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Racial and Ethnic Relations,9780136747222
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Racial and Ethnic Relations

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780136747222

ISBN10:
0136747221
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For courses in Majority-Minority Relations, Racial and Ethnic Relations, Cultural Diversity, and Multiculturalism in departments of Sociology, Ethnic Studies, Political Science, and Education. A theoretically informed and empirical exploration of the diversity, depth, and significance of racial and ethnic relations in the U.S., this text is organized by racial-ethnic groups rather than by issues. Drawing heavily on a broad range of research sourcesthat dig deep into the what, why, and how of racial and ethnic oppression and conflictit examines 15 major racial and ethnic groups with regard to their incorporation, economic circumstances, political development, and experience with exploitationwith special reference to the assimilation and power conflict (theoretical) perspectives.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xii
PART I: The Racial and Ethnic Mosaic 1(64)
1 BASIC CONCEPTS IN THE STUDY OF RACIAL AND ETHNIC RELATIONS
4(26)
Issues of Race and Racism
4(7)
Racial Groups and Hierarchies
4(2)
Ideological Racism
6(2)
Racial Group
8(1)
Ancestry and Multiracial Realities
9(2)
Ethnic Groups
11(4)
What Is an Ethnic Group?
11(4)
The Matter of Culture
15(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
15(3)
Discrimination
18(10)
Distinguishing Dimensions
18(1)
Research on Prejudice and Discrimination
19(1)
Defining Institutional and Individual Discrimination
20(3)
The Sites and Range of Discrimination
23(1)
Cumulative and Systemic Discrimination
24(1)
Responding to Discrimination
25(1)
Does "Reverse Discrimination" Exist?
26(2)
Summary
28(2)
2 ADAPTATION AND CONFLICT: RACIAL AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
30(35)
Racial and Ethnic Hierarchies
30(2)
Some Basic Questions
32(1)
Migration and Group Contact
32(2)
Types of Migration
33(1)
Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Adaptation
34(1)
The Initial Contact
34(1)
Later Adaptation Patterns
34(1)
Types of Theories
35(1)
Assimilation and Other Order Perspectives
35(11)
Robert E. Park
36(1)
Strages of Assimilation: Milton Gordon
36(4)
Ethnogenesis and Ethnic Pluralism
40(1)
Some Problems with Assimilation Theories
41(2)
Biosocial Perspectives
43(1)
Emphasizing Migration: Competition Theory
44(2)
Power-Conflict Theories
46(17)
The Caste School
46(1)
Early Class Theories of Racial Relations
46(1)
Internal Colonialism
47(1)
A Neo-Marxist Emphasis on Class
48(1)
Cultural Resistance and Oppositional Culture
49(2)
Anticolonial Nationalism
51(1)
Recent Afrocentric Theories
52(1)
Criticism of Internal Colonialism Theories
53(1)
The Split Labor Market View: Another Class-Based Theory
53(1)
Middleman Minorities, Ethnic Enclaves, and Segmented Assimilation
54(2)
Women and Gendered Racism
56(1)
The State and Racial Formation
57(1)
Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Racial Oppression
58(5)
Summary
63(2)
Part II: A Nation of Immigrants: An Overview of the Economic and Political Conditions of Selected Racial and Ethnic Groups 65(441)
Immigration, the Economy, and Government 65(2)
Commercial Capitalism and the Slave Society: 1607-1865 67(2)
Colonial Society and Slave Labor 67(1)
Civil War: The Southern Plantation Oligarchy versus Northern Entrepreneurs 68(1)
Immigrant Labor in the North 68(1)
Western Expansion: Native Americans and Mexican Americans 69(1)
Industrial Capitalism: 1865-1920 69(2)
Industrial Capitalism and Government Expansion Overseas 69(1)
African Americans: Exclusion from Western Lands 70(1)
Southern and Eastern European Immigrants 70(1)
European Immigrants and Black Americans 70(1)
