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The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style,9780314168917

The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780314168917

ISBN10:
0314168915
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/18/2006
Publisher(s):
West Academic
List Price: $48.00

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Summary

Provides a comprehensive guide to the essential rules of legal writing. Unlike most style or grammar guides, it focuses on the special needs of legal writers, answering a wide spectrum of questions about grammar and style - both rules as well as exceptions. Also gives detailed, authoritative advice on punctuation, capitalization, spelling, footnotes, and citations, with illustrations in legal context. Designed for law students, law professors, practicing lawyers and judges, the work emphasizes the ways in which legal writing differs from other styles of technical writing. Its how-to sections deal with editing and proofreading, numbers and symbols, and overall document design.

Table of Contents

Part 1: Mechanics
Punctuation
3(50)
Overview
3(1)
Commas
3(1)
Overview
3(1)
Use commas to separate words or phrases in a series of three or more, and include a comma before the conjunction
3(1)
Serial comma
3(1)
Complex phrases
4(1)
Conjunction repeated
4(1)
Use a comma to separate two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so)
4(1)
Defined
4(1)
Compound predicate distinguished
4(1)
Choice between comma and semicolon
5(1)
Comma splice
5(1)
Use a comma to set off an introductory phrase unless the phrase is short and the verb follows it closely
5(1)
Types of introductory matter
5(1)
Exception
5(1)
Inverted sentence
6(1)
Direct address
6(1)
Use commas to set off a nonrestrictive phrase or clause from the rest of the sentence
6(1)
Defined
6(1)
Nonrestrictive appositive
6(1)
Restrictive appositive
6(1)
Dependent clause
7(1)
Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives and adverbs---that is, the type that modify their target rather than each other
7(1)
Definition and tests
7(1)
Not coordinate
7(1)
Use a comma to set off a direct quotation of fewer than 50 words, unless the quoted matter is woven into the sentence itself or is introduced by a colon
8(1)
Placement
8(1)
Colon as a substitute
8(1)
In context
8(1)
Do not place a comma where it interferes with the flow of the sentence
8(2)
Before the predicate
8(1)
Phrase after conjunction or relative pronoun
8(1)
Before parentheses
9(1)
With nominal abbreviations
9(1)
Law-firm short form
9(1)
In a full date that is written month-day-year, put a comma between the day and the year. Unless the date is being used as an adjective, place a comma after the year if the sentence continues. Do not use a comma with the style day-month-year or month-year
10(1)
American style
10(1)
Military and British style
10(1)
No day
10(1)
Use a comma to break down numbers of 1,000 and more into sets of three digits
10(1)
Separating by threes
10(1)
Exceptions
11(1)
Use a comma (never a semicolon) after the salutation in a personal letter
11(1)
Informal salutation
11(1)
Business correspondence
11(1)
Consider using a comma where one or more words are omitted but understood in context
11(1)
Understood words
11(1)
Often optional
11(1)
Dramatic pause
11(1)
Semicolons
12(1)
Overview
12(1)
Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction
12(1)
Semicolon alone
12(1)
Exception
12(1)
Strength of connector
12(1)
Coordinating conjunction
12(1)
Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses if the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression rather than a conjunction
13(1)
Common conjunctive adverbs
13(1)
Transitional expressions
13(1)
With comma
13(1)
Use semicolons instead of commas to separate items in a series if any of the items contains an internal comma or if semicolons would make the sentence clearer
13(1)
Internal commas
13(1)
Complexity
14(1)
To separate citations
14(1)
Use semicolons to separate items in a series when the items are set off separately, as in a statute or contract
14(1)
Series lists
14(1)
Advantages
14(1)
Use a semicolon to separate an appositive or elaboration at the end of a sentence if the matter is introduced by that is, for example, namely, or a similar device
15(1)
Appositive matter
15(1)
No signal
15(1)
Colons
15(1)
Overview
15(1)
Use a colon to join two separate but directly related clauses or phrases
15(1)
As a pointer
15(1)
Optional nature of use
16(1)
Phrase after colon
16(1)
If what follows the colon is not a complete sentence, do not capitalize the first word; if it is a complete sentence, you may choose to capitalize or not. Whatever style you choose, be consistent
16(1)
With phrase
16(1)
With sentence
16(1)
Use a colon to introduce a quotation, list, or statement
16(2)
Choice of punctuation
16(1)
In transcripts
17(1)
Numbered list
17(1)
Appositive list
17(1)
Interrupting colon
17(1)
Formal quotation
17(1)
Use a colon after the salutation in a formal letter and after each tag line in a memorandum
18(1)
Formality
18(1)
British style
18(1)
In a memorandum
18(1)
Use a colon to designate a ratio or analogy
18(1)
Ratio
18(1)
Analogy
18(1)
A colon is also used in several ways in citations and references, including citing the case record
18(1)
Citations
18(1)
Miscellaneous uses
19(1)
Quotation Marks
19(1)
Overview
19(1)
Use double quotation marks around a run-in quotation shorter than 50 words or five lines, but not around a block quotation
19(1)
Generally
19(1)
Multiple paragraphs
19(1)
Block quotation
20(1)
Other set-off matter
20(1)
Use single quotation marks around a quotation within a marked quotation, and alternate double and single quotation marks for more deeply nested quotations
20(1)
Awkwardness
20(1)
In block quotations
20(1)
Alternative style
20(1)
Use quotation marks around a word or phrase that is being referred to as a term, or else italicize it
21(1)
Generally
21(1)
Italics as alternative
21(1)
Use quotation marks to mean ``so-called'' or (more negatively) to mean ``so-called-but-not-really''
21(1)
Odd or informal use
21(1)
With ``so-called''
21(1)
With phrasal adjectives
21(1)
Nicknames
22(1)
Connoting irony
22(1)
For sarcasm
22(1)
Place other punctuation marks correctly in relation to quotation marks: periods and commas go inside; semicolons and colons go outside; and question marks and exclamation marks go inside only if they are part of the quoted matter
22(2)
With period or comma
22(1)
With semicolon or colon
22(1)
With question mark or exclamation mark
23(1)
Amendment exception
23(1)
Parentheses
24(1)
Overview
24(1)
Use parentheses to set off extraneous matter (such as an explanation, reference, or comment) in a sentence or paragraph
24(1)
Incidental to sentence
24(1)
Minimizing effect
24(1)
Use parentheses to define a quick reference for a longer name
25(1)
Quick reference
25(1)
Often not necessary
25(1)
With quotation marks
25(1)
Avoiding surplusage
26(1)
Use parentheses to set off numbers and letters that denote subparts
26(1)
Generally
26(1)
In pairs
26(1)
Special conventions
27(1)
Exception
27(1)
Use parentheses in citations as prescribed by the citation manual you follow
