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Racial and Ethnic Relations

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780130995339

ISBN10:
0130995339
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

This book is based on theory-and the most recent 2000 Census data available-to present an informed exploration of the diversity, depth, and significance of racial and ethnic relations in the United States. It is organized by racial-ethnic groups-rather than by issues, and draws heavily on a broad range of research sources that dig deep into the ";what,"; ";why,"; and ";how"; of racial and ethnic oppression and conflict. Fifteen major racial and ethnic groups are examined with regard to their incorporation, economic circumstances, political development, and experience with exploitation. For the numerous scholars, journalists, politicians-and people- concerned with the racial and ethnic issues of discrimination, oppression, and conflict that exist in the U.S.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Part I The Racial and Ethnic Mosaic 1(48)
Basic Concepts in the Study of Racial and Ethnic Relations
3(19)
Issues of Race and Racism
4(4)
Racial Groups and Hierarchies
4(1)
Ideological Racism
5(1)
Racial Group
6(1)
Ancestry and Multiracial Realities
7(1)
Ethnic Groups
8(3)
What Is an Ethnic Group?
8(3)
The Matter of Culture
11(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
11(3)
Discrimination
14(7)
Distinguishing Dimensions
14(1)
Research on Prejudice and Discrimination
15(1)
Defining Institutional and Individual Discrimination
15(2)
The Sites and Range of Discrimination
17(1)
Cumulative and Systemic Discrimination
18(1)
Responding to Discrimination
18(1)
Does ``Reverse Discrimination'' Exist?
19(2)
Summary
21(1)
Adaptation and Conflict: Racial and Ethnic Relations in Theoretical Perspective
22(27)
Racial and Ethnic Hierarchies
22(2)
Some Basic Questions
23(1)
Migration and Group Contact
24(1)
Types of Migration
24(1)
Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Adaptation
25(1)
The Initial Contact
25(1)
Later Adaptation Patterns
25(1)
Types of Theories
26(1)
Assimilation and Other Order Perspectives
26(8)
Robert E. Park
26(1)
Stages of Assimilation: Milton Gordon
26(3)
Ethnogenesis and Ethnic Pluralism
29(2)
Some Problems with Assimilation Theories
31(1)
Biosocial Perspectives
32(1)
Emphasizing Migration: Competition Theory
32(2)
Power-Conflict Theories
34(13)
The Caste School
34(1)
Early Class Theories of Racial Relations
34(1)
Internal Colonialism and ``Coloniality''
34(1)
A Neo-Marxist Emphasis on Class
35(1)
Cultural Resistance and Oppositional Culture
36(1)
Anti-Colonial Nationalism
37(1)
Afrocentric Theories
38(1)
Criticism of Internal Colonialism Theories
39(1)
The Split Labor Market View
39(1)
Middleman Minorities, Ethnic Enclaves, and Segmented Assimilation
40(1)
Women and Gendered Racism
41(1)
The State and Racial Formation
42(1)
Toward a More Comprehensive Theory of Racial Oppression
43(3)
A Final Note: Dissecting the ``Black-White Binary Paradigm''
46(1)
Summary
47(2)
Part II A Nation of Immigrants: An overview of the Economic and Political Conditions of Selected Racial and Ethnic Groups 49(306)
Immigration, the Economy and Government
49(1)
Commercial Capitalism and the Slave Society: 1607-7865
49(4)
Colonial Society and Slave Labor
49(3)
Civil War: The Southern Plantation Oligarchy versus Northern Entrepreneurs
52(1)
Immigrant Laborers in the North
52(1)
Western and Global Expansion
52(1)
Industrial Capitalism: 1865-1920
53(2)
Industrial Capitalism and Government Expansion Overseas
53(1)