Advanced Industrial (Multinational) Capitalism: 1920s-1990s 71(3)
Mexican Americans 71(1)
Large Corporations and the U.S. Business Cycle 71(1)
The Postwar Era: The United States and the World 72(1)
Government Involvement in Overseas and Asian Immigration 72(1)
Latin American Immigration and the Sunbelt Boom 73(1)
Immigration Restrictions 73(1)
Summary 74(1)
3 ENGLISH AMERICANS AND THE ANGLO-PROTESTANT CULTURE
75(28)
The Engilsh Migrations
77(6)
Some Basic Data
77(1)
The First Colonial Settlements
77(3)
Later Migration
80(1)
Other Protestant Immigrants
81(1)
The Invention of the "White Race"
82(1)
Nativist Reactions to the Later European Immigrants
83(4)
More Fear of Immigrants
84(1)
Racism and Nativism since 1890
85(2)
The Dominant Culture and Major U.S. Instituations
87(12)
Language
87(2)
Religion and Basic Values
89(2)
Education
91(1)
Political and Legal Institutions
92(1)
Officeholding
93(1)
Economic Institutions
94(1)
Direct Participation in the Economy
95(1)
Contemporary Elites
96(2)
English Americans as a Group: Economic and Educational Data
98(1)
English America Today
99(3)
Summary
102(1)
4 IRISH AMERICANS
103(31)
Irish Immigration: An Overview
103(5)
The Eighteenth-Century Migration
104(2)
Early Life
106(2)
Stereotypes
108(3)
The Ape Image
109(1)
Changing Attitudes
110(1)
Protest and Conflict
111(4)
Early Conflict
111(1)
Conflict over Workplace Conditions
112(1)
Conflict with Other Groups
113(2)
Politics and Political Institutions
115(6)
Political Organization in the Cities
115(2)
Pragmatism in Politics
117(1)
National and International Politics
118(2)
An Irish Catholic President
120(1)
The Irish in the Economy
121(4)
Male and Female Work: The Irish after 1830
122(2)
Mobility in the Twentieth Century
124(1)
Recent Successes
124(1)
Education
125(1)
Religion
126(2)
Assimilation Theories and the Irish
128(4)
Patterns of Structural Assimilation and the Irish
129(1)
Is There an Irish American Identity Today?
130(2)
Summary
132(2)
5 ITALIAN AMERICANS
134(27)
Italian Immigration
134(3)
Numbers of Immigrants
135(1)
Life for the Immigrants
136(1)
Stereotypes
137(5)
Myths of Biological Inferiority
138(2)
The Mafia Myth
140(1)
Stereotypes and Discrimination
141(1)
Conflict
142(2)
More Legalized Killings
143(1)
Conflict with African Americans
143(1)
Politics
144(4)
City Politics
144(1)
State and National Politics
145(3)
The Economy
148(5)
Early Poverty and Discrimination
148(1)
Unions
149(1)
Upward Mobility
150(1)
Recent Decades
151(1)
Some Persisting Problems
152(1)
Education
153(1)
Religion
154(1)
Assimilation or Ethnogensis?
155(5)
Structural Assimilation
155(3)
An Italian Identity?
158(2)
Summary
160(1)
6 JEWISH AMERICANS
161(36)
Migration
162(2)
From 1500 to World War II
162(1)
World War II to the Present
163(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
164(2)
Oppression and Conflict
166(6)
Organized Anti-Semitism and Hate Crimes
167(2)
Religious Discrimination and Conflict
169(1)
Jewish Americans Fight Back
169(1)
Black-Jewish Relations
170(2)
Politics
172(5)
Jewish Americans and the Democratic Party
173(2)
Unions and Community Organizations
175(2)
The Economy
177(6)
Establishing an Economic Niche: "Middleman Minority"?
177(1)
From the Depression to 1950
178(2)
From the 1950s to the 1990s
180(1)
Occupational Mobility
180(3)
Education
183(2)
Discriminatory Quotas for Jewish Students
183(1)
Affirmative Action Programs
184(1)
Continuing Achievements in Education
184(1)
Religion and Zionism
185(4)
Trends in Religious Practice and Identity
187(1)
Zionism
188(1)
Assimilation or Pluralism
189(7)
Patterns of Assimilation
190(2)
Intermarriage
192(1)
Recent Immigrants: Strong Jewish Identity
193(1)
Contemporary Jewish Identity and the Future of the Jewish American Community
194(2)
Summary
196(1)
7 NATIVE AMERICANS
197(39)
Conquest by Europeans and Euro-Americans
198(7)
Native American Societies: Are They "Tribes"?
