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Read, Reason, Write

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780073405933

ISBN10:
0073405930
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/15/2011
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $114.75

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  • Read, Reason, Write
    Read, Reason, Write




Summary

Read, Reason, Write unites instruction in critical reading and analysis, argument, and research strategies with a rich collection of readings that provide both practice for these skills and new ideas and insights for readers. Through all of its years, this text has been committed to showing students how reading, analytic, argumentative, and research skills are interrelated and how these skills combine to develop each student's critical thinking ability.

Table of Contents

CONTENTS

Preface

SECTION 1 CRITICAL READING AND ANALYSIS

Chapter 1 WRITERS AND THEIR SOURCES

Reading, Writing, and the Contexts of Argument

Responses to Sources

Abraham Lincoln, “The Gettysburg Address”

The Response to Content

The Analytic Response

The Judgment or Evaluation Response

The Research Response

Deborah Tannen, “Who Does the Talking Here?”

Active Reading: Use Your Mind!

Guidelines for Active Reading

Richard Morin, “Political Ads and the Voters They Attract”

Understanding Your Sources

Writing Summaries

Guidelines for Writing Summaries

Acknowledging Sources Informally

References to People

References to Sources

Joel Achenbach, “The Future Is Now”

Presenting Direct Quotations: A Guide for Form and Style

Reasons for Using Quotation Marks

A Brief Guide to Quoting

For Reading and Analysis

Anna Quindlen, "Turning the Page"

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 2 RESPONDING CRITICALLY TO SOURCES

Traits of the Critical Reader/Thinker

Examining the Rhetorical Context of a Source

Who is the Author?

What type of source—or genre—is it?

What Is the Author’s Primary Purpose?

What Are the Author’s Sources of Information?

Analyzing the Style of a Source

Denotative and Connotative Word Choice

Tone

Sentence Structure

Metaphors

Organization and Examples

Repetition

Hyperbole, Understatement, and Irony

Quotation Marks, Italics, and Capital Letters

Dave Barry, “In a Battle of Wits with Kitchen Appliances, I'm Toast”

Writing about Style

Understanding Your Purpose and Audience

Planning the Essay

Drafting the Style Analysis

A Checklist for Revision

Ellen Goodman, “In Praise of a Snail’s Pace”

Student Essay (on Goodman’s essay)

Analyzing Two or More Sources

Guidelines for Preparing a Contrast Essay

The Miami Herald, "Juan Williams Fired for Comments"
Patrik Jonsson, "Juan Williams Fired: Pitfalls of the Insta-opinion Age"

For Reading and Analysis

Firoozeh Dumas, "The F Word"
Catherine Getches, "Husband Hal"

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

SECTION 2 THE WORLD OF ARGUMENT

Chapter 3 UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF ARGUMENT

Characteristics of Argument

Argument Is Conversation with a Goal

Argument Debates an Arguable Issue

Argument Uses Reasons and Evidence

Argument Incorporates Values

Argument Recognizes a Topic’s Complexity

The Shape of Argument: What We Can Learn from Aristotle

Ethos (About the Writer/Speaker)

Logos (About the Logic of the Argument)

Pathos (About Appeals to the Audience)

Karios (About the Occasion or Situation)

The Language of Argument

Facts

Inferences

Judgments

Sam Wang and Sandra Aamodt, “Your Brain Lies to You”

The Shape of Argument: What We Can Learn from Toulmin

Claims

Grounds (or Data or Evidence)

Warrants

Backing

Qualifiers

Rebuttals

Using Toulmin’s Terms to Analyze Arguments

Les Schobert, “Let the Zoo’s Elephants Go”

Using Toulmin’s Terms as a Guide to Organizing Arguments

For Debate

T. R. Reid, “Let My Teenager Drink”
Joseph A. Califano, Jr., ‘Don’t Make Teen Drinking
Easier”

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 4 WRITING EFFECTIVE ARGUMENTS

Know Your Audience

Who Is My Audience?

What Will My Audience Know about My Topic?

Where Does My Audience Stand on the Issue?

How Should I Address My Audience?

Understand Your Writing Purpose

What Type (Genre) of Work Am I Preparing?

What Is My Goal?

Will the Rogerian or Conciliatory Approach Work for Me?

Move from Topic to Claim to Possible Support

Selecting a Topic

Drafting a Claim

Listing Possible Grounds

Listing Grounds for the Other Side or Another Perspective

Planning the Approach

Draft Your Argument

Guidelines for Drafting

Revise Your Draft

Rewriting

Editing

A Few Words about Words and Tone

Proofreading

A Checklist for Revision

For Analysis and Debate

Steven Pearlstein, "Understanding the Costs of Rising Inequality"
E.J. Dionne Jr., "Political Stupidity, U.S. Style"

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 5 READING, ANALYZING, AND USING VISUALS AND

STATISTICS IN ARGUMENT

Responding to Visual Arguments

Reading Graphics

Understanding How Graphics Differ
Guidelines for Reading Graphics
Exercises
The Use of Authority and Statistics
Judging Authorities
Understanding and Evaluating Sources
Guidelines for Evaluating Sources
Exercises

