9780133237757

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: An Introduction to HVAC

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780133237757

  • ISBN10:

    0133237753

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1/1/2004
  • Publisher: Pearson College Div
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Summary

For courses in Basic Refrigeration, Commercial Refrigeration, Residential Air Conditioning, Commercial Air Conditioning. Warm Air Heating, Hydronic Heating, HVAC Control Systems, and Servicing HVAC Systems. Suitable for a full range of courses, this text covers information essential for all the courses outlined in the ARI Curriculum Guide for training entry-level heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVACR) technicians. Exceptionally comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and well-illustrated in full color, it focuses on accepted and expected industry practices applicable to a wide variety of HVACR jobs.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii(2)
Acknowledgments xv
SECTION 1 Refrigeration Principles 1(316)
R1 Introduction to Refrigeration
2(8)
R1-1 Markets for Refrigeration
2(1)
R1-2 Job Outlook
3(1)
R1-3 Occupational Opportunities
3(1)
R1-4 Trade Associations
4(1)
R1-5 Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI)
5(2)
R1-6 Units of Measurement
7(1)
Review
8(1)
Problems and Questions
8(2)
R2 Safety
10(19)
R2-1 Personal Safety
11(1)
R2-2 Protective Clothing and Equipment
11(3)
R2-3 Harmful Substances
14(1)
R2-4 Safe Work Practices
14(4)
R2-5 Safety When Working with Electricity
18(1)
R2-6 Refrigeration Safety
19(1)
R2-7 Environmental Safety Principles
20(2)
R2-8 Federal Regulations of Refrigerants
22(5)
Review
27(1)
Problems and Questions
28(1)
R3 Fundamentals
29(17)
R3-1 Definitions
29(2)
R3-2 Refrigeration Process
31(5)
R3-3 Change of State, Pressure, Temperature, and Heat Content
36(1)
R3-4 The Mechanical Refrigeration Cycle
37(3)
R3-5 The Absorption Refrigeration Cycle
40(2)
R3-6 System Components
42(2)
Review
44(1)
Problems and Questions
45(1)
R4 Principles of Heat Transfer
46(16)
R4-1 States of Matter
46(1)
R4-2 Thermodynamic Principles
47(1)
R4-3 Temperature Measurement and Conversion
48(2)
R4-4 Matter and Heat Behavior
50(3)
R4-5 Heat Quantity and Measurement
53(4)
R4-6 Heat Transfer
57(3)
R4-7 Insulation
60(1)
Review
60(1)
Problems and Questions
60(2)
R5 Fluids and Pressure
62(13)
R5-1 General
62(1)
R5-2 Fluid Pressure
62(1)
R5-3 Head
63(1)
R5-4 Pascal's Law
64(1)
R5-5 Density
64(1)
R5-6 Specific Volume
65(1)
R5-7 Atmospheric Pressure
65(2)
R5-8 Measurement of Pressure
67(1)
R5-9 Absolute Pressure
68(1)
R5-10 Pressure of Gas
69(1)
R5-11 Expansion of Gas
70(1)
R5-12 Boiling Point
70(1)
R5-13 Condensing Temperature
71(1)
R5-14 Fusion Point
71(1)
R5-15 Saturation Temperature
72(1)