199(1)
Early Cultural Borrowing
199(1)
Geographical Location and Relocation
200(1)
The Colonial Period
201(1)
Treaties, Reservations, and Genocide
201(2)
Myths about Conflict
203(1)
White Massacres of Native Americans
204(1)
Racist Images and Stereotypes
205(3)
Politics
208(5)
From the Dawes Act to the New Deal
208(2)
Fluctuations in Federal Politics
210(2)
Growing Pressures for Political Participation
212(1)
Protest and Conflict
213(6)
Fishing Rights and Land claims
217(2)
The Economy
219(7)
Poverty and Land Theft
220(1)
Land, Minerals, and Industrial Development
221(1)
Persisting Economic Problems
222(2)
Recent Economic Developments
224(2)
Education
226(2)
Religion
228(2)
Revitalization Movements as Protest
228(1)
Questioning Christianity: Oppositional Cultures
229(1)
Assimilation and Colonialism
230(4)
Assimilation Perspectives
230(2)
Power-Conflict Perspectives
232(2)
Summary
234(2)
8 AFRICAN AMERICANS
236(55)
Forced Migration and Slavery
236(6)
The European Trade in Human Beings
237(1)
The Lives of Africans under Slavery
238(2)
Active Slave Resistance
240(1)
Outside the Rural South
241(1)
Racist Ideologies and Stereotypes
242(5)
Seeing African Americans as Inferior: White Stereotypes
243(1)
The Pseudoscience of "Intelligence" Testing
243(2)
Contemporary Antiblack Prejudices and Stereotypes
245(2)
Interracial Conflict
247(4)
Antiblack Violence
247(3)
Black Protest against Oppression
250(1)
The Economy
251(11)
The Migration North
252(2)
Economic Changes since the 1940s
254(1)
Persisting Descrimination in the Workplace
254(2)
Discrimination in Corporations
256(1)
Government Action and Inaction on Discrimination
257(1)
Unemployment, Income, and Poverty
258(2)
Poor African Americans: An "Underclass"?
260(1)
Housing Discrimination
261(1)
Politics and Protest
262(11)
From Reconstruction to the 1920s
263(1)
The Limits of Black Progress: Political Discrimination
264(2)
The Federal Government
266(1)
The Republican Party's Appeal to White Voters
267(1)
African American Organization and Protest
268(3)
Progress and Retreat
271(1)
New Political Organizations
272(1)
Education
273(6)
The Desegregation Struggle
274(1)
The Current Public School Situation
275(3)
College Attendance and College Experiences
278(1)
Religion and Culture
279(2)
Religion and Protest Movements
280(1)
Recent Black Immigrants
281(6)
The Economic and Educational Situations
283(2)
Racial Experiences and Discrimination
285(2)
Assimilation for African Americans?
287(3)
Assimilation Theories
287(1)
Power-Conflict Perspectives: The Continuing Significance of Racism
288(2)
Summary
290(1)
9 MEXICAN AMERICANS
291(45)
The Conquest Period, 1500-1853
293(2)
The Texas Revolt: Myth and Reality
293(1)
California and New Mexico
294(1)
The Immigration Period
295(5)
Braceros and Undocumented Workers
296(2)
The 1986 Immigration Act and Undocumented Immigrants
298(1)
Population and Location
299(1)
Stereotypes
300(3)
Early Images
300(1)
Modern Stereotypes
301(2)
Mock Spanish
303(1)
Violent Conflict
303(3)
The Early Period
303(1)
More Attacks by Whites
304(1)
Protests since the 1960s
305(1)
The Economy
306(7)
Persisting Job Discrimination
307(2)
Unemployment, Poverty, and Income
309(2)
Is There a Latino Underclass?
311(2)
Politics
313(8)
Growing Political Representation
314(1)
Support for the Major Parties
315(1)
The Courts
315(2)
The Chicano Political Movement
317(1)
Other Organizations and Protest
318(1)
Unions for Low-Wage Workers
319(2)
Education
321(6)
Persisting Educational Problems
322(1)
Current Educational Issues: Bilingualism and Achievement
323(4)
Religion
327(1)
Assimilation or Colonialism?
328(7)
The Limits of Assimilation
329(4)
Applying a Power-Conflict Perspective
333(2)
Summary
335(1)
10 PUERTO RICAN AND CUBAN AMERICANS
336(44)
Puerto Ricans
337(1)
From Spanish to U.S. Rule
337(2)
Migration to the Mainland
339(2)
Migration Streams
339(2)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
341(4)
Color Coding and White Prejudices
343(2)
Economic and Related Conditions: The Mainland
345(5)
Occupation and Unemployment
345(2)
Employment Discrimination and Other Social Barriers
347(1)
Industrial Restructuring
348(1)
Income and Poverty
348(1)
Housing Problems
349(1)
Education
350(3)
Barriers to Social and Economic Mobility
351(1)
Language
351(1)
Official English Policies and Spanish Speakers
352(1)
Politics
353(2)
Protest
355(3)
In Puerto Rico
355(1)
On the Mainland
356(1)
Community Protest
357(1)
Religion
358(1)
Assimilation or Colonialism?