Writing the Investigative Argument

Gathering and Analyzing Evidence
Planning and Drafting the Essay
Guidelines for Writing an Investigative Argument
Analyzing Evidence: The Key to an Effective Argument
Preparing Graphics for Your Essay
A Checklist for Revision

Student Essay: “Buying Time” by Garrett Berger

For Reading and Analysis

Joe Navarro, “Every Body’s Talking: Nonverbals Speak
Loudly”

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 6 LEARNING MORE ABOUT ARGUMENT: INDUCTION,

DEDUCTION, ANALOGY, AND LOGICAL

FALLACIES

Induction

Deduction

“The Declaration of Independence”

Analogy

Zbigniew Brzezinski, “War and Football”

Logical Fallacies

Causes of Illogic

Fallacies of Oversimplifying (Problems with Logos)

Fallacies of Avoiding the Issue (Problems with Ethos or

Pathos)

For Analysis

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Declaration of Sentiments”
Neil de Grasse Tyson, "Things People Say"

SECTION 3 STUDYING SOME ARGUMENTS BY GENRE

Chapter 7 DEFINITION ARGUMENTS

Defining as Part of an Argument

When Defining Is the Argument

Strategies for Developing an Extended Definition

Guidelines for Evaluating Definition Arguments

Preparing a Definition Argument

A Checklist for Revision

Student Essay: “Laura Mullins, “Paragon or Parasite?”

For Analysis and Debate

Susan Jacoby, “Best Is the New Worst”
Robin Givhan, “Glamour, That Certain Something”

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 8 EVALUATION ARGUMENTS

Types of Evaluation Arguments

Guidelines for Analyzing an Evaluation Argument

Preparing an Evaluation Argument

A Checklist for Revision

Student Review: Ian Habel, “Winchester’s Alchemy: Two

Men and a Book”

Evaluating an Argument: The Rebuttal or Refutation Essay

Guidelines for Preparing a Refutation

Annotated Refutation: David Sadker, “Gender Games”

For Analysis and Debate

Robert H. Bork, “Addicted to Health”

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 9 THE POSITION PAPER: CLAIMS OF VALUE

Characteristics of the Position Paper

Guidelines for Analyzing a Claim of Value

Preparing a Position Paper

A Checklist for Revision

For Analysis and Debate

Ronald Bailey, "The Battle for Your Brain"
Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream"

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 10 ARGUMENTS ABOUT CAUSE

Characteristics of Causal Arguments

Mill’s Methods for Investigating Causes

Guidelines for Analyzing Causal Arguments

Preparing a Causal Argument

A Checklist for Revision

For Analysis and Debate

Lester C. Thurow, “Why Women Are Paid Less Than Men”
Tyler Cowen, "How Immigrants Create More Jobs"

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 11 PRESENTING PROPOSALS: THE PROBLEM/SOLUTION

ARGUMENT

Characteristics of Problem/Solution Arguments

Guidelines for Analyzing Problem/Solution Arguments

James Q. Wilson, "A New Strategy for the War on Drugs"
Jonathan Swift, "A Modest Proposal"

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

SECTION 4 THE RESEARCHED AND FORMALLY

DOCUMENTED ARGUMENT

Chapter 12 LOCATING, EVALUATING, AND PREPARING TO USE

SOURCES

Selecting a Good Topic

What Type of Research Essay Am I Preparing?

Who Is My Audience?

How Can I Select a Good Topic?

What Kinds of Topics Should I Avoid?

Writing a Tentative Claim or Research Proposal

Preparing a Working Bibliography

Basic Form for Books

Basic Form for Articles

Locating Sources

The Book Catalog

The Reference Collection

Electronic Databases

The Internet

Field Research

Evaluating Sources, Maintaining Credibility

Guidelines for Evaluating Sources

Chapter 13 WRITING THE RESEARCHED ESSAY

Avoiding Plagiarism

What Is Common Knowledge?

Using Signal Phrases to Avoid Misleading Readers

Guidelines for Appropriately Using Sources

Organizing the Paper

The Formal Outline

Drafting the Paper

Revising the Paper: A Checklist

The Completed Paper

Sample Student Research Essay

Chapter 14 FORMAL DOCUMENTATION: MLA STYLE, APA STYLE

OF DOCUMENTATION

MLA In-Text (Parenthetical) Documentation

MLA Citations for a “Works Cited” Page

APA In-Text Documentation

APA Citations for a “References” Page

SECTION 5 A COLLECTION OF READINGS

Chapter 15 THE MEDIA: IMAGE AND REALITY

Derrick Speight, “Of Losers and Moles: You Think Reality

TV Just Writes Itself?”)

Howard Kurtz, "Press and Pund Stampede Tramples Good Judgment and Often the Facts, Too"

Jean Kilbourne, "In Your Face... All Over the Place"

Katherine Ellison, “What’s Up, Doc? A Bloody Outrage, That's What"

Fred von Lohmann, "Copyright Silliness on Campus"

Rebecca Davis O'Brien, "The Social Network's Female Props"

Chapter 16 THE INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA: THEIR IMPACT ON OUR LIVES

Nicola Carr, "Is Google Making Us Stupid?"

