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The Reluctant Welfare State: American Social Welfare Policies-Past, Present, and Future,9780534508920

The Reluctant Welfare State: American Social Welfare Policies-Past, Present, and Future

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534508920

ISBN10:
0534508928
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Thomson Learning
List Price: $58.95
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Summary

Much more than a historical look at America's social welfare system, this acclaimed book offers insights into our ambivalent social welfare policy and its impact on specific out-groups--African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, women, and others--that

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Social Reform in a Society with Conflicting Tendencies
1(12)
A Reluctant Welfare State
2(1)
The Controversial Nature of Social Policy
3(5)
Using Social Policy History to Develop a Policy Identity
8(2)
Policy Eras in U.S. History
10(3)
Notes
12(1)
A Framework for Understanding the Evolution of the Reluctant Welfare State
13(15)
The Two-Sided Context
13(2)
Developing Proposals to Address Social Problems
15(1)
The Role of Political Processes in Creating a Reluctant Welfare State
16(2)
Policy Choices
18(1)
Processes of Implementation
19(1)
Evaluating Social Policies in the Past and in the Present
20(5)
Evaluating Specific Policies with Reference to Outcomes
20(1)
Ethical Reasoning from First Principles
21(3)
Relativism
24(1)
Toward Ethical Reasoning: An Eclectic Approach
25(3)
Notes
27(1)
Fashioning a New Society in the Wilderness
28(35)
The Feudal Inheritance
29(2)
Social Policy in Medieval Society
31(1)
The Gradual Unraveling of Feudalism
31(3)
Policy Choices in the Period of Transition
34(3)
Positive Policies
34(2)
Punitive Policies
36(1)
The American Colonists
37(3)
Patterns of Continuity
37(2)
Patterns of Change
39(1)
The American Revolution as Catalyst
40(2)
From Revolution to Limited Government
42(2)
Legitimating Limited Government
44(1)
Positive Responses to Social Need
45(1)
Punitive Policies
46(1)
Harsh Treatment of Outgroups
47(10)
The Native Americans
47(5)
African Slaves
52(3)
The Status of Women
55(2)
Ominous Signs
57(2)
Precursors to a Reluctant Welfare State
59(4)
Notes
60(3)
Social Welfare Policy in the Early Republic: 1789-1860
63(28)
Social Realities in the New Nation
64(1)
Immigration and Urbanization
65(2)
A Moral Crusade
67(3)
Social Reform Policies
70(11)
Temperance
71(2)
Antipauperism Strategies
73(4)
Character-Building Institutions
77(2)
Opportunity-Enhancing Policies
79(2)
Radical Movements: Conspicuous by Their Absence
81(1)
Outgroups in the Early Republic
82(6)
Irish Immigrants
82(2)
The Status of Women
84(4)
Precursors of the Reluctant Welfare State
88(3)
Notes
88(3)
Lost Opportunities: The Frontier, the Civil War, and Industrialization
91(32)
Policy at the Frontier
92(7)
Land Policy
92(1)
Conquest and Persecution
93(4)
Finding Laborers
97(1)
Appraisal of Frontier Policy
98(1)
The Civil War and Freed Slaves: An Exercise in Futility?
99(12)
Origins of the Civil War
100(5)
Social Policy During the War
105(1)
Reconstruction
106(4)
Women, Policy, and the War
110(1)
Social Policy and Industrialization
111(8)
Industralization Before the Civil War
111(1)
Industralization During the Gilded Age
112(3)
The Failure of Regulation
115(4)
The Absence of a Welfare State
119(4)
Notes
120(3)
Social Reform in the Progressive Era
123(43)
Realities in Industrial Society
124(4)
The Genesis of Reform
128(7)
Catalytic Events
129(2)
Intellectual Ferment and Public Opinion
131(4)
The Specter of Social Unrest
135(1)
Regulatory Reforms in the Progressive Era
135(2)
The Limited Social Programs of the Progressive Era
137(4)
Policy Reforms for Women and Children
137(2)
Private Philanthropy
139(1)
Other Policy Reforms
140(1)
The Limited Nature of Progressives' Social Reforms
141(1)
Cultural and Policy Realities That Limited Reform
141(2)
Political Realities That Limited Reform
143(2)
Women and Children: Seizing the Opportunity