R5-16 Superheat
72(1)
R5-17 Subcooling
72(1)
Review
72(2)
Problems and Questions
74(1)
R6 Tools and Equipment
75(27)
R6-1 Hand Tools and Accessories
75(7)
R6-2 Electrical and Electronic Instruments
82(2)
R6-3 Refrigeration--Servicing and Testing Equipment
84(9)
R6-4 Airflow--Measuring and Testing Equipment
93(2)
R6-5 Heating--Servicing and Testing Equipment
95(5)
Review
100(1)
Problems and Questions
100(2)
R7 Refrigeration System Components
102(19)
R7-1 Refrigerant Flow Controls
102(3)
R7-2 Evaporators
105(5)
R7-3 Compressors
110(5)
R7-4 Condensers
115(3)
R7-5 Receivers
118(1)
R7-6 Refrigerant Lines
118(1)
Review
119(1)
Problems and Questions
120(1)
R8 Metering Devices and Accessories
121(23)
R8-1 How a Metering Device Operates
122(1)
R8-2 Types of Metering Devices
123(6)
R8-3 Measuring Superheat
129(1)
R8-4 Liquid Distributors
129(1)
R8-5 Low Load Limits
130(1)
R8-6 Common Metering Device Problems
130(2)
R8-7 Refrigeration Cycle Accessories, Non-electric
132(9)
Review
141(1)
Problems and Questions
141(3)
R9 Evaporators
144(28)
R9-1 Types of Evaporators
144(4)
R9-2 Pressure-Heat Diagram
148(3)
R9-3 Evaporator Construction--Air Cooling
151(2)
R9-4 Evaporator Construction--Water Cooling
153(2)
R9-5 Applications
155(2)
R9-6 Capacity Control
157(1)
R9-7 Condensate
158(1)
R9-8 Types of Defrost
158(4)
R9-9 Liquid Coolers
162(4)
R9-10 Servicing and Troubleshooting Evaporators
166(3)
Review
169(1)
Problems and Questions
170(2)
R10 Condensers
172(25)
R10-1 Operation of Condensers
172(1)
R10-2 Types of Condensers
173(1)
R10-3 Air-Cooled Condensers
173(7)
R10-4 Water-Cooled Condensers
180(13)
R10-5 Evaporative Condensers
193(1)
R10-6 Condenser Capacity
193(2)
Review
195(1)
Problems and Questions
196(1)
R11 Compressors
197(32)
R11-1 Functions of Compressors
197(1)
R11-2 Capacity Versus Load
198(3)
R11-3 Compressor Lubrication
201(2)
R11-4 Compressor Types
203(23)
Review
226(1)
Problems and Questions
227(2)
R12 Controls
229(18)
R12-1 Definition of Controls
229(1)
R12-2 Selecting the Control System
230(1)
R12-3 Types of Basic Controls
230(7)
R12-4 Operating Controls
237(3)
R12-5 Safety Controls
240(4)
R12-6 Operating Control Systems
244(1)
Review
245(1)
Problems and Questions
245(2)
R13 Refrigerants
247(16)
R13-1 Definition of a Refrigerant
248(1)
R13-2 Number Designation
248(1)
R13-3 Chemical Composition of Refrigerants
249(1)
R13-4 Refrigerant Requirements
249(2)
R13-5 Changing Refrigerants
251(1)
R13-6 Guidelines for Selecting Refrigerants
252(1)
R13-7 Properties of Common Refrigerants
253(2)
R13-8 Pressure-temperature Relationships
255(1)
R13-9 Contaminants in the Refrigerant
255(1)
R13-10 Refrigerant Cylinders
255(4)
R13-11 Safety
259(2)
Review
261(1)
Problems and Questions
262(1)
R14 Recovery, Recycling, Reclaiming and Replacing Refrigerants
263(15)
R14-1 Why Should Refrigerant Be Recovered?