27(1)
Idiosyncrasies
27(1)
Nesting parentheses
27(1)
Space between phrases
27(1)
Punctuate and capitalize parenthetical matter correctly
28(1)
Terminal punctuation
28(1)
Capitalization
28(1)
Brackets
29(1)
Overview
29(1)
Bracket an editorial remark or clarification inside a quotation
29(1)
Editorial comment
29(1)
[Sic]
29(1)
No italics for brackets
29(1)
Use brackets to indicate that part of a word has been omitted or that one or more characters have been changed
30(1)
Omissions and substitutions
30(1)
Placement
30(1)
Overuse
30(1)
Ellipsis distinguished
30(1)
In legal writing---as opposed to in other types of writing---do not use brackets as subordinate parentheses inside parenthetical matter
31(1)
As ``subparentheses''
31(1)
Rephrasing or paraphrasing
31(1)
Ellipsis Dots
31(1)
Overview
31(1)
Use three ellipsis dots to indicate the omission of one or more words inside a quotation
32(1)
Midsentence
32(1)
Paragraph omitted
32(1)
Use four dots (three ellipsis dots and a period, all identical) to indicate the omission of either (1) the end of a sentence, or (2) matter after a completed sentence when the quotation continues. Use a space before the first dot only if the matter that was omitted was the end of a sentence
32(1)
Space after last word
32(1)
No space after last word
33(1)
Do not use ellipsis dots at the beginning of a quotation or where the quoted matter is worked into the syntax of the main sentence
33(1)
Start of sentence omitted
33(1)
In syntax
33(1)
Keep the ellipses dots standard by using hard spaces and the correct typographic elements
33(1)
Hard spacing
33(1)
Asterisks
34(1)
Ellipsis dots can indicate an unfinished sentence that trails off
34(1)
Trailing off
34(1)
Interruption
34(1)
Em-dashes
34(1)
Overview
34(1)
Use an em-dash---or a pair of em-dashes as required by sentence structure---to give matter that is independent of the main sentence more emphasis than parentheses would provide
35(1)
Setting off words at beginning or end of sentence
35(1)
In midsentence
35(1)
With appositive
35(1)
Use an em-dash---or multiple em-dashes---in several conventions to indicate missing information
35(1)
In a transcript
35(1)
In dates. Use an em-dash after the birth year in a biographical reference to indicate that the person is still alive
36(1)
Expunction
36(1)
In citations
36(1)
Same author
36(1)
To be supplied
36(1)
En-dashes
36(1)
Overview
36(1)
Use an en-dash to designate a span from one value to another, but avoid it to stand for to if the word from is used
37(1)
To show a range
37(1)
Not mixed with words
37(1)
Use an en-dash to join two terms of equal weight
37(1)
To show equality
37(1)
To show duality
37(1)
Follow the established convention within a given jurisdiction to use the en-dash to join sections or chapters and subparts
37(1)
By convention
37(1)
To distinguish
38(1)
Ambiguity
38(1)
Hyphens
38(1)
Overview
38(1)
Hyphenate a phrasal adjective that appears before a noun or pronoun unless it falls within one of several narrow exceptions
38(3)
Basic rule
38(1)
Need for clarity
39(1)
After the noun
39(1)
``-ly'' adverbs
39(1)
Proper nouns
39(1)
Foreign phrases
39(1)
With multiple first elements
40(1)
Common legal wordings that contain phrasal adjectives
40(1)
Use a hyphen with numbers to join two-word spelled-out numbers from 21 to 99 and to write fractions unless one of the numbers is already hyphenated
41(1)
With numbers
41(1)
With fractions
41(1)
An exception
41(1)
Use a hyphen to break a word between syllables at the end of a line
41(1)
For line breaks
41(1)
Between syllables only
42(1)
Use a hyphen to show that you are referring to a prefix, suffix, letter, or letters in a word; to indicate syllabification; and to show that a word is being spelled out
42(1)
Part of a word
42(1)
For syllabication
42(1)
For spelling
42(1)
Avoid using a hyphen after a routine prefix---but note the exceptions
42(1)
Generally
42(1)
With proper nouns
42(1)
With certain prefixes
42(1)
Other exceptions
42(1)
Periods
43(1)
Overview
43(1)
Use a period to end a declaratory statement, an indirect question, or a request
43(1)
Generally
43(1)
Matter of interpretation
43(1)
With exclamation mark
43(1)
With declaratory sentence
43(1)
Use periods after letters or numbers in an outline or list
44(1)
Outline style
44(1)
Decimal numbering system
44(1)
Parentheses or period
44(1)
Use a period after a heading only if the heading is run in with text or is a complete sentence
44(1)
No period with tags
44(1)
Period with sentences
44(1)
Read-in tags
44(1)
Consistency
44(1)
Use a period after most abbreviations, but not after most contracted abbreviations
44(1)
Generally
44(1)
No periods
45(1)
Contractions contrasted
45(1)
ALWD abbreviations
45(1)
With state names
45(1)
Avoid periods after letters in an acronym or initialism unless a different style is required by your court's citation rules or preferred by local practice
45(1)
Modern style
45(1)
Conventions
45(1)
Question Marks
46(1)
Overview
46(1)
Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence
46(1)
Interrogative mood
46(1)
Interrogative tag
46(1)
Declaratory form
46(1)
Multiple endings
46(1)
Compound sentence
46(1)
Indirect question
46(1)
Use a question mark after a questioning word, phrase, or clause contained in the main sentence but separated from it by parentheses or em-dashes
46(1)
Capitalization
46(1)
No second terminal punctuation
47(1)
Use a question mark in parentheses to indicate uncertainty about what immediately precedes it
47(1)
Dates
47(1)
Not terminal punctuation
47(1)
Exclamation Marks
47(1)
Overview
47(1)
Use an exclamation mark to end a sentence that expresses a demand, surprise, danger, stress, or some other intense emotion
47(1)
Generally
47(1)
In place of question mark
47(1)
Use an exclamation mark after an exclamatory interjection
47(1)
Generally
47(1)
No mark with vocative ``O''
47(1)
An exclamation mark in parentheses may indicate feigned shock at or mockery of what immediately precedes it
48(1)
Reference
48(1)
Editorial protest
48(1)
Apostrophes
48(1)
Overview
48(1)
Use an apostrophe to form the possessive case
49(1)
Generally
49(1)
Possessive pronouns
49(1)
Use an apostrophe to mark a contraction: it represents omitted letters (or numbers in a date)
49(1)
Generally
49(1)
In dates
49(1)
In formal writing
49(1)
Use an apostrophe (followed by s) to form the plural of letters, single-digit numbers, symbols, and some abbreviations
50(1)
Incorrect and correct uses
50(1)
With lowercase abbreviations
50(1)
Slashes
50(1)
Overview
50(1)
Use a slash in a limited number of grammatical conventions; where alternative punctuation is appropriate, avoid the slash
50(1)
Fractions
50(1)
Dates
50(1)
Abbreviations
50(1)
Alternatives
51(1)
Double offices
51(1)
Line breaks
51(1)
In examples
51(1)
Bullets
51(1)
Overview
51(1)
Use bullets to create visual appeal in setting out important lists
51(1)
With colon
51(1)
Plain bullets
52(1)
Hanging indent
52(1)
Indent list
52(1)
Spacing
52(1)
Avoid bullets if the subparts marked by them will need to be cited
52(1)
Cannot be cited
52(1)
Numbers or letters instead
52(1)
Capitalization
53(16)
Overview
53(1)