145(1)
Social Reformers and the Bull Moose Campaign of 1912
145(4)
Outgroups in the Progressive Era
149(7)
People of Color
149(4)
Women and Politics
153(2)
Immigrants and the Closing of the Doors
155(1)
The Resilience of Jane Addams and Her Allies
156(1)
The Emergence of Social Work
157(4)
The Evolution of the Reluctant Welfare State
161(5)
Notes
162(4)
The Early Stages of the New Deal
166(27)
The 1920s
167(2)
The Period of Denial: 1929-1933
169(3)
The Era of Emergency Reforms: 1933-1935
172(16)
Forces That Promoted Major Reforms
172(2)
Forces That Limited Roosevelt's Initial Policy Initiatives
174(3)
Emergency Relief
177(7)
Reform of the Economic System
184(4)
Emergency or Permanent Programs?
188(1)
The Evolution of the Reluctant Welfare State
189(4)
Notes
190(3)
Institutionalizing the New Deal
193(35)
Toward Ongoing Programs
194(5)
Liberal Forces
194(4)
Conservative Pressures on Roosevelt
198(1)
Legislation in the Second Half of the New Deal
199(9)
The Social Security Act
199(5)
Labor and Public Works Legislation
204(4)
The Era of Stalemate: 1937-1941
208(2)
Policies During the Era of Stalemate
210(2)
Outgroups in the New Deal
212(8)
African Americans
213(3)
Women
216(1)
Latinos
217(1)
Asian Americans
218(2)
Social Workers in the New Deal
220(3)
The Evolution of the Reluctant Welfare State
223(5)
Notes
225(3)
The Era of Federal Social Services: The New Frontier and the Great Society
228(46)
World War II, the Postwar Era, and the 1950s
229(6)
The Failure of Social Reform in the Truman Era
229(4)
Eisenhower and the Conservative 1950s
233(2)
The Turn Toward Reform
235(2)
Domestic Policy During the Kennedy Presidency
237(8)
Poverty and Civil Rights: Toward Reform
239(4)
The Course of Reform: Failures and Successes
243(2)
Kennedy and Johnson: A Study in Contrast
245(3)
Johnson's Social Welfare Legacy
248(7)
Civil Rights Legislation
248(1)
Earl Warren and the Supreme Court
248(1)
Medicare and Medicaid
249(2)
Aid to Education
251(1)
The War on Poverty, Welfare Reforms, and Food Stamps
252(3)
The Beleaguered President: 1967-1968
255(4)
Outgroups in the 1960s
259(8)
Women
259(2)
Gay Men and Lesbians
261(2)
Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans
263(1)
Latinos
263(1)
Native Americans
264(2)
Asian Americans
266(1)
People of Color in the Urban Ghettoes
266(1)
Social Work in the 1960s
267(1)
The Evolution of the Reluctant Welfare State
268(6)
Notes
269(5)
The Paradoxical Era: 1968-1980
274(32)
Richard Nixon: Political Opportunist
275(2)
Nixon's Strategy: Floating Coalitions and Outbidding
277(1)
From Strategy to Policy
278(8)
Welfare Policy
278(4)
Social Security
282(1)
Revenue Sharing and Social Services
282(2)
Civil Rights
284(1)
Health Policy and Other Legislation
285(1)
Nixon's Shift from Reform to Conservatism
286(5)
The Brief Reign of Gerald Ford
291(1)
Jimmy Carter: Outsider in the White House
291(4)
Carter's Domestic Legislation
292(3)
Carter's Fall
295(1)
The Hidden Social Spending Revolution of the 1970s
295(2)
Why Was the Spending Revolution Hidden?
297(1)
Outgroups in the 1970s
298(3)
The Women's Movement
298(1)
The Mobilization of New Sets of Outgroups
299(1)
The 1970s as a Revolution in Rights
300(1)
The Beginnings of Backlash
301(1)
The Evolution of the Reluctant Welfare State
301(5)
Notes
302(4)
The Conservative Counterrevolution in the Era of Reagan and Bush
306(45)
The Ascendancy of Conservatism
307(7)
The Legitimation of Conservatism
309(1)
Ronald Reagan as Catalyst
310(1)
Reagan's Emergency as a National Hero
311(1)
Supply-Side Economics: A Positive Way to Be Negative
312(1)
The Campaign of 1980: Two Styles
313(1)
The Reagan Policy Blitzkrieg
314(11)
The Triumph of Conservatism
319(1)
OBRA, Tax Reductions, and Deregulation
319(1)
Reagan's Loss of Momentum
320(2)
Social Security, Job Training, and Medicare
322(2)
Moral Reforms
324(1)
Stalemate
325(1)
The Election of 1984
325(1)
Reagan's Second Term
325(1)
Passing the Torch: From Reagan to Bush
326(2)
Social Policies of the Bush Administration
328(3)
Social Spending and the Politics of the Budget
328(1)
Domestic Reforms
