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Relevant Linguistics : An Introduction to the Structure and Use of English for Teachers

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9781575862187

ISBN10:
1575862182
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/30/2004
Publisher(s):
Univ of Chicago Pr
List Price: $37.33

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Summary

This revised and expanded edition of Paul W. Justice's popular text provides a straightforward, accessible introduction to the basics of linguistics for education students and all non-linguistics majors, covering the essentials of phonetics, phonology, morphology, morpho-phonology, and syntax. While this overview is accessible to any student, Justice's text will be of particular use in teacher training programs, many of which now expose trainees to these topics in order to cope with rising linguistic diversity in classrooms.Each chapter of Relevant Linguistics leads students through descriptive analysis, helps them grasp linguistic concepts, and provides them with the reference materials necessary for their own teaching. This second edition contains more exercises as well as expanded and clarified explanations of the issues discussed in the first edition. Also included are more references to areas such as the history of English and semantics.

Author Biography

Paul W. Justice is a lecturer at San Diego State University and an instructor at Grossmont College.

Table of Contents

To the Student xiii
To the Instructor xiv
Acknowledgments xvi
What is Linguistics?
1(12)
What Do Linguists Do?
2(1)
What is the Nature of Language?
3(1)
Focus on Expressions: The Nature of Words
4(2)
The Nature of Grammar Rules: Prescriptivism vs. Descriptivism
6(4)
Prescriptivism
6(1)
Descriptivism
7(2)
Prescriptivism vs. Descriptivism over Time
9(1)
Descriptivism and the Language Arts Curriculum
10(1)
Narrowing the Focus: English and other Languages
10(1)
Tying It All Together: The Relevance of Linguistics
11(1)
Summary
12(1)
Phonetics: The Sounds of English
13(32)
Phonetics: Its Relevance to Classroom Teachers
13(1)
Spelling and Sounds in English
14(1)
The Smallest Units of Language: Phonemes
15(1)
The Consonants of English
16(6)
Describing the Features of Consonants: Place of Articulation
16(2)
Describing the Features of Consonants: Manner of Articulation
18(3)
Describing the Features of Consonants: Voicing
21(1)
The Vowels of English
22(6)
Describing English Vowels: Tongue Height
23(1)
Describing English Vowels: Frontness
23(2)
Describing English Vowels: Tenseness
25(1)
A Final Feature of Vowels: Roundedness
26(1)
Difficult to Describe Vowels: Diphthongs
26(2)
Some Important Points about Vowels
28(2)
Vowels as Approximations
28(1)
The Importance of Schwa in English
28(2)
Second Language Issues: Phonemic Inventories
30(1)
Summary
31(1)
Exercises
32(13)
Phonetics Practice: Description of Phonemes
32(1)
Phonetics Practice: Phoneme Analogies
33(1)
Transcription Exercises
34(3)
Transcription Jokes
37(3)
Strange but True Transcriptions
40(1)
More Transcription Jokes
41(1)
The Connection between English Spelling and Sounds
42(3)
Phonology: The Sound System of English
45(46)
Levels of Representation
45(1)
Phonemes and Allophones
46(1)
The Systematicity of Phonology
47(1)
Determining the Relationship Between Sounds
48(2)
Contrastive Sounds
48(1)
Non-Contrastive Sounds
49(1)
Environment and Contrast
50(1)
Phonological Rules
51(3)
Determining the Basic Form of a Phoneme
52(1)
Rule Types
53(1)
Modeling Phonological Analysis with Four Rules of English
54(9)
Vowel Nasalization in English
54(2)
Vowel Lengthening in English
56(2)
Aspiration in English
58(2)
Flapping in American English
60(3)
Phonological Analysis Resource
63(1)
Goals of the Analysis
63(1)
Steps of the Analysis
64(1)
English Spelling Revisited
64(2)
English Phonotactics
66(5)
The Syllable
66(1)
Phonotactic Constraints on Syllable Structure
67(4)
Syllable Stress in English
71(2)
Summary
73(1)
Exercises
74(17)
Minimal Pair Practice
74(1)
Contrastive and Non-Contrastive Sounds
75(1)
Practice with Natural Classes
76(1)
Determining Distribution
77(2)
English Phonology Practice
79(1)
English Phonology Problems
80(3)
Spanish Phonology Problems
83(2)
Additional Phonology Problems
85(4)
Practice with Phonotactics
89(2)
Morphology: English Word Structure and Formation
91(38)
Word Classes
91(1)
Classification Criteria
91(1)
Major Classes
92(9)
Nouns
92(2)
Verbs
94(3)
Adjectives
97(2)
Adverbs
99(2)
Minor Classes
101(2)
Pronouns
101(2)
The Structure of Words
103(1)
The Morpheme
103(1)
Classification of Morphemes
104(4)
Free Morphemes vs. Bound Morphemes
104(1)
Lexical Morphemes vs. Grammatical Morphemes
104(1)
Root Morphemes vs. Affix Morphemes
105(1)
Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes
