Reading for Thinking

by Unknown
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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-07-27
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing

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Table of Contents

Preliminary Contents
Chemical Foundations
Chemistry: An Overview
The Scientific Method
Units of Measurement
Uncertainty in Measurement
Significant Figures and Calculations
Dimensional Analysis
Classification of Matter
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
The Early History of Chemistry
Fundamental Chemical Laws
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom
The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction
Molecules and Ions
An Introduction to the Periodic Table
Naming Simple Compounds
Counting by Weighing
Atomic Masses
The Mole
Molar Mass
Percent Composition of Compounds
Determining the Formula of a Compound
Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant
Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
Water, the Common Solvent
The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes
The Composition of Solutions
Types of Chemical Reactions
Precipitation Reactions
Describing Reactions in Solution
Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions
Acid-Base Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro
The Ideal Gas Law
Gas Stoichiometry
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
Effusion and Diffusion
Real Gases
Chemistry in the Atmosphere
Characteristics of Several Real Gases
The Nature of Energy
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
Hess's Law
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Present Sources of Energy
New Energy Sources
Atomic Structure and Periodicity
Electromagnetic Radiation
The Nature of Matter
The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
The Bohr Model
The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
Quantum Numbers
Orbital Shapes and Energies
Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle
Polyelectronic Atoms
The History of the Periodic Table
The Aufbau Principles and the Periodic Table
Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals
Bonding: General Concepts
Types of Chemical Bonds
Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes
Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds
Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds
The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model
Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions
The Localized Electron Bonding Model
Lewis Structures
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model
Covalent Bonding: Orbitals
Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model
The Molecular Orbital Model
Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models
Liquids and Solids
Intermolecular Forces
The Liquid State
An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids
Structure and Bonding in Metals
Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids
Molecular Solids
Ionic Solids
Vapor Pressure and Changes of State
Phase Diagrams
Properties of Solutions
Solution Composition
The Energies of Solution Formation
Factors Affecting Solubility
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression
Osmotic Pressure
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions
Chemical Kinetics
Reaction Rates
Rate Laws: An Introduction
Determining the Form of the Rate Law
The Integrated Rate Law
Rate Laws: A Summary
Reaction Mechanisms
A Model for Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Equilibrium
The Equilibrium Condition
The Equilibrium Constant
Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures
Heterogeneous Equilibria
Applications of the Equilibrium Constant
Solving Equilibrium Problems
Le Chatelier's Principle
Acids and Bases
The Nature of Acids and Bases
Acid Strength
The pH Scale
Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions
Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions
Polyprotic Acids
Acid-Base Properties of Salts
The Effect of Structure on Acid-Base Properties
Acid-Base Properties of Oxides
The Lewis Acid-Base Model
Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary
Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria
Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion
Buffered Solutions
Buffer Capacity
Titrations and pH Curves
Acid-Base Indicators Solubility Equilibria
Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product
Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis Complex Ion Equilibria
Equilibria Involving Complex Ions
Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy
Spontaneous Processes and Entropy
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity
Free Energy
Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Free Energy and Chemical Reactions
The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure
Free Energy and Equilibrium
Free Energy and Work
Galvanic Cells
Standard Reduction Potential
Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy
Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration
Commercial Electrolytic Processes
The Nucleus: A Chemist's View
Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay
The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay
Nuclear Transformations
Detection and Uses of Radioactivity
Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus
Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
Effects of Radiation
The Representative Elements: Groups 1A Through 4A
A Survey of the Representative Elements
The Group 1A Elements
The Group 2A Elements
The Group 3A Elements
The Group 4A Elements
The Representative Elements: Groups 5A Through 8A
The Group 5A Elements
The Chemistry of Nitrogen
The Chemistry of Phosphorus
The Group 6A Elements
The Chemistry of Oxygen
The Chemistry of Sulfur
The Group 7A Elements
The Group 8A Elements
Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
The Transition Metals: A Survey
The First-Row Transition Metals
Coordination Compounds
Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model
The Crystal Field Model
The Biologic Importance of Coordination Complexes
Metallurgy and Iron and Steel Production
Organic and Biological Molecules
Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
Alkenes and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon Derivatives
Natural Polymers
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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