 127

 

Employment Assistance Program 127

 

Collective Action 128

 

Protest Efforts 129

 

Collective Action: An Overview 130

 

American Indian Identity 131

 

Sovereignty 131

 

Individual Identity 132

 

Native Americans Today 132

 

Speaking Out: Powwows and Karaoke, by Chris Eyre 133

 

Economic Development 134

 

Tourism 135

 

Casino Gambling 135

 

Education 137

 

Research Focus: Learning the Navajo Way 138

 

Healthcare 139

 

Religious and Spiritual Expression 140

 

Environment 141

 

6 African Americans 145

 

Slavery 147

 

Slave Codes 147

 

The Attack on Slavery 148

 

Slavery’s Aftermath 149

 

Reflecting on Slavery Today 150

 

The Challenge of Black Leadership 151

 

The Politics of Accommodation 151

 

The Niagara Movement 152

 

Reemergence of Black Protest 153

 

The Civil Rights Movement 155

 

Struggle to Desegregate the Schools 155

 

Civil Disobedience 156

 

Urban Violence and Oppression 158

 

Black Power 159

 

Education 160

 

School Segregation 161

 

Higher Education 162

 

The Economic Picture 163

 

The Middle Class 163

 

Research Focus: Moving on Up, or Not 164

 

Employment 165

 

Family Life 166

 

Challenges to Family Stability 166

 

Strengths of African American Families 167

 

Housing 168

 

Criminal Justice 169

 

Speaking Out: The New Jim Crow,  by Michelle Alexander 171

 

Healthcare 172

 

Politics 173

 

7 Latinos 178

 

Latino Identity 180

 

The Economic Picture 181

 

The Political Presence 182

 

Religion 183

 

Mexican Americans 184

 

The Immigrant Experience 186

 

Family Life 188

 

Research Focus: The Latino Family Circle: Familism 188

 

Puerto Ricans 189

 

The Bridge Between the Island and the Mainland 190

 

The Island of Puerto Rico 191

 

Issues of Statehood and Self-Rule 192

 

Speaking Out: Puerto Ricans Cannot Be Silenced, by Luis Gutierrez 193

 

The Social Construction of Race 194

 

The Island Economy 194

 

Cuban Americans 195

 

Immigration 195

 

The Current Picture 196

 

Central and South Americans 198

 

Immigration 198

 

The Current Picture 199

 

8 Asian Americans 203

 

Diversity among Asian Americans 205

 

Political Activity and Pan-Asian Identity 207

 

Chinese Americans 208

 

Early Settlement Patterns 208

 

Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans 209

 

Chinatowns Today 210

 

Organizational Life 210

 

Social Problems 211

 

Family Life 212

 

Asian Indians 213

 

Immigration 213

 

The Current Picture 214

 

Filipino Americans 214

 

Immigration Patterns 214

 

Research Focus: Arranged Marriages in America 215

 

The Current Picture 216

 

Korean Americans 217

 

Historical Background 217

 

The Current Picture 218

 

Japanese Americans 220

 

Early Japanese Immigration 220

 

The Wartime Evacuation 221

 

Executive Order 9066 221

 

The Camps 222

 

The Evacuation: What Does It Mean? 224

 

The Economic Picture 225

 

Family Life 226

 

Southeast Asian Americans 227

 

The Refugees 227

 

The Current Picture 228

 

Case Study: A Hmong Community 229

 

Hawai’i and Its People 230

 

Historical Background 230

 

The Current Picture 231

 

Speaking Out: Recognizing Native Hawaiians, by Daniel Akaka 232

 

9 Diversity: Today and Tomorrow 237

 

Speaking Out: That Latino “Wave” Is Very Much American, by Galina Espinoza 240

 

Has The Post-Racialism Era Arrived? 240

 

The Glass Half Empty 241

 

Is There a Model Minority? 243

 

Acting White, Acting Black, or Neither 245

 

Persistence of Inequality 245

 

Research Focus: Challenge to Pluralism: The Shark’s Fin 247

 

Talking Past One Another 248

 

Glossary 255

 

References 259

 

Photo Credits 000

 

Index 275



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