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Radiography in Veterinary Technology,9780721692753

Radiography in Veterinary Technology

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780721692753

ISBN10:
0721692753
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/13/2002
Publisher(s):
Saunders
List Price: $54.95
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Summary

Written by a veterinary technician for veterinary technicians, the new edition of this bestselling resource offers complete, practical guidance on how to produce consistently superior radiographic images.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Radiographic Theory and Equipment
X-Ray Production
3(6)
Definition of X-Rays
4(1)
Physical Properties of X-Ray Electromagnetic Radiation
5(1)
Generation of X-Rays
5(1)
Discovery of X-Rays
6(3)
Anatomy of the X-Ray Machine
9(16)
The X-Ray Tube
10(5)
X-Ray Production
11(1)
Cathode
11(1)
Anode
12(2)
Focal Spot
14(1)
Possible Areas of Tube Failure
15(2)
Cathode Failure
15(1)
Anode Bearing Failure
16(1)
Anode Target Failure
16(1)
Glass Envelope Damage
16(1)
Tube Housing Anomalies
16(1)
Technical Components of the X-Ray Machine
17(8)
Electrical Components
17(1)
X-Ray Tube Rating
18(1)
Three-Phase Generator
19(1)
High-Frequency Generators
19(1)
The Collimator
19(1)
The Tube Stand
20(1)
The Control Panel
20(5)
Radiation Safety
25(12)
Hazards of Ionizing Radiation
26(1)
Maximum Permissible Dose
27(1)
Radiation Exposure Units
27(1)
Patient Exposure
28(1)
Personnel Monitoring Devices
28(1)
Practical Application of Radiation Safety
29(8)
Maintenance of Protective Apparel
33(1)
Radiation Safety Rules---A Checklist
33(2)
Additional Radiation Safety Rules for Fluoroscopy
35(2)
Exposure Factors
37(8)
Milliamperage and Time
38(2)
Kilovoltage
40(1)
Distance
40(1)
How Radiography Works: A Review
41(1)
How Radiography Works: A Different Look
41(4)
Radiographic Quality
45(16)
Radiographic Density
46(1)
Factors Affecting Radiographic Density
47(1)
Contrast
47(3)
Radiographic Contrast
47(2)
Subject Contrast
49(1)
Exposure Factors
50(1)
Milliamperage-Seconds
50(1)
Kilovoltage
51(1)
Scatter Radiation
51(1)
Grid
52(3)
Grid Focus
52(1)
Grid Efficiency
53(1)
Grid Factor
54(1)
Grid Pattern
54(1)
Focused versus Unfocused Grids
54(1)
Pseudofocused Grid
55(1)
Potter-Bucky Diaphragm
55(1)
Care of Grids
55(1)
Radiographic Detail and Definition
55(6)
Geometric Unsharpness
56(1)
Geometric Distortion and Magnification
56(5)
Image Receptors
61(14)
The Cassette
63(1)
Cassette Care
64(1)
Intensifying Screens
64(7)
Screen Construction
64(2)
Screen Speed
66(1)
Screen Speed Ratings
67(1)
Screen Speed Summary
68(1)
Mounting Screens in the Cassette
68(1)
Specialized Screens: Fluoroscopy
69(1)
Screen Care
70(1)
X-Ray Film
71(2)
Film Composition
71(1)
Latent Image
71(1)
Film Types
71(1)
Film Speed
72(1)
Film Care
72(1)
Film-Screen Systems
73(2)
Film Processing
75(16)
The Darkroom
76(3)
Organization
77(1)
Darkroom Lightproofing
78(1)
Film-Processing Solutions
79(2)
The Developer
79(1)
The Rinse Bath
80(1)
The Fixer
80(1)
The Wash Bath
80(1)
Wetting Agent
80(1)
Solution Replenisher
80(1)
Solution Replacement
81(1)
Biologic Growth
81(1)
Film-Processing Techniques
81(5)
Manual-Processing Procedure
81(3)
Automatic Processing
84(2)
Silver Recovery
86(1)
Metallic Replacement
86(1)
Electrolytic Recovery
86(1)
Chemical Precipitation
87(1)
Film Identification
87(2)
Lead Markers
87(1)
Lead-Impregnated Tape
88(1)
Photoimprinting Label System
88(1)
Miscellaneous Markers
89(1)