Use lowercase unless a rule calls for capitalization
53(1)
Down-style vs. up-style
53(1)
Quotations exception
53(1)
Consistency
54(1)
Capitalize the first word in a sentence
54(1)
Names
54(1)
Sentence in a sentence
54(1)
Lines of poems
54(1)
Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation if it is a full sentence and formally introduced; do not capitalize if it is a partial sentence, is grammatically woven into the main sentence, or is introduced by the conjunction that. Do not capitalize an indirect quotation
54(1)
Direct quotation
54(1)
Partial sentence
54(1)
Sentence parts
55(1)
Following ``that''
55(1)
Indirect quotation
55(1)
Capitalization of original
55(1)
Capitalize the first word in a direct question, even if it does not begin the sentence
55(1)
Direct question
55(1)
Indirect question distinguished
56(1)
Capitalize proper nouns---usually, the names of people and places or the titles of statutes, books, articles, and the like
56(1)
Common and proper nouns
56(1)
Trademarks
56(1)
Artwork
56(1)
Midword capitals
56(1)
Proper-noun phrases
56(1)
Old writings
56(1)
Capitalize short-form proper nouns
57(1)
Full and short names
57(1)
Specific governmental acts
57(1)
The term ``rule''
57(1)
Follow established conventions in capitalizing adjectives formed from proper nouns
57(1)
Exclusively proper nouns
57(1)
Nonexclusive nouns
57(1)
Nonexclusive adjectives
58(1)
Capitalize defined terms
58(1)
Convention
58(1)
Syntax
58(1)
Emphasis and clarity
58(1)
Capitalize up-style headings
58(1)
Styles
58(1)
Uncapitalized words
59(1)
Hyphenated and open compounds
59(1)
Make initialisms and acronyms (words and abbreviated names formed from the initials or parts of other words) all caps unless an exception applies
59(1)
Generally
59(1)
Proper-name acronyms
59(1)
Generic common nouns
59(1)
State abbreviations
60
False acronyms
59(1)
Capitalize the word court in reference to (1) the United States Supreme Court; (2) the highest tribunal in the jurisdiction whose laws govern the outcome, such as a state supreme court; and (3) the court you are addressing, even if it is the lowest court within its jurisdiction
60(1)
Deference
60(1)
Lower courts
60(1)
Capitalize a geographic term if it is part of a proper name or, by custom, if it denotes a well-defined region or area, but not if it merely denotes a direction or position
60(1)
Compass points
60(1)
Positions
60(1)
Descriptive or identifying terms
61(1)
Political divisions
61(1)
Topographical names
61(1)
Capitalize calendar terms that are proper nouns, but not those that are generic terms
61(1)
Days and months
61(1)
Seasons
61(1)
Holidays
61(1)
Capitalize titles of honor or respect
62(1)
Title before name
62(1)
Title not before name
62(1)
In addresses
62(1)
Titles in second person
62(1)
Job titles
62(1)
Parties
62(1)
Other cases
63(1)
Capitalize a word or phrase that denotes an important epoch or historical event
63(1)
Generally
63(1)
Numerical designations
63(1)
Generic terms
63(1)
Capitalize the name of anything personified
63(1)
Proper-name substitutes
63(1)
Fictitious names
63(1)
Vividness
63(1)
Capitalize to show irony or mockery
64(1)
Emphasis
64(1)
Caution
64(1)
Avoid all-caps writing
64(1)
History
64(1)
Readability
64(1)
Initial caps
64(1)
Limited capitals
65(1)
Different font
65(1)
Limited all caps
65(1)
Use caps and small caps (uppercase letters about as small as most lowercase letters) when a citation-system rule or other directive requires them or when the usage is conventional
65(2)
Dates and eras
65(1)
Other abbreviations
66(1)
Never in main text
66(1)
Periodical titles
66(1)
Book titles
66(1)
Authors
66(1)
Law-review citations
67(1)
Follow any special rules that may require caps and small caps
67(2)
Court rules
67(1)
Government rules
68(1)
Practitioners' usage
68(1)
Judicial opinions
68(1)
Italics, Boldface, and Underlining
69(8)
Overview
69(1)
Use italics (preferably not underlining) to show emphasis
69(1)
Styles compared
69(1)
Exception
70(1)
In quotations
70(1)
Use italics for foreign words and phrases that have not been anglicized
70(1)
Uneven application
70(1)
General rule
70(1)
Use italics to signal that a letter, word, or phrase is being used as a term---when defining it, for example---rather than for its meaning
71(1)
Preferred to quotation marks
71(1)
In contracts
71(1)
In hypotheticals
71(1)
Use italics for case names
71(1)
Legal convention
71(1)
Informal names
72(1)
In text
72(1)
Use italics for the titles of books and other publications, and (only in legal writing) for the titles of articles
72(1)
Books
72(1)
Articles
72(1)
Periodicals
72(1)
Use italics for citation signals
73(1)
Purpose
73(1)
Signals as sentence elements
73(1)
Use italics to report subsequent history in a citation, but not for other information
73(1)
Subsequent history
73(1)
Other information
73(1)
When a word or phrase within italicized matter should itself be italicized, make it roman instead
73(1)
Toggle between roman and italics
73(1)
Context
73(1)
Do not italicize a punctuation mark after italicized matter unless it is a part of the matter itself
74(1)
Trailing punctuation
74(1)
Exception
74(1)
Despite all the earlier rules, do not overuse italics
74(1)
Effective when rare
74(1)
Ineffective when overused
74(1)
Rhetorical techniques
75(1)
Explaining emphasis
75(1)
Reserve boldface type for headings
75(1)
For separation
75(1)
Not in text
75(1)
Use italics for names of ships, spacecraft, and other vessels
76(1)
Name only, not class
76(1)
Trains
76(1)
Document Design
77(12)
Overview
77(1)
Follow court rules in formatting all documents to be filed in court
77(1)
Meticulous formatting
77(1)
Typographical tricks
77(1)
Fonts
77(1)
Choose a readable font that is appropriate for the document
77(1)
Definitions
77(1)
Variations
78(1)
Courier
78(1)
Never use more than two fonts in a document
78(1)
Mixing styles
78(1)
Ransom-note effect
79(1)
Use an appropriate type size
79(1)
Readability
79(1)
Size
79(1)
Headings
79(1)
White Space
80(1)
Use white space purposefully
80(1)
Definition and purpose
80(1)
Focal point
80(1)
Contrast
80(1)
Comprehension
80(1)
Leave a little more room in your margins than you are required to
80(1)
Readability
80(1)
Convenience
81(1)
Extra space at bottom
81(1)
Gutters
81(1)
Use initial indents of a quarter of an inch or so; use the tab key or automatic paragraph formatting to keep them consistent
81(1)
Purpose
81(1)
Width of indents
81(1)
Block quotations
81(1)
Uniformity
81(1)
Use hanging indents on contracts, statutes, and other documents with numbered and lettered subparts
81(1)
Definition
81(1)
Purpose of hanging indents
81(1)
Length of indents
82(1)
Justification
82(1)
Avoid full justification; set text flush left
82(1)
Definition
82(1)
Readability
82(1)
Avoiding rivers
82(1)
Reserve centering and flush-right alignments for special uses
82(1)
Centering
82(1)
Flush right
83(1)
Horizontal Spacing
83(1)
Use even forward-spacing in your documents: one space between words and one space after punctuation marks (including colons and periods)
83(1)
Typewriter limitations
83(1)
Word processors and flexibility
83(1)
Use a hard (nonbreaking) space to avoid breaking lines at inappropriate places
83(1)
Hard space