106(2)
Challenges in Identifying Morphemes: Form vs. Meaning
108(1)
The Hierarchical Structure of Words
109(2)
Word Creation in English
111(6)
Affixing
112(1)
Functional Shift
112(1)
Semantic Shift
113(1)
Compounding
113(1)
Blending
114(1)
Borrowing
114(1)
Acronyming
115(1)
Root Creation
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
Exercises
118(11)
Word Class Exercise
118(2)
Morpheme Practice
120(1)
Creative Affixing
121(2)
Morphology Trees Exercise
123(1)
Derivational Morpheme Exercise (three pages)
124(3)
Bound Roots in English
127(1)
English Word Creation Practice
128(1)
Morphophonology: Where Morphology Meets Phonology
129(24)
Key Concepts and Terms of Morphophonology
129(1)
Morphophonological Analysis
130(5)
Root Allomorphy
130(2)
Allomorphic Variation with Affixes
132(2)
Morphophonological Analysis Resource
134(1)
Some Rules of English Morphophonology
135(7)
The Past Tense in English
136(3)
The Plural in English
139(3)
Relevance at Three Levels
142(1)
Spelling and Morphophonology in English
142(1)
Summary
143(1)
Exercises
144(9)
English Morphophonology Practice
144(1)
English Morphophonology Problems
145(3)
Additional English Morphophonology Problem
148(1)
Foreign Language Morphophonology Problems
149(4)
Syntax: English Phrase and Sentence Structure
153(92)
More Word Classes
153(1)
Minor Classes
154(5)
Determiners
154(1)
Prepositions
155(1)
Auxiliaries
155(2)
Conjunctions
157(2)
Major Classes
159(7)
Nouns
159(2)
Verbs
161(1)
Adjectives
162(2)
Adverbs
164(1)
Pronouns
165(1)
Sentence Types
166(7)
Simple Sentences
166(1)
Coordinate sentences
166(1)
Complex Sentences
167(1)
Complex-Coordinate Sentences
167(1)
Coordination vs. Subordination
168(2)
Different Kinds of Subordination
170(3)
The Purpose of Studying Syntax
173(1)
Constituents
174(11)
Basic Constituents
174(1)
The Importance of Hierarchical Constituent Structure
175(1)
Determining and Representing Hierarchical Structure
176(2)
Grammatical Relations
178(1)
Constituent Structure of Complex and Coordinate Sentences
179(1)
Diagramming Ambiguous Sentences
180(2)
Constituent Tests
182(3)
Phrase Structure
185(5)
Subcategorization
190(2)
Subcategories of English Verbs
192(6)
Transitive Verbs
192(1)
Intransitive Verbs
193(1)
Complex Transitive Verbs
194(1)
Linking Verbs
195(1)
Linking Verbs Revisited
196(2)
A Final Note about Subcategorization
198(1)
Transformations
198(3)
Deep and Surface Structures
200(1)
Transformational Rules
201(8)
Sub-Aux Inversion
201(2)
``Wh-'' Movement
203(2)
``Wh-'' Movement of Relative Pronouns
205(4)
A Final Note Regarding Transformations
209(1)
Tying It All Together
209(1)
Summary
210(1)
Exercises
211(34)
Word Class Exercise
211(1)
Sentence Type Exercise
212(1)
Word Class/Sentence Type Exercise
213(2)
Passivization
215(2)
Beginning Syntax Trees
217(2)
Advanced Syntax Trees
219(7)
Grammatical Relation Practice
226(1)
Phrase Structure Practice
227(1)
Even More Syntax Tree Practice
228(4)
Subcategorization Exercise
232(3)
Explaining Ungrammaticality
235(2)
Transformation Exercise
237(4)
That Word
241(4)
Language Variation: English Dialects
245(56)
The Language vs. Dialect Distinction
245(2)
Dimensions of Language Variation
247(1)
Absolutes vs. Relatives
248(2)
More Relatives: Correctness vs. Appropriateness
250(1)
Levels of Language Variation
251(4)
The Case of African-American English
255(7)
Phonological Features of AAE
256(1)
Morphological Features of AAE
257(2)
Syntactic Features of AAE
259(2)
An Additional Feature of AAE
261(1)
Implications of Dialect Study
262(1)
Expert Voices on Dialect Issues
263(3)
Summary
266(1)
Exercises
267(4)
Classifying Variation
267(1)
Researching Language Variation
268(1)
Practice with AAE
269(1)
Discussion Exercise
270(1)
Appendix 1: Introductory Matters
271(4)
Language Challenges: Ambiguity
271(2)
The History of English
273(1)
Illustrating Language History: Cognates
273(1)
The Language Tree for English
274(1)
Appendix 2: Phonetics
275(2)
Distinctive Features
275(1)
More on Variation: Phonetic Alphabets
275(2)
Appendix 3: Phonology
277(2)
Phonological Analysis Chart
277(1)
Ordering of Phonological Rules
278(1)
Appendix 4: Morphology
279(5)
Words and Meaning: Semantics
279(1)
Internet Resources: Word-a-Day Mailing Lists
280(1)
The English Tense/Aspect System
281(2)
Verb Tense Exercise
283(1)
Appendix 5: Morphophonology
284(1)
More on Spelling
284(1)
Appendix 6: Syntax
285(7)
More Word Classes
285(1)
More about Phrase Structure
286(6)
Appendix 7: Language Variation
292(2)
The History of English Inflections
292(2)
Appendix 8: Analysis Questions
294(7)
Phonology
294(1)
Phonology/Morphology
295(1)
Morphology
295(1)
Morphophonology
296(1)
Morphology/Syntax
297(1)
Syntax
298(3)
Glossary 301(6)
References 307(2)
Index 309


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