African Americans: Exclusion from Western Lands
53(1)
Southern and Eastern European Immigrants
54(1)
European Immigrants and Black Americans
54(1)
Advanced Industrial (Multinational) Capitalism: 1910s-2000s
55(3)
Mexican Immigrants
55(1)
Large Corporations and the U.S. Business Cycle
55(1)
The Postwar Era: The United States and the World
55(1)
Government Involvement Overseas and Asian Immigration
56(1)
Latin American Immigration
56(1)
Middle Eastern Immigration
57(1)
Immigration Restrictions
57(1)
Summary
58(1)
English Americans and the Anglo-Protestant Culture
59(18)
The English Migrations
60(4)
Some Basic Data
60(1)
The First Colonial Settlements
60(2)
Later Migration
62(1)
Other Protestant Immigrants
63(1)
The Invention of the ``White Race''
63(1)
Nativist Reactions to Later European Immigrants
64(3)
More Fear of Immigrants
64(1)
Nativism and Racism since 1890
65(2)
The Dominant Culture and Major U.S. Institutions
67(7)
Language
67(1)
Religion and Basic Values
68(1)
Education
69(1)
Political and Legal Institutions
69(1)
Officeholding
70(1)
Economic Institutions
71(1)
Direct Participation in the Economy
72(1)
Contemporary Elites
72(1)
English Americans as a Group: Economic and Educational Data
73(1)
English Americans Today
74(2)
Summary
76(1)
Irish and Italian Americans
77(29)
Irish Americans
77(1)
Irish Immigration: An Overview
78(1)
The Eighteenth-Century Migration
78(1)
Early Life
78(1)
Stereotypes
79(2)
The Ape Image
79(1)
Changing Attitudes
80(1)
Protest and Conflict
81(1)
Early Conflict
81(1)
Conflict with Other Groups
82(1)
Politics and Political Institutions
82(4)
Political Organization in the Cities
83(1)
Pragmatism in Politics
83(1)
National and International Politics
84(1)
The Only Irish Catholic President
85(1)
The Irish in the Economy
86(1)
Upward Mobility
86(1)
Recent Successes
86(1)
Education
87(1)
Religion
87(1)
Assimilation Theories and the Irish
88(3)
Patterns of Structural Assimilation
89(1)
Is There an Irish American Identity Today?
89(1)
Italian Americans
90(1)
Italian Immigration
91(1)
Numbers of Immigrants
91(1)
Life for the Immigrants
91(1)
Stereotypes
92(2)
Stereotypes of Inferiority in Intelligence
92(1)
The Mafia Myth
93(1)
Stereotypes and Discrimination
94(1)
Conflict
94(1)
Legalized Killings
95(1)
Conflict with African Americans
95(1)
Politics
95(2)
City Politics
96(1)
State and National Politics
96(1)
The Economy
97(3)
Early Poverty and Discrimination
98(1)
Upward Mobility
98(1)
Recent Decades
99(1)
Some Persisting Problems
99(1)
Education
100(1)
Religion
100(1)
Assimilation or Ethnogenesis?
101(2)
Structural Assimilation
101(1)
An Italian Identity?
102(1)
A Note on Ethnic Diversity among White Americans
103(1)
Summary
104(2)
Jewish Americans
106(24)
Migration
107(1)
From 1500 to World War II
107(1)
World War II to the Present
108(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
108(2)
Oppression and Conflict
110(4)
Organized Anti-Semitism and Hate Crimes
110(1)
Religious Discrimination and Conflict
111(1)
Jewish Americans Fight Back
112(1)
Jewish-Black Relations
112(2)
Politics
114(2)
Jewish Americans and Political Parties
114(1)
Unions and Community Organizations
115(1)
The Economy
116(3)
Establishing an Economic Niche: A ``Middleman Minority''?
117(1)
From the Depression to 1950
117(1)
Family Success: Income
118(1)
Occupational Mobility: Achievements and Problems
118(1)
Education
119(2)
Discriminatory Quotas for Jewish Students
120(1)
Affirmative Action Programs
120(1)
Continuing Achievements in Education
120(1)
Religion and Zionism
121(2)
Trends in Religious Practice and Identity
122(1)
Israel and Zionism
122(1)
Assimilation or Pluralism?