83(1)
Importance
83(1)
Ellipses
84(1)
Mark the beginning of a paragraph by tab-indenting the first line. In a single-spaced document, leave an extra line between paragraphs
84(1)
Indenting
84(1)
New chapter or section
84(1)
Intervening space
84(1)
Block style
84(1)
To ensure that the indentation is consistent throughout the document, use a tab instead of the spacebar for indenting
84(1)
Paragraph indents
84(1)
Aligning columns
84(1)
Avoid adjusting a font's spacing or width
85(1)
Spacing
85(1)
Width
85(1)
Limitations
85(1)
Vertical Spacing
85(1)
Prefer single-spaced documents in-house, but for court filings always follow rules and customs that require double-spacing
85(1)
Advantages of single-spacing
85(1)
Disadvantages of double-spacing
85(1)
Court rules
85(1)
Double-space draft documents to make them easier to edit
86(1)
Editing ease
86(1)
Triple-spacing
86(1)
Avoid awkward page breaks
86(1)
Headings
86(1)
Widows and orphans
86(1)
Headings
86(1)
Make the hierarchy of headings clear to the reader by using a combination of outlining tags, capitalization style, type style, and type size
86(1)
Outlining tags
86(1)
Decimal tags for legal drafting
86(1)
Capitalization
86(1)
Type style
86(1)
Type size
87(1)
Combining techniques
87(1)
Number of levels
87(1)
Progressive indents
87(1)
Cascading hanging indents in legal drafting
87(1)
Except for short top-level section headings, which may be centered, prefer headines to be set flush left and single-spaced, with a tight hanging indent
87(1)
Centering
87(1)
Flush left
87(1)
Single-spaced
87(1)
Hanging indent
87(1)
Use headings and subheadings to help the reader follow the structure of your document. Use a little extra space above breaks to help divide up the text
88(1)
Reader cues
88(1)
Spacing
88(1)
SubheaPdings
88(1)
Numbers
89(10)
Overview
89(1)
Be consistent about when to use numerals and when to spell out numbers in text---preferably spelling out one to ten and using numerals for 11 and above
89(1)
Main conventions
89(1)
Other conventions
89(1)
Numerals in citations
89(1)
In titles
90(1)
If one item of a kind should be in numerals, then use numerals for all items of that kind in the immediate context
90(1)
In series
90(1)
In proximity
90(1)
If two numbers that are not of the same kind appear next to each other, one (usually the first) should be spelled out to avoid confusion
90(1)
First number
90(1)
Second number
90(1)
Avoid beginning a sentence with a number; if you must use a number to begin a sentence, spell it out
90(1)
Start of sentence
90(1)
Years
90(1)
Citation
91(1)
Use numerals for statute, volume, chapter, section, and subsection numbers; in tables; in dates and times; for money; with units of measurement; in decimals; and in names of roads, military divisions, and the like
91(1)
Count and series
91(1)
Exceptions for names
91(1)
Other exceptions
91(1)
Spell out a large number that is used as an exaggeration or an idiomatic phrase
92(1)
Exactness not implied
92(1)
In slogans
92(1)
For a number in the millions or more (especially if precision is not required), round it off and spell out million, billion, etc.
92(1)
Comprehension
92(1)
Rounding off
92(1)
Dollar sign and word
92(1)
When precision counts
92(1)
In legal citations, spell the ordinal numerals 2d and 3d, not 2nd and 3rd
92(1)
Legal convention
92(1)
General convention
92(1)
Be careful not to allow any ambiguity when writing numbers
93(1)
``K'' and ``M''
93(1)
Billion and larger
93(1)
Use a comma to separate large whole-number digits into sets of three, from the right, but do not use commas in room numbers, telephone numbers, highway numbers, military time, years, or other serial numbers, or in page numbers shorter than five digits
93(1)
For thousands
93(1)
Exceptions
93(1)
Page numbers
94(1)
Not in decimals
94(1)
Use an en-dash (or a hyphen) to signal an inclusive range of numbers; do not use the words from or between in front of numbers connected by an en-dash
94(1)
Using ``from'' and ``between''
94(1)
Avoiding multiple en-dashes
94(1)
Word of measurement
94(1)
Or hyphen
94(1)
Be careful about using apostrophes with numbers
94(1)
Plurals
94(1)
Possessives
95(1)
Elide to two digits the second number in a range of pages if the numbers are three or more digits long, but do not elide numbers in a range of sections or paragraphs, a range of measurements, or a span of years
95(1)
Rules
95(1)
Not with measurements
95(1)
Sections and paragraphs
95(1)
Not with years
95(1)
Use the simplest appropriate forms for times, dates, and money
95(1)
Unless needed for accuracy
95(1)
Relative time references
96(1)
When spelling out numbers, hyphenate only the two-word numbers below 100; do not use and except when expressing cents
96(1)
Hyphen alone
96(1)
With ``and''
96(1)
Hyphenate spelled-out fractions unless one of the terms is itself hyphenated
96(1)
Generally
96(1)
Exception
96(1)
Use Roman numerals sparingly and according to convention
97(2)
Successors
97(1)
Outlines
97(1)
Front matter
97(1)
Miscellaneous uses
97(2)
Typographic Symbols
99(4)
Overview
99(1)
When referring to a specific section or paragraph number, use the symbol § (section) or ¶ (paragraph) in text and citations, unless the symbol would start a sentence
99(1)
Legal convention
99(1)
Beginning sentence
99(1)
Pluralize some typographic symbols by doubling them. So when referring to two or more sections or paragraphs, use the double symbol §§ or ¶¶
In citations
100(1)
Exception with subsections
100(1)
Et seq.
100(1)
Use the symbols $, ¢, %, and ° with numerals in text; spell out the words when used alone
100(1)
Commonly understood
100(1)
Spelling out
100(1)
Range
100(1)
Foot, inch marks
101(1)
``At'' symbol
101(1)
Use an ampersand in a business name, in a case citation, and in a citation to a work by two or more authors
101(1)
In business names
101(1)
In case names
101(1)
With multiple authors
102(1)
Do not use a trademark or copyright symbol in text
102(1)
Purpose
102(1)
Significance
102(1)
Copyright notice
102(1)
Spelling
103(20)
Overview
103(1)
General Principles
103(1)
Always use your computer's spell-checker, but never rely on it alone
103(1)
Generally
103(1)
Self-check
103(1)
Proofreaders
103(1)
Autocorrection
103(1)
Use an up-to-date dictionary; preferably, everyone in an organization should use the same one
104(1)
Current edition
104(1)
Uniformity
104(1)
Keep a list of the words you have trouble with; update it regularly and keep it handy
104(1)
Troublesome words
104(1)
Ease of reference
104(1)
Know the elementary spelling rules
104(1)
``I'' before ``e''
104(1)
Silent ``-e'' and suffixes
104(1)
``-y'' ending and suffixes
105(1)
Doubling consonants
105(1)
``-ic'' ending and suffixes
105(1)
Avoid hyphens with most prefixes and suffixes
105(1)
Modern trend
105(1)
Proper nouns
106(1)
Hyphenated prefixes
106(1)
For clarity
106(1)
With numerals
106(1)
Proper names
106(1)
With hyphenated phrases
106(1)
Suffixes
106(1)
Plurals
106(1)
Form the plural of most regular nouns by adding -s or -es
106(1)
Basic rule
106(1)
Sibilant endings
106(1)
``-y'' ending
106(1)
``-o'' ending
106(1)
``-f'' or ``-fe'' ending
107(1)
Irregular words
107(1)
Proper names
107(1)
