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Reading Statistics and Research,9780132178631
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Reading Statistics and Research

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780132178631

ISBN10:
013217863X
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/24/2011
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $165.80

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Summary

Employing a non-intimidating writing style that emphasizes concepts rather than formulas, this uniquely welcoming text shows consumers of research how to read, understand, and critically evaluate the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. Some key topics covered in this thoroughly revised text include: descriptive statistics, correlation, reliability and validity, estimation, h hypothesis testing, t-tests, ANOVA, ANCOVA, regression, multivariate analysis, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). A number of mini-topics related to research and statistics are also discussed, such as the geometric mean, Tau-b correlation, Guttman split-half reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and the Sobel test. Additionally, the sixth edition also includes over 488 new excerpts (tables, figures, passages of text) taken from current research reports. Written specifically for students in non-thesis Master#x19;s Programs but also perfectly suitable for students in upper-level undergraduate statistics courses, doctoral students who must conduct dissertation research, and independent researchers who want a better handle on how to decipher and critique statistically-based research reports.#xA0; #xA0; Thoroughly updated and revised to reflect advances in the field, Reading Statistics and Research, Sixth Editiongives consumers of research exactly what they are seeking in this caliber of text, that being the knowledge necessary to better understand research and statistics, and the confidence and ability to ultimately decipher and critique research reports on their own.

Author Biography

Schuyler W. Huck was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1943. He attended school in two Chicago suburbs (Riverside and Glenview), receiving a high school diploma in 1961 from Glenbrook North H.S. His undergraduate work was taken at DePauw University (Greencastle, Indiana) where he graduated in 1965 with a major in psychology and a minor in sociology. He pursued a doctorate in Educational Psychology at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois), receiving the Ph.D. in 1970. His doctoral specialization was applied statistics, testing, and research design.

In 1970, Dr. Huck joined the faculty at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville as an Assistant Professor. Affiliated with the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1974 and to Professor in 1977. Since receiving his doctorate, Dr. Huck has taught at two other educational institutions while on leave from UT. For 10 summers between 1977 and 1986, he was employed as a Visiting Professor in the Psychology and Education Departments at the University of Nevada (Reno). From July, 1988 until July, 1989, he served as a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.

Over the past three decades, Professor Huck has been involved in an ongoing program of research and scholarly activity. He is the senior author of three books: (1) Reading Statistics and Research (with the 3rd edition published in 2000 by Allyn & Bacon/Longman), (2) Rival Hypotheses: Alternative Explanations for Data-Based Conclusions (published in 1979 by Harper & Row), and (3) Statistical Illusions (published in 1984 by Harper & Row); he has had 34 technical papers published in a variety of refereed journals (Teaching Statistics, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Journal of Educational Statistics, American Educational Research Journal, Journal of Educational Measurement, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Education, Journal of Applied Psychology, Science Education, Teaching of Psychology, Mathematics Teacher, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Research Quarterly, Physiology & Behavior); and he has made over 60 oral presentations of his work at professional meetings (International Conference on Teaching Statistics, American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and regional meetings affiliated with these two national organizations).

In addition to making his own contributions to the professional literature, Professor Huck has been heavily involved in screening the work of others and in serving as a consultant on others' projects. He has reviewed book prospecti/full manuscripts sent to publishing companies, papers considered for possible publication in professional journals, and abstracts submitted for possible presentation at conventions. In his role as a consultant, Professor Huck has worked on several projects, including (1) test-development efforts conducted by: the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, the American Association of State Psychology Boards, Tennessee's State Departments of Education and Human Services, the Child Welfare Institute (Atlanta), and UT's Center for Government Training, (2) a three-year NSF research project designed to assess new procedures for helping math teachers assist students improve their creativity and problem-solving skills, and (3) a trial in which the State of Tennessee was being sued and for which Tennessee's Office of the Attorney General asked Dr. Huck to testify as an Expert Witness in the areas of testing, research design, and applied statistics.