263(1)
R14-2 Definition of Terms
264(1)
R14-3 Recovery Requirements
265(1)
R14-4 Recovery of Refrigerants
265(2)
R14-5 Refrigerant Recovery/Recycling Units
267(2)
R14-6 Reclaiming Refrigerants
269(1)
R14-7 Replacement of Refrigerants
270(1)
R14-8 Types of Recovery and Recycling Equipment
270(5)
R14-9 Phases of Refrigerant Recovery
275(1)
Review
276(1)
Problems and Questions
277(1)
R15 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagrams
278(11)
R15-1 Refrigeration Effect
278(2)
R15-2 Cycle Diagrams
280(1)
R15-3 Refrigeration Processes
281(2)
R15-4 Coefficient of Performance
283(1)
R15-5 Effects on Capacity
284(3)
Review
287(1)
Problems and Questions
288(1)
R16 Piping and Tools
289(28)
R16-1 Piping for Refrigeration Systems
290(1)
R16-2 Refrigerant Piping Materials
290(2)
R16-3 Using Refrigerant Tubing
292(1)
R16-4 Method of Joining Tubing
293(12)
R16-5 Refrigerant Piping Requirements
305(3)
R16-6 Pipe Sizing
308(2)
R16-7 Insulation Considerations
310(3)
R16-8 Piping Supports
313(1)
R16-9 Vibration Dampeners
314(1)
R16-10 Off-cycle Protection
314(1)
Review
315(1)
Problems and Questions
315(2)
SECTION 2 Refrigeration Service Techniques 317(30)
R17 Gaining Access to the Sealed System
318(10)
R17-1 Installation of Gauge-manifold Test Set
318(3)
R17-2 Determining Minimum Operating Head Pressure
321(1)
R17-3 Entering the Sealed System
322(4)
Review
326(1)
Problems and Questions
326(2)
R18 Mechanical Service Operations
328(19)
R18-1 Practicing Refrigeration Containment
328(3)
R18-2 Liquid Refrigerant Recovery
331(1)
R18-3 Vapor Refrigerant Recovery
331(1)
R18-4 Measuring and Testing Equipment
332(4)
R18-5 Evacuation
336(3)
R18-6 Refrigerant Charging
339(5)
R18-7 Leak Testing
344(1)
R18-8 Oil Charging
345(1)
Review
345(1)
Problems and Questions
346(1)
SECTION 3 Basic Electricity/Electronics 347(68)
E19 Basic Electricity
348(24)
E19-1 Types of Electricity
348(5)
E19-2 Electrical Power Systems
353(5)
E19-3 Electric Meters
358(5)
E19-4 Alternating Current
363(5)
E19-5 Power Distribution
368(2)
Review
370(1)
Problems and Questions
371(1)
E20 Electrical Components and Wiring Diagrams
372(26)
E20-1 Electrical Circuits
372(1)
E20-2 Magnetism
373(1)
E20-3 Common Electrical Components and Their Symbols
373(6)
E20-4 Wiring Diagrams
379(5)
E20-5 Construction of Schematic Wiring Diagrams
384(11)
Review
395(1)
Problems and Questions
396(2)
E21 Electric Motors
398(17)
E21-1 AC Induction Motors
398(1)
E21-2 Induction Motor Principles
398(2)
E21-3 Capacitor Principles
400(2)
E21-4 Single-phase Motors
402(2)
E21-5 Three-phase Motors
404(1)
E21-6 Motor Protection
405(8)
E21-7 Testing Start Relays
413(1)
Review
413(1)
Problems and Questions
414(1)
SECTION 4 Domestic Refrigeration 415(24)
DR22 Domestic Refrigeration
416(23)
DR22-1 Domestic Refrigerators and Freezers
416(3)
DR22-2 Domestic Refrigerators
419(11)
DR22-3 Installing and Servicing Ice Makers
430(2)
DR22-4 Domestic Freezers
432(5)
Review
437(1)
Problems and Questions
438(1)
SECTION 5 Commerical Refrigeration 439(84)
CR23 Food Preservation