329(2)
Outgroups in the Era of Reagan and Bush
331(13)
Predictions Come True
332(1)
Poverty and People of Color
332(1)
Immigrants
333(1)
Gay Men and Lesbians
334(1)
People with Disabilities
335(1)
Women
336(3)
Children
339(2)
Aging Americans
341(1)
Homeless Americans
342(1)
The Erosion of Rights
343(1)
The Social Work Profession
344(1)
The Evolution of the Reluctant Welfare State
345(6)
Notes
346(5)
Reluctance Illustrated: Policy Uncertainty During the Clinton Administration
351(56)
The Ascendance of Bill Clinton
352(3)
The Search for the Real Bill Clinton
352(1)
The Search for the New Democrat
352(3)
The Presidential Campaign of 1992
355(1)
Clinton's Grim Options
356(2)
From Social Investment to Deficit Reduction
358(7)
Developing an Economic Package
358(1)
A Brief Digression: the Budget Process
359(2)
The Demise of the Stimulus Package
361(1)
Early Warning Signs
362(1)
The Sacrifice of Social Investments
363(2)
The Second Year: Anticrime Legislation But No Health Reform
365(4)
The Fight for Health Reform
365(3)
Anticrime Legislation
368(1)
Building a Revolution Within the Counterrevolution
369(2)
The House Republicans Take Charge
371(1)
The Budget Confrontation of 1995
371(12)
Toward a Budget Resolution
373(3)
Toward a Reconciliation Bill
376(1)
Welfare Reform
376(5)
Medicare and Medicaid
381(1)
Taxes
382(1)
Discretionary Spending: Social Programs and Military Spending
383(1)
Clinton's Zigzag Course in Late 1995 and 1996
383(5)
Clinton's Second Term
388(6)
Outgroups
394(9)
Affirmative Action
394(2)
Immigration
396(1)
Children
397(2)
Women
399(3)
Gay Men and Lesbians
402(1)
Reluctance Illustrated
403(4)
Notes
404(3)
Why Has the American Welfare State Been Reluctant?
407(27)
Manifestations of Reluctance
407(3)
Contextual Causes of Reluctance
410(13)
Cultural Factors
411(1)
Doing Harm by Doing Good
411(2)
Problems and Panaceas
413(1)
The Misleading Analogy of the Fair Footrace
414(1)
Beliefs About Markets and Government
415(1)
Beliefs About Equality
416(1)
Economic Factors
416(1)
Low Levels of Taxation
416(2)
Military Spending
418(1)
Institutional Factors
419(1)
Jurisdictional Confusion
419(1)
Social Factors
420(1)
Racism and Prejudice
420(2)
The Sequence of Events
422(1)
The Late Development of the American Welfare State
422(1)
The Military State Precedes the Welfare State
422(1)
Legal Factors
423(1)
Political Processes
423(5)
Absence of a Powerful Radical Tradition
423(2)
Nonvoters
425(1)
The Power of American Conservatives
425(1)
Moral Crusades
426(1)
A Rigged System
427(1)
Reluctance as the Outcome of Numerous Factors
428(1)
Some Interpretive Challenges
429(2)
Variations Between Eras and Issues
429(1)
Gauging Missing Factors
430(1)
Barriers to Social Reform in Other Nations
430(1)
Some Redeeming Features of the American Welfare State
431(1)
From Determinism to Social Action
432(2)
Notes
432(2)
Policy Perspectives: Past, Present, and Future
434(23)
The Case Against the Welfare State
434(2)
The Case For the Welfare State
436(3)
Missed Opportunities
439(1)
Admitting Errors
440(1)
The Limitations of Public Policy
440(1)
Would Conservatives' Policies Solve Major Social Problems?
441(7)
Reducing Social Spending
441(1)
Delegating Policy Responsibilities to State and Local Government
442(1)
Privatizing Social Services
443(1)
Seeking Nongovernmental Substitutes for Publicly Funded Programs
443(1)
Deterrent Policies
444(1)
Relying on Personal Responsibility
445(1)
Social Welfare in the Context of Globalization and Technology into the New Millennium
445(3)
The Social Reform Tradition in American History
448(3)
Toward Policy Practice and Policy Advocacy
451(6)
Participating in Social Movements
452(1)
Establishing Advocacy Organizations
452(1)
Seeking Social Reforms from Within the Government
452(1)
Educating the Public as a Prelude to Social Reforms
452(1)
Electing Reform-Oriented Candidates to Office
453(1)
Influencing Policy from Organizational Settings
453(1)
Whistleblowers
453(1)
Moving Beyond History
454(1)
Notes
454(3)
Name Index 457(3)
Subject Index 460


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