123(6)
Patterns of Assimilation
123(2)
Intermarriage
125(1)
Recent Immigrants: Strong Jewish Identity
126(1)
Contemporary Jewish Identity and the Future of the Jewish American Community
127(1)
Accepting and Challenging White Privilege
128(1)
Summary
129(1)
Native Americans
130(29)
Conquest by Europeans and European Americans
131(5)
Early Cultural Borrowing
132(1)
Geographical Location and Relocation
133(1)
The Colonial Period
133(1)
Treaties, Reservations, and Genocide
133(1)
Myths about Conflict
134(1)
White Massacres of Native Americans
135(1)
Racist Images and Stereotypes
136(2)
Politics
138(4)
Native American Cultures and Societies: Before European Influence
138(1)
The Politics of the European Invasion
138(1)
From the Dawes Act to the New Deal
139(1)
More Fluctuations in Federal Policies
139(2)
Growing Pressures for Political Participation
141(1)
Protest and Conflict
142(4)
Confrontation with the Federal Government
142(1)
The Case of Leonard Peltier
142(1)
Anti-Indian Racism and Sports Mascots
143(1)
Recent Gains and Continuing Protests
144(1)
Honoring Treaties: Fishing Rights and Land Claims
144(2)
Fighting for Fairness: Suing the Department of Agriculture
146(1)
Activism and Self Determination
146(1)
The Economy
146(5)
Poverty and Land Theft
147(1)
Land, Minerals, and Industrial Development
147(1)
Persisting Economic Problems
148(1)
Recent Economic Developments
149(2)
Education
151(1)
Religion
152(1)
Revitalization Movements as Protest
153(1)
Questioning Christianity
153(1)
Assimilation and Colonialism
153(4)
Assimilation Perspectives
154(1)
Power-Conflict Perspectives
155(2)
Summary
157(2)
African Americans
159(37)
Forced Migration and Slavery
160(3)
The European Trade in Human Beings
160(1)
The Lives of Africans under Slavery
161(1)
Active Resistance
162(1)
Outside the Rural South
163(1)
Racist Ideologies and Stereotypes
163(4)
Seeing African Americans as Inferior: White Stereotypes
163(1)
The Pseudoscience of ``Intelligence'' Testing
164(1)
Contemporary Anti-Black Prejudices and Stereotypes
165(2)
Interracial Conflict
167(3)
Anti-Black Violence
167(1)
Black Protest against Oppression
168(2)
The Economy
170(8)
White Enrichment, Black Losses
170(1)
The Migration North
171(1)
Economic Changes since the 1940s
172(1)
Persisting Discrimination: A Business Example
172(1)
Discrimination in Corporations and the Military
173(2)
Government Action and Inaction on Discrimination
175(1)
Unemployment, Income, and Poverty
176(1)
Is There a Distinctive African American ``Underclass''?
177(1)
Housing Discrimination
178(1)
Politics and Protest
178(7)
From Reconstruction to the 1920s
178(1)
The Limits of Black Progress: Political Discrimination
179(1)
The Federal Government
180(1)
The Republican Party's Appeal to White Voters
181(1)
African American Organization and Protest
181(2)
Progress and Retreat
183(2)
Education
185(3)
The Desegregation Struggle
185(1)
The Current Public School Situation
186(2)
College Attendance and College Experiences
188(1)
Religion and Culture
188(2)
Recent Immigrants
190(3)
Economic and Educational Situations
191(1)
Racial History and Racial Discrimination
191(2)
Assimilation for African Americans?
