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Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis,9780471306283
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Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis

by ;
ISBN13:

9780471306283

ISBN10:
0471306282
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/1993
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Interscience
List Price: $125.00
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Summary

From nuclear dating methods to nucleosynthesis in stars. it's all here. The first practical, comprehensive guide to the science of radiochemistry. Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis is the first thorough and up-to-date look for the nonspecialist at the fundamentals of radiochemistry as well as the full range of advances currently made possible by the applications of radioactivity. Without an emphasis on high-level mathematics or abstruse theoretical physics, the book provides a clear, fundamentals-first look at radioactivity, the principles of radioactive decay, and nuclear reactions, as well as: * Modern radiochemical instrumentation * Nuclear dating methods * Methods for the production of radionuclides * The use of tracers and nuclear methods of analysis * The origin of the chemical elements * The biological effects of radiation The book's user-friendly instructional format, designed for both beginning and advanced students, includes numerous end-of-chapter problems ranging from the simple to complex which familiarize the reader with equations and concepts in the text. References to recent monographs, available in most college and university libraries, provide direction to more specialized literature. Invaluable to both students and professionals in search of a practical grasp of the subject, Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis is a clear introduction to radioactivity and radionuclear chemistry's principles, methods, and applications.

Author Biography

WILLIAM D. EHMANN is Professor of Chemistry at the University of Kentucky. DIANE E. VANCE is Staff Development Scientist at the Analytical Services Organization in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Radiochemistry
1(35)
The Discovery of Radioactivity and Evolution of Nuclear Theory
1(19)
Forces in Matter and the Subatomic Particles
20(2)
Forces in Nature
20(1)
The Subatomic Particles
21(1)
Nuclides and Natural Decay Chains
22(13)
Nuclides and Symbols
23(1)
Classification of Nuclides
23(2)
Chart of the Nuclides
25(3)
Natural Decay Chains
28(3)
An Extinct Natural Decay Chain
31(4)
Types of Radioactive Decay
35(22)
Alpha-Particle Decay
36(5)
Beta Decay
41(5)
Negatron Decay
41(2)
Positron Decay
43(2)
Electron Capture (EC or ϵ)
45(1)
Gamma Decay
46(4)
Pure Gamma-Ray Emission
48(1)
Internal Conversion (IC)
48(1)
Pair Production (PP)
49(1)
Branching Decays and Decay Schemes
50(1)
Less Common Decay Modes
50(7)
Spontaneous Fission Decay
50(2)
Delayed-Neutron Emission
52(1)
Delayed-Proton Emission
53(1)
Double-Beta Decay
53(1)
Two-Proton Decay
54(1)
14C and Other Cluster Emission Decay
54(3)
Nuclear Chemistry and Mass--Energy Relationships
57(28)
Description of the Nucleus
57(4)
Nuclear Properties
61(1)
Angular Momentum and Nuclear Spin
61(1)
Magnetic Moment (μ)
61(1)
Parity and Symmetry
62(1)
Models of Nuclear Structure
62(5)
Shell Model (Single Particle Model)
63(2)
Fermi Gas Model
65(1)
Liquid Drop Model
66(1)
Optical Model (Cloudy Crystal Ball Model)
67(1)
Collective Model
67(1)
Mass--Energy Relationships
67(18)
Mass--Energy Equivalence
68(1)
Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions
69(5)
Energy Changes in Radioactive Decay
74(1)
Closed-Cycle Decay for Mass-Energy Calculations
75(1)
Semiempirical Binding Energy Equation
76(2)
Nuclear Energy Surface Diagrams
78(7)
Nuclear Reactions
85(28)
Types of Nuclear Reactions
85(2)
Scattering Reactions
85(1)
Other Reactions
86(1)