At various points in his career, Dr. Huck has received awards/recognition from students, colleagues, and administrators. While at DePauw, he received the Frank C. Tucker Award for Leadership. Early in his stay at Tennessee, the Student Government Association tapped him as one of the University's Outstanding Teachers. Soon thereafter, colleagues at UT gave him the first Annual Award for Outstanding Faculty Research in the College of Education. The major honors bestowed upon Professor Huck, however, came (1) in 1983 when he was selected to be a UT Distinguished Service Professor, a prestigious title that he holds for the duration of his stay at the University, (2) in 1988 when he was asked to serve, for a year, on the faculty at the Air Force Academy as a Distinguished Visiting Professor, (3) in 1984 and 1990 when the scholarly work of two doctoral advisees received Outstanding Dissertation Awards in national competitions conducted by AERA, (4) in 1991 when he was elected by his colleagues at other universities as President of AERA's Educational Statisticians SIG, (5) in 1993 when he was one of the first two faculty members given the title of Chancellor's Teaching Scholar, a post involving work with UT's Chancellor and other top administrators, and (6) in 1995 when the GTA Mentoring Program (a project that grew out of his idea on how to improve undergraduate education at research universities) was deemed worthy of support by UT and the Alcoa Foundation.

Table of Contents

Brief Contents

   1           The Typical Format of a Journal Article     X

   2           Descriptive Statistics: The Univariate Case     XX

   3           Bivariate Correlation     XX

   4           Reliability and Validity     XX

   5           Foundations of Inferential Statistics     XX

   6           Estimation     XXX

   7           Hypothesis Testing    XXX

   8           Effect Size, Power, CIs, and Bonferroni    XXX

   9           Statistical Inferences Concerning Bivariate Correlation Coefficients     XXX

10           Inferences Concerning One or Two Means     XXX

11           Tests on Three or More Means Using a One-Way ANOVA     XXX

12           Post Hoc and Planned Comparisons     XXX

13           Two-Way Analyses of Variance     XXX

14           Analyses of Variance with Repeated Measures     XXX

15           The Analysis of Covariance     XXX

16           Bivariate, Multiple, and Logistic Regression     XXX

17           Inferences on Percentages, Proportions, and Frequencies     XXX

18           Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric Tests)     XXX

19           Multivariate Tests on Means     XXX

20           Factor Analysis     XXX

21           Structural Equation Modeling      XXX

                Epilogue     XXX


Contents

Preface    XXX

                     1     The Typical Format of a Journal Article     XXX

Abstract    XXX

Introduction     XXX

Method    XXX

Results    XXX

Discussion    XXX

References     XXX

Notes     XXX

Two Final Comments     XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

                     2     Descriptive Statistics: The Univariate Case     XXX

Picture Techniques     XXX

Distributional Shape    XXX

Measures of Central Tendency     XXX

Measures of Variability     XXX

Standard Scores     XXX

A Few Cautions     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                     3     Bivariate Correlation     XXX

The Key Concept behind Correlation: Relationship     XXX

Scatter Diagrams     XXX

The Correlation Coefficient     XXX

The Correlation Matrix    XXX

Different Kinds of Correlational Procedures    XXX

Warnings about Correlation     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

                     4     Reliability and Validity    XXX

Reliability     XXX

Validity     XXX

Four Final Comments     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

                     5     Foundations of Inferential Statistics     XXX

Statistical Inference     XXX

The Concepts of Statistic and Parameter     XXX

Types of Samples     XXX

The Problems of Low Response Rates, Refusals to Participate, and Attrition    XXX

A Few Warnings     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                     6     Estimation    XXX

Interval Estimation     XXX

Point Estimation     XXX

Warnings Concerning Interval and Point Estimation     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                     7     Hypothesis Testing     XXX

An Ordered List of the Six Steps     XXX

A Detailed Look at Each of the Six Steps    XXX

Results That Are Highly Significant and Near Misses     XXX

A Few Cautions     XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                     8     Effect Size, Power, CIs, and Bonferroni     XXX

The Seven-Step Version of Hypothesis Testing: Estimating Effect Size     XXX

The Nine-Step Version of Hypothesis Testing: Power Analyses

Hypothesis Testing Using Confidence Intervals    XXX

Adjusting for an Inflated Type I Error Rate     XXX

A Few Cautions     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                     9    Statistical Inferences Concerning Bivariate Correlation Coefficients     XXX

Statistical Tests Involving a Single Correlation Coefficient     XXX

Tests on Many Correlation Coefficients (Each of Which Is Treated Separately)     XXX