Steven Pinker, "Mind over Mass Media"

David Brooks, "The Medium Is the Medium"

Yasheng Huang, "Why Google Should Stay in China"

Mona Eltahay, "In Egypt Twitter Trumps Torture"

Peggy Orenstein, "I Tweet, Therefore I Am"

Elias Aboujaoude, "A Violin Requiem for Privacy"

Chapter 17 THE ENVIRONMENT: HOW DO WE COPE WITH CLIMAGE CHANGE?

Michael Novacek, “The Sixth Extinction: It Happened to him. It’s Happening to You.”

David Fahrenthold, "It's Natural to Behave Irrationally"

Kristen Sheeran and Mindy Lubber, "The Cost of Climate Inaction"

Daniel Goleman, "How Marketplace Economics Can Help Build a Greener World"

"Wecansolveit" ad

James R. Lee, "Global Warming Is Just the Tip of the Iceberg"

Graeme Wood, "Moving Heaven and Earth"

Chapter 18 SPORTS TALK—SPORTS BATTLES

Donald Yee, "Show Them the Money"

Sally Jenkins, “Education, Athletics: The Odd Couple”

Ruth Marcus, "Privilege Unchecked in the U-Va. Case?"

William Saletan, “The Beam in Your Eye: If Steroids Are Cheating, Why Isn’t LASIK?”

Jordan Mamorsky, "Houston: We Have a Problem"

Tracee Hamilton, "It's Only a Letdown If You Expected Something Better"

Chapter 19 MARRIAGE AND GENDER ISSUES: THE DEBATES CONTINUE

Linda Waite, "Socail Science Finds: Marriage Matters"

Michael Kinsley, "Abolish Marriage"

Andrew Sullivan, "My Big Fat Straight Wedding"

Chong-Suk Ham, "Gay Asian-American Male Seeks Home"

Naomi Cahn and June Carbone, "5 Myths about Working Mothers"

Jessica, Valenti, "For Women in America, Equality Is Still an Illusion"

Gloria Steinem, "Supremacy Crimes"

Chapter 20 EDUCATION IN AMERICA: PROBLEMS AT ALL LEVELS

Gretchen Reynolds, "The Fittest Brains

George Will, "A Daunting Children's Divide"

William Brock, Ray Marshall, and Marc Tucker, "10 Steps to World-Class Schools"

Richard Kalenberg, "5 Myths about Who Gets into College"

Ted Gup, "So Much for the Information Age"David Cole, "Laptops vs. Learning"

Chapter 21 CENSORSHIP AND FREE SPEECH DEBATES

Katha Pollitt, "Ground Zero for Free Speech"

Ken Dautrich and John Bare, “Why the First Amendment (and Journalism) Might Be in Trouble”

Anne Applebaum, "Chipping Away at Free Speech"

Doug Gansler, "Limits of Free Speech"

Andrew J. McClurg, “Online Lessons on Unprotected Sex”

Daniel Greenberg, "Virtual Violence Is Free Speech"

Chapter 22 ETHICS AND THE LAW: CURRENT AND ENDURING

DEBATES

Arthur Kellerman, “Guns for Safety? Dream on, Scalia”

Darius Rejali, "5 Myths about Torture and Truth"

Eugene Robinson, "First They Did Harm"

Marianne Mollmann, "Ending Impunity for Rape"

Kathleen Parker, "Crush Animal Cruelty"

Ruben Navarette, Jr., "At the Cliff's Edge on Immigration"

Chapter 23 AMERICA: EMBRACING THE FUTURE -- OR DIVIDED BY CONFLICT?

Arthur C. Brooks, "The New Culture War"

Colbert King, "Faces We've Seen Before"

Bob Hebert, "America Is Better Than This"

Jennifer Granholm, "The Cure for Public Anger"

David Kennedy, "Throwing the Bums Out for 140 Years"

Virginia Postrel, "The Design of Your Life"

Kwame Anthony Appiah, "How the Future Will Judge Us"

APPENDIX: UNDERSTANDING LITERATURE

Getting the Facts: Active Reading, Summary, and Paraphrase

Paul Lawrence Dunbar, "Promise"

Kate Chopin, "The Story of an Hour"

Summary of "The Story of an Hour"

William Shakespeare, "Sonnet 116"

Paraphrase of "Sonnet 116"

Seeing Connection: Analysis

Analysis of Narrative Structure
Analysis of Character
Analysis of Elements of Style and Tone

Drawing Conclusions: Interpretation

Writing about LIreature

Andrew Marvell, "To His Coy Mistress"

Christopher Marlowe, "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love"

Sir Walter Raleigh, "The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd"

A.E. Housman, "Is My Team Ploughing"

Amy Lowell, "Taxi"

Ursula K. Le Guin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"

Susan Glaspell, "Trifles"

Sample Student Literary Analysis
Suggestions for Discussion and Writing


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