Energetics of Nuclear Reactions
87(3)
Momentum Correction
88(1)
Coulomb Barrier Correction
89(1)
Cross Sections for Nuclear Reactions
90(10)
Measurement of Cross Section
92(4)
Excitation Functions
96(4)
Reaction Mechanisms
100(3)
Compound-Nucleus Formation
100(2)
Direct Interactions
102(1)
Special Nuclear Reactions
103(10)
Neutron-Induced Fission
103(3)
Fusion
106(1)
Heavy-Ion Reactions
107(1)
Photonuclear Reactions
107(6)
Rates of Nuclear Decay
113(34)
Rates of Radioactive Decay
113(3)
Half-life and Average Life
114(2)
Units of Radioactive Decay
116(2)
Branching Decay
118(1)
Experimental Methods for Determination of Half-life
119(12)
Long Half-lives
119(5)
Medium Half-lives
124(3)
Short Half-lives
127(2)
Very Short Half-lives
129(2)
Estimation of Half-life from Theory and Systematics
131(2)
Growth of Radioactive Products in a Decay Chain
133(7)
Parent with a Single Radioactive Daughter
134(4)
Parent with Multiple Radioactive Daughters
138(2)
Growth of Products in a Neutron Flux
140(7)
Interactions of Radiation with Matter
147(32)
Modes of Interaction
147(2)
Heavy Charged-Particle Interactions
149(5)
Range Relationships for Heavy Charged Particles
149(5)
Stopping Power
154(1)
Beta-Particle Interactions
154(8)
Range Relationships for Beta Particles
156(2)
The Feather Method
158(2)
Bremsstrahlung Radiation
160(1)
Cerenkov Radiation
161(1)
Beta Backscatter
161(1)
Positron Interactions
161(1)
Gamma-Ray Interactions
162(11)
Photoelectric Effect
162(2)
Compton Scattering
164(3)
Pair Production
167(3)
Mathematics of Gamma-Ray Absorption
170(3)
Neutron Interactions
173(2)
Physical Effects of Radiation on Matter
175(4)
Health Physics
179(26)
Radiation Quantities and Units
179(8)
Measurement of Exposure
180(1)
Measurement of Dose
180(1)
Measurement of Dose Equivalent
181(3)
Simple Calculations of Dose and Exposure
184(3)
Biological Effects of Radiation
187(5)
Stochastic Effects
187(3)
Nonstochastic Effects
190(2)
Sources of Radiation Exposure
192(4)
Natural Sources of Radiation
192(3)
Man-made Sources of Radiation
195(1)
Radiation Protection and Control
196(9)
Risk
196(1)
Regulatory Bodies and Objectives of Radiation Standards
197(3)
Recommended Levels for Maximum Exposure
200(1)
Health Physics Considerations for the Radioanalytical Laboratory
200(5)
Radiochemistry Instrumentation
205(48)
Definitions of Operating Characteristics
205(2)
Gas-Filled Detectors
207(13)
Ionization Chambers
209(4)
Proportional Counters
213(5)
Geiger-Muller Counters
218(2)
Scintillation Detectors
220(8)
Inorganic Scintillation Detectors
221(4)
Organic Scintillators
225(2)
The Photomultiplier Tube
227(1)
Solid-State Semiconductor Detectors
228(8)
Theory of Semiconductor Detectors
229(3)
Surface Barrier Detectors
232(1)
Lithium-Drifted Semiconductor Detectors
233(3)
Intrinsic Germanium Detectors
236(1)
Other Components of Electronic Detector Systems
236(6)
Nonelectronic Detection Systems
242(3)
Photographic Plates
242(1)
Chemical Detectors
243(1)
Calorimetric Detectors
243(1)
Cloud and Bubble Chambers
244(1)
Thermoluminescence Detectors (TLDs)
245(1)
Special Neutron Detectors
245(8)
Thermal Neutron Detectors
246(1)
Fast Neutron Detectors
246(7)
Nuclear Activation Analysis
253(60)
Principles of Activation Analysis
253(18)
Overview of Nuclear Activation Analysis Methods
253(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Activation Methods
255(4)
Sources of Activating Particles or Radiations
259(8)
Interferences in Activation Analysis
267(4)
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
271(20)
Overview of NAA Procedures
272(4)
Calculations of NAA
276(3)
Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis (TNAA)
279(6)
Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA)
285(4)
Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA)
289(1)
Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA)
289(2)
Prompt-Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA)
291(1)
Charged-Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA)