Check the spelling of the plural forms of foreign terms; in most instances, prefer the anglicized form if one exists
107(1)
``-is'' ending
107(1)
``-um'' ending
107(1)
``-us'' ending
107(1)
``-a'' ending
108(1)
``-on'' ending
108(1)
``-ex'' or ``-ix'' ending
108(1)
``-eau'' ending
108(1)
Retained forms
108(1)
In general, form the plural of a compound noun by pluralizing the main element
108(1)
Equivalents
108(1)
Noun and modifier
108(1)
Noun and particle
108(1)
Verb and particle
109(1)
Particle first
109(1)
``-ful'' ending
109(1)
Follow a consistent style in forming the plurals of letters, words used as words (rather than for their meaning), numbers, and abbreviations
109(1)
Letters
109(1)
Words as words
109(1)
Numbers
109(1)
Initialisms
109(1)
Abbreviations
109(1)
Citations
109(1)
Measurements
109(1)
Possessives
110(1)
Add -'s to the end of a word to form the possessive of (1) a singular noun, or (2) a plural noun that does not end in an s or z sound (always an irregular plural)
110(1)
Basic rule
110(1)
Sibilant endings
110(1)
Names
110(1)
Test
110(1)
Ancient names
110(1)
Singular name, plural form
110(1)
``For---sake''
110(1)
Grocer's apostrophe
110(1)
Add an apostrophe to the end of a word to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in an s or z sound
111(1)
Basic rule
111(1)
Exception
111(1)
Do not use apostrophes with possessive pronouns or who
111(1)
Confused with contractions
111(1)
Simple test
111(1)
With phrases, form the possessive on the last word
111(1)
Last word
111(1)
Contrasted with compound plurals
111(1)
Precenting awkwardness
111(1)
Use the same rules for numbers and abbreviations
111(1)
Number examples
111(1)
Abbreviation examples
111(1)
Compounds
112(1)
Overview
112(1)
A compound formed by two nouns of equal importance is likely to be closed
112(1)
Pronunciation clue
112(1)
Evolving use
112(1)
Human suffixes
112(1)
The combination of an adjective and a noun is usually open
113(1)
Generally
113(1)
Distinct meaning
113(1)
Combine words of equal importance with an en-dash
113(1)
Duality
113(1)
Measurement
113(1)
Hyphen acceptable
113(1)
When a noun is joined with a preceding preposition or adverb, the compound is usually closed
113(1)
Independent meaning
113(1)
No independent meaning
113(1)
When a noun is joined to a gerund, it is usually hyphenated
113(1)
Temporary terms
113(1)
Permanent terms
113(1)
Closed terms
113(1)
Open terms
114(1)
When a verb is coupled with a preposition or adverb, it is open, but a noun derived from the same form is either closed (usually) or hyphenated
114(1)
Phrasal verbs
114(1)
As closed nouns
114(1)
Short particles
114(1)
When a verb is joined to a preceding preposition or adverb, the resulting word is closed; words formed this way do not serve as nouns
114(1)
Effect of closing
114(1)
Noun formation
114(1)
A verb formed from a compound noun often takes the same form as the noun
115(1)
Closed
115(1)
Hyphenated
115(1)
Adjective-noun phrase
115(1)
For many other terms, no reliable principles apply; use a current dictionary to check the spelling
115(1)
Possessive noun-noun
115(1)
Agent noun
115(1)
Verb-particle
115(1)
Longer phrases
115(1)
Letter plus noun
115(1)
American vs. British Spelling
115(1)
Be aware of variations in American and British spelling. For the most part, the differences fall into one of several categories
115(2)
Scope
115(1)
``-ize'' vs. ``-ise''
116(1)
``-or'' vs. ``-our''
116(1)
Doubling the final ``-l''
116(1)
``-er'' vs. ``-re''
117(1)
``-dge'' words
117(1)
Hyphenated forms
117(1)
``-ogue'' words
117(1)
Miscellaneous
118
Common Misspellings
117(1)
Be wary of common misspellings. Below are the correct spellings of the most frequently misspelled words in the language
118(5)
Citations
123(12)
Overview
123(1)
Choose a citation system and stick to its essential conventions throughout a particular writing
123(1)
The Bluebook
123(1)
ALWD
123(1)
Maroonbook
123(1)
State style manuals
124(1)
If court rules, journal guidelines, or any other directives conflict with the citation system you use, follow the directives
124(1)
Courts
124(1)
Law journals
124(1)
Learn the fundamental rules of how to cite authority. But don't get so lost in the minutiae that you forget why they exist: to help the reader check your research
124(1)
Basics
124(1)
Trivia and nonsense
125(1)
Cite the record unobtrusively
125(1)
Basics
125(1)
Page and line
125(1)
Overcitation
125(1)
Choose which precedents to cite based on authority, hierarchy, freshness, and clarity of reasoning. Avoid string citations
125(1)
Authority
125(1)
Hierarchy
125(1)
Freshness
125(1)
Reasoning
125(1)
Number of citations
126(1)
No controlling authority
126(1)
Use abbreviations as required by your citation system in the first full citation
126(1)
First citation
126(1)
Lists
126(1)
Use short-form citations after the first full citation
126(1)
Clarity
126(1)
Distinctive name
126(1)
Use pinpoint citations when quoting, paraphrasing, or referring to a specific part of an opinion
127(1)
Purpose
127(1)
Pinpoint citation to first page
127(1)
Paragraphs
127(1)
Credibility
127(1)
Use id. carefully
127(1)
Function of ``id''
127(1)
Multiple authorities
127(1)
And ``ibid''
127(1)
Avoid infra, supra, op. cit., loc. cit., and similar abbreviations to refer to a citation that appears elsewhere in the writing
128(1)
Definitions
128(1)
Footnotes
128(1)
Law reviews
128(1)
When citing sequential pages, sections, paragraphs, or similar elements, use an en-dash to elide the numerals. If you elide page numbers of three or more digits, always show two digits after the en-dash
128(1)
When citing a concurring, dissenting, en banc, or plurality opinion, include the type of opinion in parentheses immediately after the court and year but before any other parenthetical information. Identify the author of a concurrence or dissent
128(1)
Plurality opinion
128(1)
Concurrence or dissent
129(1)
Unsigned opinion
129(1)
Full-court hearing
129(1)
Space parenthetical explanations or quotations correctly in relation to the rest of the citation
129(1)
Spacing
129(1)
Punctuation
129(1)
If parenthetical matter is given with a citation, it should appear before the subsequent history
130(1)
History
130(1)
Additional citation
130(1)
Use the correct signal to show the relationship between a textual statement and the material cited
130(2)
Basics
130(1)
Older legal materials
131(1)
Modern resources
131(1)
Undefined signals
132(1)
Order of use
132(1)
Do what you reasonably can to condense citations
132(1)
Abbreviations
132(1)
Short-form citations
132(1)
Redundancy
132(1)
Avoid parallel citations unless local rules require them
132(1)
Generally
132(1)
Punctuation
132(1)
Undesirability
132(1)
Use a parenthetical note if an explanation would explain how the citation supports the argument
132(1)
Clarification
132(1)
Multiple sources
133(1)
Specificity
133(1)
Obscurity
133(1)
Form
133(1)
Never trust the citations in another document. Always verify from original sources
133(1)
Electronic shortcomings
133(1)
Inaccurate information
134(1)
Older legal materials
134(1)
Sanctions
134(1)
Before you submit your writing to anyone else, double-check your citations to ensure that the citation form and subsequent history are correct