193(1)
Assimilation Theories
193(1)
Power-Conflict Perspectives: The Continuing Significance of Racism
193(1)
Summary
194(2)
Mexican Americans
196(36)
The Conquest Period, 1500-1853
197(1)
The Texas Revolt: Myths and Reality
197(1)
California and New Mexico
198(1)
Past and Present Immigration
198(5)
Braceros and Undocumented Workers: Encouraging Immigration
199(1)
Migration and U.S. Involvement in Latin America
200(1)
The 1986 Immigration Act and Undocumented Immigrants
201(1)
Population and Location
202(1)
Stereotypes and Related Images
203(4)
Early Images
203(1)
Contemporary Stereotypes and Prejudice
203(1)
Views of Immigration and Immigrants
204(1)
Negative Images in the Mass Media
205(1)
Mocking Spanish
206(1)
A Racialized Identity: The Contemporary Situation
206(1)
Conflict and Protest
207(1)
The Early Period
207(1)
More Attacks by Whites
207(1)
Protests since the 1960s
207(1)
The Economy
208(6)
Stratification and Discrimination in the Workplace
208(2)
Continuing Language Discrimination
210(1)
Unemployment, Poverty, and Income
211(1)
Problems of Economic Adaptation
212(1)
Is There a Latino ``Underclass''?
213(1)
Immigrant Workers and Housing Discrimination
214(1)
Politics and Protest
214(7)
Growing Political Representation
215(1)
Support for the Democratic Party
216(1)
The Courts and the Police
216(1)
The Chicano Political Movement
217(1)
Other Organizations and Protest
217(1)
Unions for Low-Wage Workers
218(2)
Other Recent Challenges and Conflicts: Latinos and African Americans
220(1)
Education
221(3)
Recurring Educational Problems
221(1)
Current Educational Issues: Segregation and Bilingualism
221(1)
Educational Achievement and Continuing Problems
222(2)
Religion
224(1)
Assimilation or Colonialism?
225(5)
The Limits of Assimilation
226(2)
Applying a Power-Conflict Perspective
228(2)
A Pan-Latino Identity
230(1)
Summary
230(2)
Puerto Rican and Cuban Americans
232(33)
Puerto Rican Americans
233(1)
From Spanish to U.S. Rule
233(1)
Migration to the Mainland
234(1)
Migration Patterns
234(1)
Joined by Other Latinos: Diversity in the New York Area
235(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
235(3)
Criminalizing Puerto Ricans
236(1)
Other Negative Images
236(1)
Color Coding and White Prejudices
237(1)
Economic and Related Conditions: The Mainland
238(3)
Occupation and Unemployment
238(1)
Employment Discrimination
239(1)
Industrial Restructuring
239(1)
Income and Poverty
240(1)
Housing Problems
240(1)
Education
241(2)
Barriers to Social and Economic Mobility
242(1)
Language
242(1)
Official English Policies and Spanish Speakers
243(1)
Politics
243(1)
Local and State Government
243(1)
Politics and Recent Intergroup Conflict
244(1)
Protest
244(3)
On the Mainland
245(1)
More Community Protest
246(1)
Religion
247(1)
Assimilation or Colonialism?
247(3)
Assimilation Issues
247(2)
Power-Conflict Perspectives
249(1)
Cuban Americans
250(1)
Patterns of Immigration
250(4)
Early Immigration: 1868-1959
250(1)
Recent Immigration: 1959 to the Present
251(1)
The Mariel Immigrants
252(2)
Intergroup Conflict
254(1)
Tensions between Cuban Americans and African Americans
254(1)
Racial Division among Cuban Americans
255(1)
Stereotypes and Discrimination
255(1)
The Economic Situation
256(2)
Politics
258(2)
Assimilation or Colonialism?
260(3)
Assimilation Issues
260(2)
A Power-Conflict Perspective?