440(13)
CR23-1 Preservation of Perishable Foods
440(1)
CR23-2 Meats
441(1)
CR23-3 Poultry
441(1)
CR23-4 Seafood
442(1)
CR23-5 Fruits and Vegetables
442(1)
CR23-6 Dairy Products and Eggs
443(2)
CR23-7 Frozen Foods
445(3)
CR23-8 Food Processing
448(3)
Review
451(1)
Problems and Questions
451(2)
CR24 Refrigeration Systems
453(23)
CR24-1 Systems
453(14)
CR24-2 Special Components
467(7)
Review
474(1)
Problems and Questions
474(2)
CR25 Refrigeration Equipment
476(36)
CR25-1 Classification of Equipment
476(1)
CR25-2 Refrigerated Food-Storage Units
477(5)
CR25-3 Ice-making Units
482(5)
CR25-4 Supermarket Equipment
487(7)
CR25-5 Packaged Liquid Chillers
494(2)
CR25-6 Industrial Refrigeration Units
496(5)
CR25-7 Drinking-Water Coolers
501(1)
CR25-8 Restaurant/Bar Equipment
501(5)
CR25-9 Dispensing Freezers
506(4)
Review
510(1)
Problems and Questions
510(2)
CR26 Special Refrigeration Applications
512(11)
CR26-1 Ice Cream
512(2)
CR26-2 Bakery Refrigeration
514(1)
CR26-3 Ice Rinks
515(1)
CR26-4 Industrial Processing
516(1)
CR26-5 Transportation Refrigeration
517(1)
CR26-6 Mechanical Refrigeration
518(3)
Review
521(1)
Problems and Questions
521(2)
SECTION 6 Air-conditioning Systems 523(156)
A27 Introduction to Air Conditioning
524(13)
A27-1 How Old Is Air Conditioning?
524(1)
A27-2 Early Technical Developments
525(1)
A27-3 Comfort Cooling Comes of Age
526(5)
A27-4 Historical Market Growth
531(1)
A27-5 Usage by Type
532(1)
A27-6 The International Market
533(2)
Review
535(1)
Problems and Questions
536(1)
A28 Fundamentals of Air Conditioning
537(35)
A28-1 Conditions for Comfort
537(1)
A28-2 Psychrometrics
538(4)
A28-3 Psychrometric Chart
542(4)
A28-4 Calculating Performance
546(3)
A28-5 Air Distribution and Balancing
549(4)
A28-6 Duct Systems
553(16)
Review
569(1)
Problems and Questions
570(2)
A29 Indoor Air Quality
572(8)
A29-1 Overview
572(1)
A29-2 The Pollutants
573(3)
A29-3 The Energy Recovery Ventilator
576(1)
A29-4 The Services of the HVAC Technician
577(1)
A29-5 Producing the Best IAQ
578(1)
Review
578(1)
Problems and Questions
579(1)
A30 Unitary Air-conditioning Systems
580(32)
A30-1 Definitions
580(1)
A30-2 Types of Unitary Equipment
580(1)
A30-3 Room Air Conditioners
581(1)
A30-4 Console Through-the-wall Conditioners
582(8)
A30-5 Dehumidifier Units
590(3)
A30-6 Single-package Conditioners
593(5)
A30-7 Split-system Conditioners
598(8)
A30-8 Rooftop Conditioners
606(2)
A30-9 Desiccant Cooling Systems
608(2)
Review
610(1)
Problems and Questions
611(1)
A31 Central Station Systems, Including Thermal Storage Systems
612(34)
A31-1 Description
612(1)
A31-2 System Components
613(1)
A31-3 Water Chillers
614(6)
A31-4 Boilers
620(1)
A31-5 Circulating Water Pumps
621(1)
A31-6 Cooling Towers
621(4)
A31-7 Air Handling Units
625(1)
A31-8 Air Distribution Systems
625(5)
A31-9 Control Systems
630(10)
A31-10 Thermal Storage Systems
640(4)
Review
644(1)
Problems and Questions
645(1)
A32 Air-handling Units and Accessories
646(18)
A32-1 Types of Air-handling Units
646(1)
A32-2 Fan-coil Units
646(4)