292(4)
Principles of CPAA
292(1)
Calculations of CPAA
293(1)
Applications of CPAA
294(1)
Particle-Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE)
294(2)
Instrumental Photon Activation Analysis (IPAA)
296(1)
Special Activation Analysis Techniques
297(16)
Derivative Activation Analysis (DAA)
297(3)
Cyclic Activation Analysis
300(2)
Secondary Particle Activation Analysis
302(1)
Coincidence Techniques in Activation Analysis
302(1)
Localization Methods in Activation Analysis
303(10)
Radiotracer Methods
313(34)
General Aspects of Radiotracer Use
313(5)
Assumptions Made in Trace Studies
313(1)
Factors in the Choice of a Radiotracer
314(1)
Production of Radiotracers
315(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Radiotracer Use
316(2)
Isotope Dilution Analysis
318(5)
Theory and Calculations for DIDA
318(1)
Applications of IDA
319(2)
Variations of IDA
321(2)
Tracers in the Study of Chemical Processes
323(4)
Equilibrium Processes
323(2)
Analytical Applications
325(2)
Studies of Reaction Mechanisms
327(1)
Other Applications of Radiotracers and Radionuclides
327(4)
Nuclear Medicine and Pharmacy
331(16)
General Aspects of Radiopharmaceutical Use
331(1)
Nuclear Properties of Indicator Nuclides
332(6)
In Vivo Diagnostic Procedures
338(2)
In Vitro Diagnostic Testing: Radioimmunoassay
340(2)
Therapeutic Uses of Radiation
342(5)
Ion Beam Analysis and Chemical Applications of Radioactivity
347(32)
Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission
347(8)
Overview of the PIXE Process
348(1)
Projectile Acceleration and Target Preparation
348(3)
Ionization and X-Ray Emission
351(1)
Detection and Analysis of X Rays
351(2)
Applications of PIXE
353(1)
PIXE Variations
354(1)
Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry
355(9)
The Scattering Reaction
356(1)
Surface Analysis Using RBS
357(2)
Depth Profiling Using RBS
359(3)
Channeling Effects
362(1)
Applications of RBS
363(1)
Mossbauer Spectroscopy
364(3)
Hot-Atom Chemistry
367(6)
Production of Hot Atoms
369(1)
Energy Calculations
369(2)
Applications of Hot-Atom Reactions
371(2)
Radiation Chemistry
373(6)
Nuclear Dating Methods
379(28)
General Principles of Nuclear Dating Methods
379(3)
Radiocarbon Dating
382(4)
Tritium Dating
386(1)
U--Pb and Th--Pb Methods
387(4)
Simple He Accumulation Method
387(1)
Single-Decay-Chain Methods
387(2)
Pb--Pb Method
389(2)
Rb--Sr Method
391(4)
K--Ar Method
395(2)
Standard Method
395(1)
Incremental Heating Method
395(2)
Pleochroic Halos
397(1)
Fission Tracks
397(2)
Special Methods
399(8)
Cosmic-Ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites
399(1)
Terrestrial Ages of Meteorites
400(1)
Extinct Natural Radionuclides
401(2)
Re--Os Method
403(1)
Lu--Hf Method
403(1)
K--Ca Method
403(4)
The Origin of the Chemical Elements
407(30)
Cosmology
407(7)
Elemental Abundances
408(5)
Cosmic Abundance Curves
413(1)
Primordial Nucleosynthesis
414(3)
Stellar Evolution
417(3)
Star Populations
417(1)
Evolution of a Star
418(2)
Stellar Nucleosynthesis
420(11)
Hydrogen Fusion
420(1)
The CNO Bi-cycle
421(2)
Helium Burning
423(1)
Heavier Element Burning
424(2)
The s-Process
426(2)
The r- and p-Processes
428(2)
Supernovae
430(1)
The Solar Neutrino Problem
431(2)
Synthesis of Be, B, and Li
433(4)
Particle Generators
437(38)
Natural Particle Sources
437(1)
Nuclear Reactors
438(20)
The Fission Process
438(6)
Major Components of Reactors
444(6)
Types of Reactors
450(2)
Applications of Reactors
452(6)
Accelerators: Basic Components
458(3)
Cockroft--Walton Accelerators
461(1)
Van de Graaff Accelerators
462(3)
Linear Accelerators
465(1)
Cyclotrons
466(4)
Synchrotrons
470(2)
Large Accelerators for Nuclear Physics Research
472(3)
Appendix A Statistics for Radiochemistry 475(8)
Appendix B General References and Data Sources 483(2)
Appendix C Nuclidic Properties 485(32)
Appendix D Useful Constants and Conversions 517(2)
Index 519


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