Tests of Reliability and Validity Coefficients     XXX

Statistically Comparing Two Correlation Coefficients     XXX

The Use of Confidence Intervals around Correlation Coefficients     XXX

Cautions     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

                  10     Inferences Concerning One or Two Means     XXX

Inferences Concerning a Single Mean     XXX

Inferences Concerning Two Means     XXX

Multiple Dependent Variables     XXX

Effect Size Assessment and Power Analyses    XXX

Underlying Assumptions    XXX

Comments     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

                  11     Tests on Three or More Means Using a One-Way ANOVA     XXX

The Purpose of a One-Way ANOVA    XXX

The Distinction between a One-Way ANOVA and Other Kinds of ANOVA     XXX

The One-Way ANOVA’s Null and Alternative Hypotheses     XXX

Presentation of Results     XXX

Assumptions of a One-Way ANOVA     XXX

Statistical Significance versus Practical Significance     XXX

Cautions     XXX

A Final Comment     XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  12     Post Hoc and Planned Comparisons     XXX

Post Hoc Comparisons     XXX

Planned Comparisons     XXX

Comments     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  13     Two-Way Analyses of Variance     XXX

Similarities between One-Way and Two-Way ANOVAs    XXX

The Structure of a Two-Way ANOVA    XXX

Three Research Questions     XXX

The Three Null Hypotheses (and Three Alternative Hypotheses)    XXX

Presentation of Results     XXX

Follow-Up Tests    XXX

Planned Comparisons     XXX

Assumptions Associated with a Two-Way ANOVA     XXX

Estimating Effect Size and Conducting Power Analyses in Two-Way ANOVAs     XXX

The Inflated Type I Error Rate in Factorial ANOVAs    XXX

A Few Warnings Concerning Two-Way ANOVAs    XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  14     Analyses of Variance with Repeated Measures    XXX

One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVAs     XXX

Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVAs    XXX

Two-Way Mixed ANOVAs     XXX

Three Final Comments    XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  15     The Analysis of Covariance     XXX

The Three Different Variables Involved in Any ANCOVA Study     XXX

The Covariate’s Role    XXX

Null Hypotheses     XXX

The Focus, Number, and Quality of the Covariate Variable(s)     XXX

Presentation of Results     XXX

The Statistical Basis for ANCOVA’s Power Advantage and Adjustment Feature     XXX

Assumptions    XXX

ANCOVA When Comparison Groups Are Not Formed Randomly    XXX

Related Issues    XXX

A Few Warnings     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  16     Bivariate, Multiple, and Logistic Regression     XXX

Bivariate Regression     XXX

Multiple Regression     XXX

Logistic Regression     XXX

Final Comments     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  17     Inferences on Percentages, Proportions, and Frequencies     XXX

The Sign Test     XXX

The Binomial Test     XXX

Fisher’s Exact Test     XXX

Chi-Square Tests: An Introduction     XXX

Three Main Types of Chi-Square Tests     XXX

Issues Related to Chi-Square Tests     XXX

McNemar’s Chi-Square     XXX

The Cochran Q Test     XXX

The Use of z-Tests When Dealing with Proportions     XXX

A Few Final Thoughts     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  18     Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric Tests)     XXX

Obtaining Ranked Data     XXX

Reasons for Converting Scores on a Continuous Variable into Ranks     XXX

The Median Test     XXX

The Mann-Whitney U Test     XXX

The Kruskal-Wallis H Test     XXX

The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test     XXX

Friedman’s Two-Way Analysis of Variance of Ranks     XXX

Large-Sample Versions of the Tests on Ranks     XXX

Ties     XXX

The Relative Power of Nonparametric Tests     XXX

A Few Final Comments     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  19     Multivariate Tests on Means     XXX

The Versatility of Multivariate Tests     XXX

The Multivariate Null Hypothesis     XXX

Testing the Multivariate Null Hypothesis     XXX

Assumptions     XXX

Statistical Significance and Practical Significance

Post Hoc Investigations      XXX

Three Final Comments      XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

                  20     Factor Analysis      XXX

The Goal (and Basic Logic) or Factor Analysis      XXX

The Multivariate Null Hypothesis      XXX

The Three Main Uses of Factor Analysis      XXX

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis      XXX

Exploratory Factor Analysis      XXX

Confirmatory Factor Analysis      XXX

Assumptions      XXX

Two Final Comments      XXX

Review Terms      XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website      XXX

                  20     Structural Equation Modeling      XXX

Key Terms and Concepts of Structural Equation Modeling      XXX

Elements in a Study Using Structural Equation Modeling      XXX

Other Uses of SEM      XXX

Issues and Considerations      XXX

Review Terms      XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website      XXX

 

Epilogue     XXX

Review Questions     XXX

Answers to Review Questions     XXX

Credits     XXX

Index     XXX



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