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A Critical Reader at WorkWriting Critically about ReadingSummaryAnalysisSynthesisEvaluation2. Getting Ready to Write: Form, Process, and Purpose Note: Avoiding PlagiarismParagraph and Essay FormParagraph FormEssay FormThe Writing ProcessAudience and PurposeFinding, Narrowing, and Exploring Your TopicNarrowing a TopicExploring Your Topicfreewritinglisting/brainstormingdiscussingclustering/mappingusing the internetkeeping a journal3. Organizing Your Main Point and Support: Arranging Your IdeasTopic Sentences and Thesis StatementsFitting the Size of the AssignmentFocusing on a Single Main PointBeing SpecificUsing an Idea You Can Show, Explain, or ProveBeing ForcefulSupporting for Your Main PointKey Features of Good SupportSupport in Paragraphs Versus EssaysGenerating SupportSelecting the Best Primary SupportAdding Secondary SupportArrange Your IdeasUse Time Order to Write about EventsUse Space Order to Describe Objects, Places, or PeopleUse Order of Importance to Emphasize a Particular PointPlanning Your Draft4. Drafting and Revising Paragraphs and Essays: Putting Your Ideas Together Drafting ParagraphsUse Complete SentencesConsider Introductory TechniquesEnd with a Concluding SentenceTitle Your ParagraphSample Student ParagraphDrafting EssaysWrite Topic Sentences and Draft the Body of the EssayWrite an IntroductionWrite a ConclusionTitle Your Essay Sample Student EssayRevising Paragraphs and EssaysRevise for UnityRevise for Detail and SupportRevise for CoherenceSample Student Paragraph: RevisedSample Student Essay: RevisedPeer ReviewingPart Two: Writing Different Kinds of Paragraphs and Essays5. Narration Understand What Narration IsMain Point in NarrationSupport in NarrationOrganization in NarrationRead and Analyze NarrationNarration in the Real World Student Narration ParagraphProfessional Narration EssayWrite Your Own NarrationChecklist: How to Write Narration6. Illustration Understand What Illustration IsMain Point in IllustrationSupport in IllustrationOrganization in IllustrationRead and Analyze IllustrationIllustration in the Real World Student Illustration ParagraphProfessional Illustration EssayWrite Your Own IllustrationChecklist: How to Write Illustration7. Description Understand What Description IsMain Point in DescriptionSupport in DescriptionOrganization in DescriptionRead and Analyze DescriptionDescription in the Real World Student Description ParagraphProfessional Description EssayWrite Your Own DescriptionChecklist: How to Write Description8. Process AnalysisUnderstand What Process Analysis IsMain Point in Process AnalysisSupport in Process AnalysisOrganization in Process AnalysisRead and Analyze Process AnalysisProcess Analysis in the Real World Student Process Analysis ParagraphProfessional Process Analysis ParagraphWrite Your Own Process AnalysisChecklist: How to Write Process Analysis9. Classification Understand What Classification IsMain Point in ClassificationSupport in ClassificationOrganization in ClassificationRead and Analyze ClassificationClassification in the Real World Student Classification ParagraphProfessional Classification EssayWrite Your Own ClassificationWriting about College, Work, and Everyday LifeWriting Critically about ClassificationChecklist: How to Write Classification10. Definition Understand What Definition IsMain Point in DefinitionSupport in DefinitionOrganization in DefinitionRead and Analyze DefinitionDefinition in the Real WorldStudent Definition ParagraphProfessional Definition EssayWrite Your Own DefinitionChecklist: How to Write Definition11. Comparison and Contrast Understand What Comparison and Contrast IsMain Point in Comparison and ContrastSupport in Comparison and ContrastOrganization in Comparison and ContrastRead and Analyze Comparison and ContrastComparison and Contrast in the Real WorldStudent Comparison-and-Contrast Paragraph Professional Comparison-and-Contrast EssayWrite Your Own Comparison and ContrastChecklist: How to Write Comparison and Contrast12. Cause and Effect Understand What Cause and Effect IsMain Point in Cause and EffectSupport in Cause and EffectOrganization in Cause and EffectRead and Analyze Cause and EffectCause and Effect in the Real World Student Cause-and-Effect ParagraphProfessional Cause-and-Effect EssayWrite Your Own Cause and EffectChecklist: How to Write Cause and Effect13. Argument Understand What Argument IsMain Point in ArgumentSupport in ArgumentOrganization in ArgumentRead and Analyze ArgumentArgument in the Real WorldStudent Argument Essay 1Student Argument Essay 2Write Your Own ArgumentChecklist: How to Write ArgumentPart Three: Grammar, Punctuation, and Mechanics14. Basic Grammar The Parts of Speech The Basic Sentence SubjectsVerbsaction verbslinking verbshelping verbsComplete ThoughtsSix Basic English Sentence Patterns15. Four Most Serious ErrorsFragmentsFragments That Start with PrepositionsFragments That Start with Dependent WordsFragments That Start with –ing Verb FormsFragments That Start with to and a VerbFragments That Are Examples or ExplanationsRun-OnsCorrect Run-on by Adding a Period or a SemicolonCorrect Run-on by Adding a Comma and a Coordinating ConjunctionCorrect Run-on by Adding a Dependent WordProblems with Subject-Verb Agreement The Verb Is a Form of Be, Have, or DoWords Come between the Subject and the Verbprepositional phrase between the subject and the verbdependent clause between the subject and the verbThe Sentence Has a Compound SubjectThe Subject Is an Indefinite PronounThe Verb Comes before the SubjectProblems with Verb Tense Regular Verbspresent-tense endings: -s and no ending past tense ending: -ed or –dIrregular VerbsPast Participles16. Other Grammar and Style ConcernsPronouns Check for Pronoun Agreementindefinite pronounscollective nounsMake Pronoun References Clearrepetitious pronoun referenceUsing the Right Type of Pronounsubject pronounsobject pronounspossessive pronounspronouns used with compound subjects and objectspronouns used in comparisonschoosing between who and whomMake Pronouns Consistent in PersonAdjectives and Adverbs Adjectives and Adverbs in ComparisonsGood, Well, Bad, and BadlyMisplaced and Dangling Modifiers Misplaced Modifiers Dangling Modifiers Coordination and Subordination Coordination Subordination Parallelism Sentence Variety Start Some Sentences with AdverbsJoin Ideas Using an –ing VerbJoin Ideas Using a Past ParticipleJoin Ideas Using an AppositiveJoin Ideas Using an Adjective ClauseWord Choice Vague and Abstract WordsSlangWordy LanguageClichésSexist Language17. Punctuation and CapitalizationCommasCommas between Items in a SeriesCommas between Coordinate AdjectivesCommas in Compound SentencesCommas after Introductory WordsCommas around Appositives and InterruptersCommas around Adjective ClausesCommas with Quotation MarksCommas in AddressesCommas in DatesCommas with NamesCommas with Yes or No ApostrophesApostrophes to Show OwnershipApostrophes in ContractionsApostrophes with Letters, Numbers, and TimeQuotation MarksQuotation Marks for Direct QuotationsNo Quotation Marks for Indirect QuotationsQuotation Marks for Certain TitlesSemicolonColonParenthesesDashHyphenCapitalization