Other Identification Methods
89(1)
Film Filing
89(2)
Radiographic Technique Evaluation
91(8)
Physics of Radiography: A Review
92(1)
Density and Contrast: A Review
92(1)
Viewing a Radiograph
93(1)
Evaluation of Radiographic Technique
93(1)
Question 1
93(1)
Question 2
93(1)
Penetration Evaluation of a Radiograph That Is Too Light
93(1)
Penetration Evaluation of a Radiograph That Is Too Dark
94(1)
Practical Applications
94(3)
Other Error Considerations
97(2)
Developing a Technique Chart
99(8)
Suggested Charts
100(1)
Technique Chart Formulation
100(1)
Exposure Factors
101(1)
Procedure Flowchart: Variable kVp Technique Chart
101(2)
Trial Exposure: Example 1
102(1)
Trial Exposure: Example 2
102(1)
Other Formulation Methods
103(1)
Modification Recommendations
104(3)
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
107(20)
Susan L. McClanahan
Quality Assurance/Quality Control in Veterinary Radiography
108(19)
Equipment
108(1)
Tracking Charts
109(1)
Procedures
109(11)
Darkroom Quality Control
120(7)
Technical Artifacts and Errors: Case Studies
127(20)
Part 2 Radiographic Positioning
General Principles of Positioning
147(8)
Positional Terminology
148(1)
Beam Direction
148(1)
Patient Positioning: Basic Criteria
148(4)
The Patient
150(1)
Measurement
150(1)
Required Views
150(1)
Collimation
151(1)
Positioning Guidelines
151(1)
Patient Preparation
152(1)
Restraint
152(1)
Positioning Aids
152(1)
Film Identification
152(3)
Small Animal Forelimb
155(20)
Scapula
156(3)
Lateral View
156(1)
Caudocranial View
157(2)
Shoulder
159(2)
Lateral View
159(1)
Caudocranial View
160(1)
Humerus
161(3)
Lateral View
161(1)
Caudocranial View
162(1)
Craniocaudal View
163(1)
Elbow
164(3)
Craniocaudal View
164(1)
Lateral View
165(1)
Flexed Lateral View
166(1)
Radius and Ulna
167(2)
Lateral View
167(1)
Craniocaudal View
168(1)
Carpus
169(2)
Lateral View
169(1)
Dorsopalmar View
170(1)
Metacarpus-Phalanges
171(4)
Dorsopalmar View
171(1)
Lateral View
172(3)
Small Animal Pelvis and Hind Limb
175(18)
Pelvis
176(5)
Lateral View
176(1)
Ventrodorsal View
176(5)
Femur
181(2)
Lateral View
181(1)
Craniocaudal View
182(1)
Stifle Joint
183(3)
Caudocranial View
183(1)
Lateral View
184(1)
Skyline Projection of Patella (Sunrise View)
185(1)
Tibia and Fibula
186(2)
Lateral View
186(1)
Caudocranial View
187(1)
Tarsus
188(2)
Lateral View
188(1)
Plantarodorsal and Dorsoplantar Views
189(1)
Metatarsus-Phalanges
190(3)
Lateral View
190(1)
Dorsoplantar and Plantarodorsal Views
191(2)
Small Animal Skull
193(16)
Skull
194(3)
Introduction
194(1)
Lateral View
194(1)
Dorsoventral View
195(1)
Ventrodorsal View
196(1)
Frontal Sinuses
197(1)
Rostrocaudal View
197(1)
Cranium
198(1)
Rostrocaudal View
198(1)
Nasal Cavity
199(1)
Ventrodorsal Open-Mouth View
199(1)
Tympanic Bullae
200(2)
Rostrocaudal Open-Mouth View
200(1)
Lateral Oblique View
201(1)
Temporomandibular Joint
202(1)
Ventrodorsal Oblique View
202(1)
Maxilla
203(2)
Dorsoventral Intraoral View
203(1)
Upper Dental Arcade
204(1)
Mandible
205(2)
Ventrodorsal Intraoral View
205(1)
Lower Dental Arcade
206(1)
Teeth
207(2)
Lateral Intraoral View
207(2)
Small Animal Spine
209(16)
Cervical Spine
210(4)
Ventrodorsal View
210(1)
Extended Lateral View
210(1)
Flexed Lateral View
210(3)
Hyperextended Lateral View
213(1)
Thoracic Spine
214(2)
Ventrodorsal View
214(1)
Lateral View
215(1)
Thoracolumbar Spine
216(2)
Ventrodorsal View
216(1)
Lateral View
217(1)
Lumbar Spine
218(2)
Ventrodorsal View
218(1)
Lateral View
219(1)
Sacrum
220(1)
Ventrodorsal View
220(1)
Caudal Spine
221(4)