359(4)
Assimilation Issues
359(3)
Power-Conflict Views
362(1)
Cuban Americans
363(1)
Patterns of Immigration
363(5)
Early Immigration: 1868-1959
363(2)
Recent Immigration: 1959 to the Present
365(1)
The Mariel Immigrants
366(2)
Intergroup Conflict
368(2)
Stereotypes and Discrimination
370(1)
The Economic Situation
371(2)
Politics
373(2)
Assimilation or Colonization
375(3)
Assimilation Issues
375(2)
A Power-Conflict Perspective
377(1)
Summary
378(2)
11 JAPANESE AMERICANS
380(34)
The Growth of the Asian-Pacific Population
380(1)
Introduction: Japanese Americans
381(1)
Migration: An Overview
381(3)
The Serial Migration of Asians
381(1)
Early Immigration
382(1)
Mainland Migration
383(1)
More Racist Agitation and Restrictions
383(1)
Stereotypes
384(4)
War Propaganda
386(1)
Recent Distortions, Stereotypes, and Omissions
386(2)
Repression and Violent Attacks
388(3)
Concentration Camps in the United States
388(2)
Why the Camps Were Created
390(1)
Recent Violence
391(1)
The Political Arena
391(5)
Compensation Pressures and Political Progress
392(1)
Government Officials
393(1)
Politics, Stereotyping, and Competition with Japan
394(1)
Protest Organizations and Group Pride
395(1)
The Economy
396(4)
Finding an Economic Niche
396(2)
The Postwar Economy
398(1)
Occupational Mobility and Persisting Barriers
398(2)
Education
400(2)
Racism and Segregation
400(1)
Language Schools and Japanese Educational Progress
401(1)
Religion
402(2)
Assimilation Perspectives
404(8)
A Power-Conflict View
408(2)
Criticizing the "Model Minority" Stereotype
410(2)
Summary
412(2)
12 CHINESE, FILIPINO, KOREAN, VIETNAMESE, AND ASIAN-INDIAN AMERICANS
414(43)
Migration: An Overview
415(7)
Chinese Americans
416(1)
Filipino Americans
417(1)
Korean Americans
418(2)
Vietnamese Americans
420(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
421(1)
Stereotypes
422(2)
Specific Images of Asian Americans
422(2)
Discrimination and Conflict
424(6)
Hate Crimes
424(2)
Chinese Americans
426(1)
Filipino Americans
427(1)
Korean Americans
428(1)
Vietnamese Americans
429(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
430(1)
Organizing and Activism in the Political Arena
430(8)
Pan-Asian Organizations and Coalitions
431(2)
Chinese Americans
433(1)
Filipino Americans
434(1)
Korean Americans
435(1)
Vietnamese Americans
436(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
437(1)
The Economy
438(8)
Chinese Americans
439(2)
Filipino Americans
441(2)
Korean Americans
443(2)
Vietnamese Americans
445(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
446(1)
Education
446(4)
High Achievement Amid Persisting Problems
447(1)
Educational Attainment
448(2)
Controversy in Higher Education
450(1)
Assimilation for Asian Americans
450(6)
Assimilation Views
450(4)
Some Questions from a Power-Conflict Perspective
454(2)
Summary
456(1)
13 THE FUTURE OF RACIAL AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
457(17)
Introduction
457(1)
A Nation of Immigrants
458(4)
The Melting Pot: Early Images of Immigrant Incorporation
462(1)
Contemporary Cultural Diversity Issues
463(3)
Equality and a Pluralistic Democracy
466(5)
An Egalitarian Society?
466(2)
Racial Discrimination: The 1990s and Beyond
468(3)
Conclusion: An Increasingly Balkanized Nation?
471(3)
14 COLONIALISM AND POST-COLONIALISM: THE GLOBAL EXPANSION OF RACISM
474(32)
Colonialism and Racism
475(1)
The History and Legacy of Colonialism
476(3)
To Whom Does Southern Africa Belong?
479(6)
Formation of the State and Apartheid
480(2)
Opposition to Apartheid
482(1)
The Future of South Africa
483(2)
Brazil: The Legacy of Slavery and the Illusion of Equality
485(4)
A Racial Democracy
486(2)
A Century of Lies?
488(1)
Colonialism and Colonizer in France: The Violence of Exclusion
489(5)
The Character of French Colonialism
489(1)
Immigrants and Racism
490(4)
Racial-Ethnic Relations in the Post-Soviet World: The Case of Russia
494(4)
"Ethnic Cleansing" in Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia
498(3)
Ties to Other European Powers
499(2)
The Future of Colonialism and Post-Colonialism
501(3)
Summary
504(2)
GLOSSARY 506(4)
NOTES 510(44)
PHOTO CREDITS 554(1)
INDEX 555


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