A32-3 Central-station Air-handling Units
650(12)
Review
662(1)
Problems and Questions
663(1)
A33 Absorption Refrigeration Systems
664(15)
A33-1 The Absorption Process
664(1)
A33-2 Applications
665(1)
A33-3 Components
666(1)
A33-4 Comparison with a Vapor-compression System
667(1)
A33-5 Absorption Chiller-heater
667(9)
Review
676(2)
Problems and Questions
678(1)
SECTION 7 Heating Systems 679(148)
H34 Combustion and Fuels
680(9)
H34-1 Combustion
680(1)
H34-2 Gases
681(2)
H34-3 Oils
683(1)
H34-4 Electricity
684(1)
H34-5 Types of Flames
685(2)
Review
687(1)
Problems and Questions
687(2)
H35 Controls
689(12)
H35-1 Overview
689(2)
H35-2 Control System Components
691(5)
H35-3 Sensing Devices
696(4)
H35-4 Operators
700(1)
H35-5 Fuel Controls
701(1)
H35-6 Gas Valves and Regulators
701(5)
H35-7 Primary Oil-burner Controls
706(3)
H35-8 Residential and Small Commercial Control Systems
709(15)
Review
724(1)
Problems and Questions
725(1)
H36 Warm-air Furnaces
726(25)
H36-1 Overview
726(1)
H36-2 Gas Forced-air Systems
727(4)
H36-3 Gas High-efficiency Furnaces (HEF)
731(10)
H36-4 Oil-fired Forced-air Systems
741(5)
H36-5 Electric Furnaces
746(3)
H36-6 Air-handling Units and Duct Heaters
749(1)
Review
749(1)
Problems and Questions
749(2)
H37 Space Heaters
751(9)
H37-1 Gas Space Heaters
751(2)
H37-2 Infrared Heaters
753(2)
H37-3 Vaporizing Oil Pot Heaters
755(1)
H37-4 Electric In-space Heaters
756(2)
Review
758(1)
Problems and Questions
759(1)
H38 Zone-control Systems
760(14)
H38-1 Principles of Zoning
760(3)
H38-2 Types of Zone Dampers
763(1)
H38-3 Types of Zoning Systems
764(7)
Review
771(1)
Problems and Questions
772(2)
H39 Hydronic Heating
774(23)
H39-1 Overview
774(1)
H39-2 Properties of Water
775(1)
H39-3 Piping, Pumps, and Accessories
776(4)
H39-4 Types of Piping Systems
780(8)
H39-5 Boilers and Related Equipment
788(2)
H39-6 Piping Details
790(5)
Review
795(1)
Problems and Questions
796(1)
H40 Testing and Balancing
797(20)
H40-1 Overview
797(1)
H40-2 General Requirements
798(5)
H40-3 Instruments for Testing
803(10)
H40-4 Balancing the System
813(2)
Review
815(1)
Problems and Questions
816(1)
H41 Filters and Humidifiers
817(10)
H41-1 Mechanical Filtration
817(2)
H41-2 Electronic Filtration
819(2)
H41-3 Types of Humidifiers
821(3)
H41-4 Humidistats
824(1)
Review
824(1)
Problems and Questions
825(2)
SECTION 8 Central Heat Pumps 827(32)
HP42 Basic Principles and Components
828(11)
HP42-1 Brief History
828(1)
HP42-2 Basic Principles
828(1)
HP42-3 Heat-pump Cycles
829(3)
HP42-4 Component Parts
832(4)
Review
836(1)
Problems and Questions
837(2)
HP43 Air-and Water-Source Applications
839(8)
HP43-1 Overview
839(1)
HP43-2 Air-to-air, Dual-operation
839(2)
HP43-3 Liquid-to-air, Dual-operation
841(1)
HP43-4 Air-to-air, Single-operation
841(1)
HP43-5 Liquid-to-air, Single-operation
841(3)
HP43-6 Air-to-liquid, Single operation
844(1)
Review
845(1)
Problems and Questions
846(1)
HP44 Heat-Pump Controls
847(12)
HP44-1 Overview
847(2)
HP44-2 Temperature Controls
849(1)
HP44-3 Defrost Controls
850(6)