134(1)
Updates
134(1)
Proper authorities
134(1)
If no legal-citation manual explains how to cite some material, such as an electronic or Internet source, consult a current nonlegal style manual
134(1)
Nonlegal style
134(1)
Clarity
134(1)
Footnotes
135(8)
Overview
135(1)
Follow whatever prescriptions are set down in court rules, journal guidelines, or any other controlling directives
135(1)
Court rules
135(1)
Law reviews
135(1)
Set footnotes in smaller type than the text, and single-space them
135(1)
Font
135(1)
Type size
135(1)
Use sequential numbering for footnotes throughout most documents
136(1)
Documents and articles
136(1)
Books and treatises
136(1)
Arabic numerals
136(1)
Put the superscript footnote number after all punctuation marks except a dash and, sometimes, a closing parenthesis
136(1)
Quotation marks
136(1)
Dash
136(1)
Parentheses
136(1)
Never use more than one superscript in the same place
137(1)
Lack of clarity
137(1)
Contrary information
137(1)
Consolidate multiple sources into one footnote when possible
137(1)
Full support
137(1)
Paragraph footnotes
138(1)
Distinctions
138(1)
Never use footnotes to evade page-limit restrictions
138(1)
Ethics
138(1)
Sanctions
138(1)
Minimize substantive footnotes
139(4)
Distracting and tiresome
139(1)
Bad reactions
139(1)
Ignoring arguments in footnotes
139(4)
Part 2: Grammar, Usage, and Editing
Grammar
143(40)
Overview
143(1)
Nouns
143(1)
Overview
143(1)
Ensure that related nouns agree in number
144(1)
Concrete nouns
144(1)
Abstract nouns
144(1)
Indicate joint possession by making only the final noun in the series possessive; indicate separate possession by making each noun in a series possessive
144(1)
Joint possession
144(1)
Individual possession
144(1)
Use the possessive case with a noun when the sense is a measurement of time or value, but consider recasting the sentence with a phrasal adjective instead
144(1)
As measurement
144(1)
Old-fashioned
145(1)
Use the double-possessive construction (of---'s) with a noun to shift perspective to the object: the focus is on the object's relationship to the subject of the preposition, not the other way around
145(1)
Redundancy
145(1)
To avoid ambiguity
145(1)
Reword
145(1)
Ensure that an appositive agrees with and directly follows the noun or noun phrase that it identifies or supplements; if it is nonrestrictive, set it off with commas, parentheses, or em-dashes
145(1)
Defined
145(1)
Agreement
146(1)
If nonrestrictive
146(1)
Be careful about irregular plurals
146(1)
Irregular forms
146(1)
Romance syntax
147(1)
Foreign terms
147(1)
Same form
147(1)
Confused singulars
147(1)
Pronouns
147(1)
Overview
147(1)
Make the grammatical antecedent of a pronoun the noun that (1) precedes the pronoun most closely, and (2) agrees in number, gender, and person with that pronoun
148(3)
Number
148(1)
Generally
148(1)
From antecedent
148(1)
Conjunctive compound antecedent
148(1)
Disjunctive compound antecedent
148(1)
Disjunctive with mixed antecedents
149(1)
Two or more adjectives
149(1)
Singular indefinite pronoun
149(1)
Plural indefinite pronoun
149(1)
Other indefinite pronouns
149(1)
Collective nouns
150(1)
Relative pronouns
150(1)
Gender
150(1)
Generally
150(1)
Third-person singular
150(1)
Gender-neutral masculine
150(1)
Singular ``they''
151(1)
Neuter by default
151(1)
Person
151(1)
Generally
151(1)
Distinguished
151(1)
Make pronoun references unambiguous
151(1)
Multiple antecedents
151(1)
Repeated pronoun
152(1)
Explicit antecedent
152(1)
Noun antecedent
152(1)
Antecedent first
152(1)
Use the nominative case for a subject or a predicate nominative
152(1)
Generally
152(1)
As predicate nominative
152(1)
As subject of dependent clause
153(1)
Use the objective case for (1) the direct or indirect object of a verb, or (2) the object of a preposition
153(1)
Generally
153(1)
Determined by function
153(1)
Use the correct case and order when using a first-person pronoun with a noun or another personal pronoun in a compound phrase
153(1)
First person last
153(1)
Hypercorrection in first person
153(1)
In formal writing, use the nominative case after than if the pronoun would be nominative in the understood clause that follows than
154(1)
As a conjunction
154(1)
As a preposition
154(1)
In formal writing, use the nominative case for a pronoun used as a predicate nominative, renaming the subject after a linking verb
154(1)
Formal usage
154(1)
Informal usages
154(1)
Use the possessive case of a pronoun to show ownership, attribution, measure, or some similar relationship
155(1)
Generally
155(1)
No apostrophe
155(1)
Absolute possessives
155(1)
With a gerund
155(1)
Use the double-possessive construction (of + absolute possessive) with personal pronouns
155(1)
Mandatory with pronouns
155(1)
To intensify
155(1)
Use the relative pronoun who to refer to people only (although whose may refer to things as well); which to refer to things or animals only; and that to refer to either people or things (or both)
156(1)
``That'' with people
156(1)
``Which'' with things
156(1)
``Whose'' with things
156(1)
For relative pronouns referring to anything other than people, use that to introduce a restrictive clause and which (after a comma) to introduce a nonrestrictive clause
156(2)
Restrictive clause
156(1)
Nonrestrictive clause
157(1)
``That'' as restrictive
157(1)
``Which'' as nonrestrictive
157(1)
No commas with restrictive clauses
158(1)
Use reflexive and reciprocal pronouns with care
158(1)
Reflexive for objective
158(1)
When object is also subject
158(1)
When subject is repeated for emphasis
158(1)
``Each other'' and ``one another''
158(1)
Verbs
158(1)
Overview
158(2)
Use a singular verb after a singular subject
160(2)
Generally
160(1)
Distractions
160(1)
Dependent clauses
160(1)
Compound but singular in meaning
161(1)
Compound referring to one thing
161(1)
Illusory compounds
161(1)
Idioms with indefinite pronouns
161(1)
Idioms with ``each'' and ``every''
161(1)
Idiom with ``many a''
162(1)
Phrases of measurement
162(1)
Use a plural verb after a plural subject
162(1)
Generally
162(1)
Conjunctive compound
162(1)
With ``each'' in apposition
162(1)
Plural indefinite pronouns
162(1)
With class adjectives
162(1)
Plural-form nouns
163(1)
With certain types of subjects, use the context of the sentence to determine whether a singular or plural verb is required
163(2)
With count nouns
163(1)
With collective nouns
163(1)
With singular-form nouns
164(1)
With foreign nouns
164(1)
With ``-ics'' words
164(1)
In relative clauses
164(1)
If the subject is a disjunctive compound (joined by or or nor), the verb should agree with the element of the compound closest to the verb; if the compound contains both singular and plural elements, try to place the plural subject closest to the verb
165(1)
With singular subjects
165(1)
Singular in meaning
165(1)
With mixed elements
165(1)
Plural element last
165(1)
Minimize the passive voice
165(2)
Recognizing it
165(1)
Editing it
166(1)
When it's appropriate
166(1)
Use the subjunctive mood to express a wish, a demand, a requirement, an exhortation, or a statement contrary to fact---as well as in a number of fixed idioms
167(1)