Ventrodorsal View
221(1)
Lateral View
222(3)
Small Animal Soft Tissue
225(10)
Pharynx
226(1)
Lateral View
226(1)
Thorax
227(5)
Dorsoventral View
227(1)
Ventrodorsal View
228(1)
Lateral View
229(1)
Lateral View with Horizontal Beam
230(1)
Lateral Decubitus View (Ventrodorsal View with Horizontal Beam)
231(1)
Abdomen
232(3)
Ventrodorsal View
232(1)
Lateral View
233(2)
Special Procedures
235(18)
Indications
237(1)
Contrast Media
237(1)
Iodine Preparations
237(1)
Barium Preparations
238(1)
Negative-Contrast Agents--Gases
238(1)
Patient Preparation
238(1)
Contrast Studies of the Gastrointestinal Tract
238(6)
Esophagography
239(1)
Upper Gastrointestinal Study
240(1)
Gastrography
241(1)
Lower Gastrointestinal Study
241(3)
Contrast Studies of the Urinary System
244(5)
Excretory Urography
244(1)
Cystography
244(5)
Urethrography
249(1)
Additional Techniques---A Brief Overview
249(4)
Arthrography
249(1)
Angiography and Angiocardiography
250(1)
Cholecystography
250(1)
Fistulography
250(1)
Lymphography
250(1)
Myelography
251(1)
Pneumoperitoneography
251(1)
Sialography
251(1)
Vaginography
251(2)
Large Animal Radiography
253(40)
Special Considerations
254(1)
Patient Restraint
254(1)
Equipment
254(1)
Patient Preparation
254(1)
Radiation Safety
255(1)
Positioning Devices
255(1)
Distal Phalanx (Pedal Bone)
255(4)
Lateral View
255(2)
Dorsopalmar/Dorsoplantar View
257(1)
Dorsopalmar/Dorsoplantar Oblique View
258(1)
Navicular Bone
259(2)
Dorsopalmar/Dorsoplantar Oblique View
259(1)
Flexor View
260(1)
Proximal Phalanges
261(2)
Lateral View (Short and Long Pastern)
261(1)
Dorsopalmar/Dorsoplantar View
262(1)
Fetlock Joint
263(4)
Dorsopalmar/Dorsoplantar View
263(1)
Lateral View
264(1)
Flexed Lateral View
265(1)
Oblique Views (Lateral and Medial)
266(1)
Metacarpus/Metatarsus
267(8)
Dorsopalmar/Dorsoplantar View
267(1)
Lateral View
268(1)
Oblique Views (Lateral and Medial)
269(1)
Carpus Joint
270(1)
Dorsopalmar View
270(1)
Lateral View
271(1)
Flexed Lateral View
272(1)
Oblique Views (Lateral and Medial)
273(1)
Skyline View
274(1)
Tarsus joint
275(3)
Dorsoplantar View
275(1)
Lateral View
276(1)
Oblique Views (Lateral and Medial)
277(1)
Elbow Joint
278(2)
Craniocaudal View
279(1)
Lateral View
279(1)
Shoulder Joint
280(1)
Lateral View
280(1)
Stifle Joint
281(2)
Caudocranial View
281(1)
Lateral View
282(1)
Pelvis
283(1)
Ventrodorsal View
283(1)
Skull
284(4)
Lateral View
284(1)
Guttural Pouch/Larynx/Pharynx
285(1)
Dorsoventral View
286(1)
Teeth (Mandibular and Maxillary
287(1)
Cervical Spine
288(1)
Lateral View
288(1)
Additional Areas---A Brief Overview
289(4)
Thorax
289(1)
Abdomen
289(1)
Thoracic Spine
289(4)
Avian and Exotic Radiography
293(20)
Special Considerations
294(2)
Equipment
294(1)
Exposure Factors
295(1)
Patient Restraint
295(1)
Avian Radiography
296(4)
Whole-Body Ventrodorsal View
296(1)
Whole-Body Lateral View
297(1)
Wing---Caudocranial View
298(1)
Gastrointestinal Contrast Study
299(1)
Rodent Radiography
300(1)
Rat
300(1)
Whole-Body Lateral View
301(1)
Reptile Radiography
302(7)
Turtle
302(3)
Lizard
305(2)
Snake
307(2)
Fish Radiography
309(4)
Dorsoventral and Lateral Whole-Body View
309(4)
Alternative Imaging Technologies
313(18)
Patricia A. Walter
Ultrasonography
314(10)
Technical Aspects
315(1)
Clinical Applications
315(9)
Computed Tomography
324(2)
Technical Aspects
324(1)
Clinical Applications
325(1)
Nuclear Scintigraphy
326(5)
Technical Aspects
326(1)
Clinical Applications
327(4)
Answers to Review Questions 331


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