HP44-4 Low Ambient Control
856(1)
HP44-5 Control-panel Servicing
856(1)
Review
857(1)
Problems and Questions
857(2)
SECTION 9 Installation and Start-up 859(76)
I45 Load Calculation
860(43)
I45-1 Refrigeration Load
860(23)
I45-2 Residential Heating and Cooling Loads
883(6)
I45-3 Commercial Heating and Cooling Load
889(12)
Review
901(1)
Problems and Questions
902(1)
I46 Installation Techniques
903(11)
I46-1 Codes, Ordinances and Standards
903(1)
I46-2 Equipment Placement
904(2)
I46-3 Other Major Phases of Installation
906(3)
I46-4 Charging the System with Refrigerant
909(3)
I46-5 Charging the System with Oil
912(1)
Review
912(1)
Problems and Questions
913(1)
I47 Installation Start-up, Checkout, and Operation
914(21)
I47-1 The Refrigeration System
914(1)
I47-2 The Heating System
915(13)
I47-3 Air Conditioning
928(2)
I47-4 Heat Pumps
930(3)
Review
933(1)
Problems and Questions
934(1)
SECTION 10 Troubleshooting 935(62)
TR48 Troubleshooting Refrigeration Systems
936(19)
TR48-1 Overview
936(1)
TR48-2 Electrical Troubleshooting
936(2)
TR48-3 Mechanical Refrigeration Troubleshooting
938(3)
TR48-4 Troubleshooting the Compressor
941(2)
TR48-5 Analysis of a Dead Compressor
943(2)
TR48-6 Troubleshooting Evaporators and Condensers
945(4)
TR48-7 Troubleshooting Metering Devices
949(2)
TR48-8 Sealed System Troubleshooting
951(2)
Review
953(1)
Problems and Questions
954(1)
TR49 Troubleshooting Air-conditioning Systems
955(12)
TR49-1 Safety
956(1)
TR49-2 General
956(1)
TR49-3 Problem Analysis
956(1)
TR49-4 Air-system Problems
956(2)
TR49-5 Refrigeration-system Problems
958(1)
TR49-6 Analyzing Problems
959(6)
Review
965(1)
Problems and Questions
966(1)
TR50 Troubleshooting Heating Systems
967(19)
TR50-1 Overview
967(1)
TR50-2 A Systematic Analysis
967(5)
TR50-3 General Procedures
972(1)
TR50-4 Gas-system Problems
973(5)
TR50-5 Oil-system Problems
978(6)
Review
984(1)
Problems and Questions
985(1)
TR51 Troubleshooting Heat Pump Systems
986(11)
TR51-1 General
986(1)
TR51-2 Air-system Problems
987(1)
TR51-3 Refrigeration-system Problems
987(4)
TR51-4 Problem Analysis
991(3)
Review
994(1)
Problems and Questions
994(3)
SECTION 11 Preventive Maintenance 997(21)
PM52 Verifying Operation
998(10)
PM52-1 Maintenance Contracts
998(3)
PM52-2 System Operational Checks
999(2)
PM52-3 Monitoring Equipment
1001(3)
PM52-4 Measurement and Analysis
1004(2)
Review
1006(1)
Problems and Questions
1006(2)
PM53 Preventive Maintenance
1008(10)
PM53-1 Overview
1008(1)
PM53-2 Preventive Maintenance Routines
1009(4)
PM53-3 Coil Maintenance
1013(1)
PM53-4 Maintenance of Electronic Air Filters
1013(1)
PM53-5 Filter Replacement
1013(1)
PM53-6 Belt-drive Assembly Checking
1013(1)
PM53-7 Sound-level Monitoring
1014(1)
PM53-8 Lubrication
1015(1)
PM53-9 Visual Inspection
1015(1)
PM53-10 Calibration
1015(1)
PM53-11 Scheduling Parts Changes
1015(1)
PM53-12 Safety Checks
1015(1)
Review
1015(1)
Problems and Questions
1016(2)
Appendix A 1018(31)
Glossary of Technical Terms 1049(11)
Index 1060

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