Generally
167(1)
``That''-clause of need
167(1)
Expressing a wish
167(1)
Exhortations and things contrary to fact
167(1)
In fixed idioms
168(1)
Connect every participial phrase to its subject
168(1)
At start of sentence
168(1)
Close to subject
168(1)
Misplaced and dangling modifiers
168(1)
In a compound predicate, if an auxiliary verb grammatically matches all the main verbs, omit it after its first use
169(1)
Style benefits
169(1)
Parallel constructions
169(1)
Use the past tense to describe what a court did in a particular case. Otherwise, when discussing the law, generally use the present tense
169(1)
Present tense as default
169(1)
Past tense for case history
169(1)
Adjectives
170(1)
Overview
170(1)
Use the comparative form as a measure of quality between two things and the superlative form as a measure of quality among three or more
171(1)
Regular forms
171(1)
Irregular forms
171(1)
With ``more-most,'' ``less-least''
171(1)
Class comparison
171(1)
Double comparatives
171(1)
Use an adjective, not an adverb, as a subject complement (predicate adjective) after a be-verb or other linking verb, a verb of perception, or a verb of becoming
172(1)
With linking verbs
172(1)
With verbs of sense or becoming
172(1)
Don't use an adverb of comparison with an absolute adjective
172(1)
No qualifiers
172(1)
``Almost'' and ``nearly''
172(1)
Use dates as adjectives sparingly
172(1)
Full dates as adjectives
172(1)
Short dates as adjectives
172(1)
In some phrases and idiomatic constructions, use an adjective after the word it modifies
173(1)
Legal terms
173(1)
Pronouns
173(1)
Stilted phrasing
173(1)
Use the definite article the to signal a specific person, place, or thing; use the indefinite article a or an to signal a generic reference
173(1)
Placement
173(1)
Deciding between ``a'' and ``an''
173(1)
Adverbs
173(1)
Overview
173(1)
Place an adverb in its strongest position, often at the beginning of a sentence or inside a verb phrase
174(1)
After first auxiliary
174(1)
Split infinitive
175(1)
Temporal adverbs
175(1)
Contrast at start of sentence
175(1)
Emphasis at end of sentence
175(1)
Place emphatic adverbs such as only, so, very, quite, and just immediately before whatever they modify
175(1)
Placement of ``only''
175(1)
Idiomatic placement
176(1)
Prepositions
176(1)
Overview
176(1)
To combat verbosity, minimize prepositional phrases
176(2)
Buried verbs
176(1)
One-word replacements
177(1)
Active voice
177(1)
As a cause of bloat
177(1)
When possible, omit a repeated preposition or object in favor of a compound construction, but don't if the omission would make the construction unparallel
178(1)
Compound object
178(1)
Ambiguity
178(1)
Compound prepositions
178(1)
Conjunctions
178(1)
Overview
178(1)
Use a coordinating conjunction to join like elements
178(1)
Definition
178(1)
Punctuation
179(1)
When appropriate, use a coordinating conjunction to begin a sentence to emphasize contrast (but, yet), additional support for a proposition (and), an alternative (or), or a logical conclusion (so)
179(1)
Start of sentence
179(1)
Stuffiness
179(1)
Use a subordinating conjunction to join a dependent clause to the main clause of a complex sentence
179(1)
Definition
179(1)
To show relationships
180(1)
Make sure that correlative conjunctions frame sentence parts that match each other grammatically
180(1)
Definition
180(1)
Parallelism
180(1)
Interjections
181(1)
Use interjections sparingly, if at all
181(2)
Definition
181(1)
Limited use
181(2)
Stuffy Words and Legalese
183(28)
Overview
183(1)
Use the simplest, most straightforward words that you can
183(11)
Plain English
183(1)
Simple substitutes
183(4)
Paring down phrases
187(3)
Avoiding legalese
190(2)
Useless verbiage
192(1)
Synonymia
192(2)
Unless the context requires otherwise, use legal terms according to their specialized sense as terms of art
194(17)
Terms of art---Latin
194(1)
Terms of art---ordinary words with special legal senses
194(17)
Troublesome Words
211(108)
Overview
211(1)
Use words correctly and precisely
211(1)
Correctness
211(1)
Precision
211(1)
Consult this glossary to find the correct uses of problematic expressions---words and phrases that are sometimes misused in legal writing
212(67)
Use the correct preposition for the meaning you intend
279(32)
Idiomatic phrasing
279(1)
List of prepositional pairings
279(32)
Avoid needlessly offending readers with your word choice
311(8)
Characteristics
311(1)
Professional conduct
311(1)
Ineffective advocacy
311(1)
Unwarranted distinctions
312(1)
Person, not characteristic
312(1)
Labels
312(1)
Euphemisms
313(1)
Equivalence
313(1)
Slang
314(1)
Jargon
314(1)
False friends
314(1)
Suitability
314(1)
Capitalization
315(1)
Gender-neutral language
315(1)
Titles
316(1)
Gender-specific language
317(1)
Age references
317(1)
Sexual orientation
318(1)
Religious references
318(1)
Editing and Proofreading
319(6)
Review your work closely and systematically to improve the style
319(1)
Two readings necessary---three desirable
319(1)
Worsening the piece
319(1)
Habitually ask yourself the six Orwellian questions
319(1)
Orwell's questions
319(1)
Applicability to editing
319(1)
Tighten the style by ridding the draft of verbosity
320(1)
Tightening generally
320(1)
Minimizing the passive voice
320(1)
Uncovering buried verbs
320(1)
Trimming prepositional phrases
320(1)
Replacing wordy phrases
320(1)
Sharpen the writing by reducing abstractions
320(1)
Sharpening generally
320(1)
Nouns and verbs
321(1)
Try a phased approach in editing, making several passes through the document: begin with large, structural edits: then make basic sentence-level edits; then look for subtler sentence-level edits: finally, polish the piece for clarity
321(1)
Systematic approach
321(1)
Stage one: macro edits
321(1)
Stage two: basic micro edits
321(1)
Stage three: advanced micro edits
322(1)
Stage four: polishing
322(1)
Learn and use the standard proofreaders' marks
322(3)
The necessity of editing on paper
322(1)
The value of standard marks
322(1)
List of proofreaders' marks
322(3)
Part 3: Preparing Legal Documents
Business Correspondence
325(8)
Understand the main goals of business correspondence
325(1)
Communicating effectively
325(1)
Making an impression
325(1)
Providing a record
325(1)
Think about the specific goals of your correspondence
Being reader-friendly
326(1)
Projecting your personality
326(1)
Exuding professionalism
326(1)
Avoid the common faults of business correspondence
326(1)
Lacking focus
326(1)
Making multiple requests
326(1)
Using inappropriate style
326(1)
Blundering
327(1)
Hiding information
327(1)
Omitting information
327(1)
Use a standard format for business letters
327(2)
Modified block style
327(1)
Date
327(1)
Margins and type
328(1)
Titles
328(1)
Subject line
328(1)
Appropriate salutation
328(1)
The corporate and legal ``we''
328(1)
Complimentary closes
329(1)
Modifying your identification as appropriate
329(1)
Copies
329(1)
Study effective business correspondence
329(4)
Recommended books
329(1)
Examples
329(4)
Case Briefs
333(6)
Understand the main goals of a case brief
333(1)
Generally
333(1)
Orderly format
333(1)
Critical thinking
333(1)
Comprehension
333(1)
Time management
334(1)