262(1)
Summary
263(2)
Japanese Americans
265(24)
Introduction: Japanese Americans
266(1)
Migration: An Overview
266(2)
Serial and Chain Migration
266(1)
Early Immigration
267(1)
Mainland Migration
267(1)
More Racist Agitation and Restrictions
268(1)
Stereotypes
268(3)
War Propaganda
269(1)
Recent Distortions, Stereotypes, and Omissions
270(1)
Repression and Violent Attacks
271(2)
The Ugly Specter of U.S. Concentration Camps
271(2)
Why the Camps Were Created
273(1)
Recent Violence
273(1)
The Political Arena
273(3)
Compensation Pressures and Political Progress
273(1)
Government Officials
274(1)
Politics, Stereotyping, and Competition with Japan
275(1)
Protest Organizations and Group Pride
276(1)
The Economy
276(3)
Finding an Economic Niche
276(1)
The Postwar Economy
277(1)
Occupational Mobility, Income, and Persisting Employment Barriers
278(1)
Education
279(1)
Racism and Early Segregation
279(1)
Educational Progress
279(1)
Religion
280(1)
Assimilation Perspectives
281(6)
A Power-Conflict View
284(1)
Criticizing the ``Model Minority'' Stereotype
285(2)
Summary
287(2)
Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, and Asian-Indian Americans
289(34)
Migration: An Overview
290(4)
Chinese Americans
291(1)
Filipino Americans
291(1)
Korean Americans
292(1)
Vietnamese Americans
293(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
293(1)
Asian Women as Immigrants
294(1)
Stereotypes
294(2)
Specific Images of Asian Americans
294(1)
Stereotyping in the Media and Popular Entertainment
295(1)
Discrimination and Conflict
296(5)
Hate Crimes and Other Ethnoviolence
296(1)
Chinese Americans
297(1)
Filipino Americans
298(1)
Korean Americans
299(1)
Vietnamese Americans
300(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
300(1)
Organizing and Activism in the Political Arena
301(7)
Pan-Asian Organizations and Coalitions
302(2)
Chinese Americans
304(1)
Filipino Americans
305(1)
Korean Americans
306(1)
Vietnamese Americans
307(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
307(1)
The Economy
308(6)
Chinese Americans
309(2)
Filipino Americans
311(1)
Korean Americans
312(1)
Vietnamese Americans
313(1)
Asian-Indian Americans
313(1)
Education
314(2)
High Achievement amid Persisting Problems
314(1)
Educational Attainment
315(1)
Controversy in Higher Education
316(1)
Full Assimilation for Asian Americans?
316(5)
Assimilation Views
316(3)
Some Questions from a Power-Conflict Perspective
319(2)
Summary
321(2)
Arab Americans
323(17)
Migration
324(1)
The Early Period
324(1)
Later Immigration
325(1)
Stereotyping and Prejudice
325(2)
Classified as an ``Inferior Race''
325(1)
Recent Stereotyping and U.S. Politics
326(1)
Challenging Stereotyping
326(1)
Stereotypes and Arab American Women
327(1)
Oppression, Discrimination, and Conflict
327(4)
Early Discrimination
327(1)
Current Patterns of Discrimination
328(1)
International Politics and Discrimination
328(1)
The Impact of the Attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon: 2001 and After
329(1)
Taking Action against Discrimination
330(1)
Local Conflict and Cooperation with Other Groups
330(1)
Politics and Political Emergence
331(2)
Gradual Increase in Political Activity
331(1)
Recent Political Involvement
331(1)
Politics and Discrimination
332(1)
International Politics and Linkages
332(1)
The Economy
333(1)
Education
334(1)
Religion
335(1)
Adaptation and Assimilation Issues
336(3)
Patterns of Assimilation
336(1)
Contemporary Assimilation Issues and Patterns
337(1)
Assimilation and Generational Conflicts
337(1)
Creating a Hybrid Culture
338(1)
Some Power-Conflict Issues: Racial and Ethnic Identities in the Face of Hostility
338(1)
Summary
339(1)
The Future of Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States
340(15)
A Nation of Immigrants
341(5)
The Melting Pot: Early Images of Immigrant Incorporation
346(1)
Multicultural and Multiracial Democracy Issues
346(3)
Equality and a Pluralistic Democracy
349(4)
An Egalitarian Society?