Think about the specific goals of your case brief
334(1)
Preparing to answer questions
334(1)
Mastering a new development in the law
334(1)
Finding an argument for your client
334(1)
Building a foundation for your research
334(1)
Avoid the common faults of case briefs
334(2)
Accepting the court's opinion as gospel
334(1)
Mistaking dicta for law
335(1)
Writing without reading the case thoroughly
335(1)
Skimping on the court's reasoning
335(1)
Including too much detail
335(1)
Using weak briefing methods
335(1)
Ignoring concurrences and dissents
336(1)
Study effective case briefs
336(3)
Guidance
336(1)
Examples
336(3)
Research Memos
339(14)
Understand the main goals of a research memo
339(1)
Generally
339(1)
To help readers
339(1)
To summarize issue
339(1)
To anticipate problems
340(1)
Think about the specific goals of your research memo
340(1)
Needs of the assigning attorney
340(1)
Needs of the client
340(1)
Need for more research
340(1)
Avoid the common faults of research memos
340(2)
Not summarizing up front
340(1)
Parroting an ill-phrased question
341(1)
Using surface issues
341(1)
Waffling in the answer
341(1)
Meandering
342(1)
Losing focus
342(1)
Beginning with lengthy facts
342(1)
Omitting headings
342(1)
Overquoting
342(1)
Citing poorly
343
Study effective research memos
342(11)
Where to find them
342(1)
Examples
342(11)
Opinion Letters
353(14)
Understand the main goals of an opinion letter
353(1)
Purpose
353(1)
Format
353(1)
Answering the question
353(1)
Alternatives
354(1)
Limitations
354(1)
Who may issue the opinion
354(1)
Think about the specific goals of your opinion letter
354(1)
Particular client with particular needs
354(1)
Written vs. oral opinion
355(1)
Legal effects
355(1)
Avoid the common faults of opinion letters
355(1)
Failing to answer the question
355(1)
Trying to use a formula
355(1)
Leaping to a conclusion
356(1)
Study effective opinion letters
356(11)
Review good examples
356(1)
Drafting guidance
356(1)
Examples
356(11)
Demand Letters
367(8)
Understand the main goals of a demand letter
367(1)
Gauging the reader
367(1)
Meeting statutory requirements
367(1)
Documenting efforts to resolve the dispute
367(1)
Think about the specific goals of your demand letter
367(2)
Strategy
367(1)
Specificity and tone
368(1)
Allowing an independent assessment
368(1)
Collection letters
368(1)
Deciding on the recipient
368(1)
Sending the letter
369(1)
Avoid the common faults of demand letters
369(1)
Typical shortcomings
369(1)
Two caveats
369(1)
Study effective demand letters
369(6)
Collect good examples
369(1)
Examples
370(5)
Affidavits and Declarations
375(8)
Understand the main goals of an affidavit
375(1)
Terminology
375(1)
General purposes
375(1)
Basic format
375(1)
Presenting evidence
375(1)
Think about the specific goals of your affidavit
376(1)
Purpose
376(1)
Helping the reader make a decision
376(1)
Avoid the common faults of affidavits
376(1)
Failing to show personal knowledge
376(1)
Using stiff, unnatural language
376(1)
Using third person instead of first
376(1)
Clinging to archaic legalisms
377(1)
Rambling
377(1)
Tweaking or ``improving'' facts
377(1)
Neglecting to label an evidentiary affidavit as an exhibit
377(1)
Follow rules of evidence
377(1)
Admissibility
377(1)
Hearsay
377(1)
Expert witness
378(1)
Standard for expert testimony
378(1)
Writings, business records, photographs, things
378(1)
Study effective affidavits
378(5)
Guidance
378(1)
Examples
378(5)
Pleadings
383(8)
Understand the main goals of a pleading
383(1)
What a pleading is
383(1)
Complaints generally
383(1)
Complaints in federal court
383(1)
Answers
383(1)
Focus the dispute
384(1)
Think about the specific goals of your pleading
384(1)
Protect your client's interests
384(1)
Essential and additional claims
384(1)
Answer
384(1)
Available defenses
384(1)
Avoid the common faults of pleadings
384(2)
Violating pleading rules
384(1)
Overpleading
385(1)
Omissions in complaints
385(1)
Omissions in answers
385(1)
Reliance on boilerplate forms
386(1)
Verbosity
386(1)
Study effective pleadings
386(5)
Model forms
386(1)
Drafting guidance
386(1)
Examples
386(5)
Motions
391(12)
Understand the main goals of a motion
391(1)
Purpose
391(1)
Strategic advantages
391(1)
Think about the specific goals of your motion
391(1)
Goals
391(1)
Proposed order
391(1)
Cross-motions
392(1)
Avoid the common faults of motions
392(1)
Violating rules
392(1)
Not getting to the point
392(1)
Overreliance on forms
392(1)
Failing to cite authority
392(1)
Incorrect or frivolous contents
393(1)
Churning
393(1)
Educating your adversary
393(1)
Study effective motions
393(10)
Models
393(1)
Guidance
393(1)
An example
393(10)
Appellate Briefs
403(32)
Understand the main goals of a brief
403(1)
Purpose
403(1)
Tone
403(1)
Identify the issue
403(1)
Pertinent facts
403(1)
Standard of review and governing law
403(1)
Think about the specific goals of your brief
404(1)
Appellant (seeking reversal)
404(1)
Appellee (seeking affirmance)
404(1)
Client's interests
404(1)
Your reputation
404(1)
Avoid the common faults of briefs
405(2)
Omitting the standard of review
405(1)
Ignoring statutes and rules
405(1)
Using a shotgun approach
405(1)
Misstating facts
406(1)
Misstating the law
406(1)
Exhibiting disrespect
406(1)
Relying on quotations
407(1)
Failing to address weaknesses
407(1)
Study effective briefs
407(28)
Models
407(1)
Guidance
407(1)
An example
407(28)
Judicial Opinions
435(18)
Understand the main goals of a judicial opinion
435(1)
Purposes
435(1)
An extraordinary challenge
435(1)
Write for as broad an audience as possible
435(1)
Many possible readers
435(1)
``Ordinary reader'' as a useful fiction
435(1)
Develop a good protocol for working on opinions
436(1)
Working habits
436(1)
Deficiencies in law-clerk style
436(1)
Advice to law clerks
436(1)
Understand the paramount importance of style
437(1)
Pure vs. impure
437(1)
Only the necessary facts
437(1)
Mandate
438(1)
Avoid the common shortcomings of opinions
438(1)
Verbosity
438(1)
Wigmore's six complaints
439(1)
Tone
439(1)
Develop a sensible approach to concurrences
439(1)
Origin of concurrences
439(1)
Reasons for proliferation
439(1)
A cynical view of Frankfurter
440(1)
Concur with caution
440(1)
Develop a sensible approach to dissent
440(1)
Dissents generally
440(1)
Purposes
440(1)
The old view
440(1)
The voice of a dissenter
441(1)
Study effective judicial writing
441(12)
Widely admired judicial writers
441(1)
Books on judging
441(1)
Guidance on judicial writing
442(1)
Examples
442(11)
Contracts
453(18)
Understand the main goals of a contract
453(1)
Creating a legal relationship
453(1)
Making terms clear
453(1)
Think about the specific goals of your contract
453(1)
Accuracy, completeness, and precision
453(1)
Protecting the client
453(1)
Getting the deal done
454(1)
Avoid the common faults of contracts
454(2)
Patchwork style
454(1)
Ambiguous ``shall''
454(1)
Overreaching
454(1)
Density
455(1)
Awkward numbering
455(1)
Uncritical use of forms
456(1)
Legalese
456(1)
Emphasis
456(1)
Study effective contracts
456(15)
Models
456(1)
Guidance
456(1)
Examples
456(15)
Word Index 471(20)
General Index 491


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