349(1)
Racial Discrimination: The Present Day
350(3)
Conclusion: An Increasingly Balkanized Nation?
353(2)
Part III Global Relations 355(18)
Colonialism and Post-Colonialism: The Global Expansion of Racism
356(17)
Colonialism and Racism
357(1)
The History and Legacy of Colonialism
357(2)
To Whom Does Southern Africa Belong?
359(4)
Formation of the State and Apartheid
360(1)
Opposition to Apartheid
361(2)
The Future of South Africa
363(1)
Brazil: The Legacy of Slavery and the Illusion of Equality
363(4)
A Racial Democracy?
364(2)
A Century of Lies?
366(1)
Colonialism and Colonizer in France: The Violence of Exclusion
367(3)
The Character of French Colonialism
367(1)
Immigrants and Racism
368(2)
The Future of Colonialism and Post-Colonialism
370(1)
Summary
371(2)
Glossary 373(4)
Notes 377(59)
Photo Credits 436(1)
Index 437

Excerpts

OVER THE PAST FEW DECADES, NUMEROUS SCHOLARS, JOURNALISTS, AND POLITICIANS have argued that there is a "declining significance of race" or an "end to racism" in the United States. They have written or spoken optimistically about the decrease in discrimination and the improving character of racial and ethnic relations in this country. Over the same period of time, however, the scholarly journals and mass media have been filled with accounts of violent hate crimes targeting people of color, accounts of the violent views and actions of white supremacist groups, discussions of many lawsuits over racial discrimination in employment and public accommodations, studies showing widespread housing discrimination, descriptions of community rebellions against local police brutality incidents, and controversies over affirmative action and other anti-discrimination programs. In recent years, we have also seen intense debates about the character and impact of the recent immigrants to the United States, many of whom are immigrants of color from Latin American or Asian countries. As we move into the new millennium, there is much scholarly and public discussion and argument about racial and ethnic discrimination, oppression, and conflict. Contrary to what some scholars and journalists assert, this debate reflects the underlying social, economic, and political realities in the United States. Today, many Americans are well aware, or are becoming aware, of the continuing significance of "race," racism, and ethnicity, not only in this country but also in other countries--from the Republic of South Africa to Northern Ireland, the former Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East. Racial and ethnic oppression and conflict are extraordinarily important in the modern world and have the potential to tear apart any country, including highly industrialized countries. One result of the reinvigorated interest in racial and ethnic issues in many areas of the United States is the creation of college and university courses that focus on racial and ethnic divisions, cultural diversity, and multicultural or multiracial issues. We have revised this seventh edition ofRacial and Ethnic Relationswith this growing interest in U.S. racial and ethnic heritages, developments, conflicts, and coalitions in mind. This textbook is designed for sociology courses, other social science courses, and education courses variously titled Racial and Ethnic Relations, Race Relations, Minority Groups, and Minority Relations, and also for various other courses on cultural diversity, multiculturalism, and racial and ethnic groups offered in college, university, business, and governmental settings. One purpose of this book is to provide readers with access to the important literature on racial and ethnic groups in the United States and, to a lesser extent, in certain other countries around the globe. We have drawn on a broad array of sources, including articles, books, and other data analyses by sociologists, political scientists, social psychologists, anthropologists, historians, economists, investigative journalists, and legal scholars. We have limited space, so we have not been able to deal with all the important racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Instead, we have focused on a modest number of major racial and ethnic groups, generally preferring to accent depth rather than breadth in the analyses. In recent decades, social science analyses have begun to dig deeper into the "what," "why," and "how" of racial and ethnic oppression and conflict. We draw heavily on this ever-growing research. The introduction to Part I looks briefly at the origins of the racial and ethnic mosaic that is the United States. It serves as an introduction to Chapters 1 and 2, which discuss major concepts and theories in the study of racial and ethnic relations. The introduction to Part II sketches the political and economic history of th


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