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Remote Sensing of the Environment : An Earth Resource Perspective,9780131889507
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Remote Sensing of the Environment : An Earth Resource Perspective

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131889507

ISBN10:
0131889508
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/11/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $185.20

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  • Remote Sensing of the Environment : An Earth Resource Perspective
    Remote Sensing of the Environment : An Earth Resource Perspective




Summary

This popular book introduces the fundamentals of remote sensing from an earth resource (versus engineering) perspective. The author emphasizes the use of remote sensing data for useful spatial biophysical or socio-economic information that can be used to make decisions. Provides two new chapters on LIDAR Remote Sensing (Ch. 10) and In situ Spectral Reflectance Measurement (Ch. 15). Offers a thorough review of the nature of electromagnetic radiation, examining how the reflected or emitted energy in the visible, near-infrared, middle-infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the spectrum can be collected by a variety of sensor systems and analyzed. Employs a visually stimulating, clear format: a large (8.5" x 11") format with 48 pages in full color facilitates image interpretation; hundreds of specially designed illustrationscommunicate principles in an easily understood manner. A useful reference for agriculture, wetland, and/or forestry professionals, along with geographers, urban planners, and transportation engineers.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvi
Remote Sensing of the Environment
1(36)
In Situ Data Collection
1(1)
Remote Sensing Data Collection
2(6)
Maximal/Minimal Definitions
4(3)
Remote Sensing Advantages and Limitations
7(1)
The Remote Sensing Process
8(20)
Statement of the Problem
8(2)
Identification of In Situ and Remote Sensing Data Requirements
10(2)
Remote Sensing Data Collection
12(12)
Remote Sensing Data Analysis
24(1)
Information Presentation
24(4)
Earth Observation Economics
28(3)
Earth Resource Analysis Perspective
31(1)
Book Organization
32(5)
Electromagnetic Radiation Principles
37(24)
Conduction, Convection, Radiation
37(1)
Electromagnetic Radiation Models
38(9)
Wave Model of Electromagnetic Energy
38(5)
The Particle Model -- Radiation from Atomic Structures
43(4)
Atmospheric Energy-Matter Interaction
47(6)
Refraction
48(1)
Scattering
48(3)
Absorption
51(1)
Reflectance
51(2)
Terrain Energy-Matter Interactions
53(4)
Hemispherical Reflectance, Absorptance, and Transmittance
54(2)
Radiant Flux Density
56(1)
Atmospheric Energy-Matter Interactions Again
57(1)
Energy-Matter Interactions at the Sensor
57(4)
Target and Path Radiance
57(4)
History of Aerial Photography and Aerial Platforms
61(30)
History of Photography
61(5)
Light and Color
61(1)
The Camera Obscura
62(1)
Invention of Light-sensitive Emulsions and Methods of Permanently Fixing the Image
62(4)
Photography from Aerial Platforms
66(8)
Ornithopters
66(1)
Lighter-Than-Air Flight Using Balloons
66(4)
Lighter-Than-Air Flight Using Kites
70(1)
Heavier-Than-Air Flight Using Rockets
71(1)
Heavier-Than-Air Flight Using Pigeons, Gliders, and Aircraft
71(3)
Photo-reconnaissance in W W I and W W II
74(2)
Aerial Photography in World War I
74(1)
Aerial Photography in World War II
75(1)
Cold War Photo-Reconnaissance
76(5)
Genetrix Reconnaissance Balloons
77(1)
U-2 Aircraft Reconnaissance Program
77(3)
The SR-71
80(1)
Airborne Stealth Technology
80(1)
Satellite Remote Sensing
81(4)
Corona
81(2)
Ongoing Satellite Sentinels
83(2)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
85(1)
Tactical and Endurance UAVs
85(1)
UAV Payloads and Other Considerations
86(1)
Commercial Remote Sensing Platforms
86(5)
Aerial Photography -- Vantage Point, Cameras, Filters, and Film
91(36)
Vertical and Oblique Vantage Points
91(5)
Vertical Aerial Photography
91(1)
Oblique Aerial Photography
92(4)
Aerial Cameras
96(8)
Aerial Camera Components Compared with the Eye
96(1)
Types of Aerial Cameras
97(7)
Aerial Photography Filtration
104(5)
Types, Sizes, and Colors of Filters
107(2)
Aerial Photography Films
109(15)
General Characteristics of Photographic Emulsions
110(1)
Black-and-White Photographic Emulsions
111(11)
Color Photographic Emulsions
122(2)
Planning Aerial Photography Missions
124(3)
Time of Day---Sun Angle
124(1)
Weather
125(1)
Flightline Layout
125(2)
Elements of Visual Image Interpretation
127(22)
Introduction
127(3)
The Aerial/Regional Perspective
128(1)
Three-Dimensional Depth Perception
128(1)
Obtaining Knowledge Beyond Our Human Visual Perception
129(1)
Historical Image Record and Change Detection Documentation
130(1)
Elements of Image Interpretation
130(14)
Methods of Search
144(5)
Using Collateral Information
144(1)
Convergence of Evidence
145(1)
The Multi-concept
145(4)
Photogrammetry
149(44)
Flightlines of Vertical Aerial Photography
150(2)
Fiducia! Marks and Principal Points
152(1)
Geometry of Vertical Aerial Photography
153(2)
Scale and Height Measurement on Single Vertical Aerial Photographs
155(7)
Scale of a Vertical Aerial Photograph Over Level Terrain
155(3)
Scale of a Vertical Aerial Photograph Over Variable Terrain
158(2)
Height Measurement from Single Aerial Photographs
160(2)
Stereoscopic Measurement of Object Height or Terrain Elevation
162(12)
Fundamentals of Human Stereoscopy
163(1)
Stereoscopy Applied to Aerial Photography
164(4)
Stereoscopic Aerial Photography -- How Does It Work?
168(6)
Digital Elevation Models, Orthophotos, and Planimetric Features from Soft-copy Photogrammetry
174(15)
Collection of Accurate Horizontal and Vertical Ground Control
175(2)
Collection of Stereoscopic Aerial Photography or Other Remote Sensor Data
177(1)
Image Digitization Technology
177(1)
Soft-Copy Photogrammetry
177(4)
Spot Elevations, Contours, and Digital Elevation Models
181(2)
Creation of Digital Orthoimages
183(5)
Extraction of Thematic Features of Interest
188(1)
Area Measurement
189(4)
Area Measurement of Well-known Geometric Shapes
190(1)
Area Measurment of Irregularly Shaped Polygons
190(3)
Multispectral Remote Sensing Systems
193(56)
Digital Multispectral Data Collection
193(4)
Digital Image Terminology
194(1)
Remote Sensing Systems to be Examined
194(3)
Multispectral Imaging Using Discrete Detectors and Scanning Mirrors
197(25)
Earth Resource Technology Satellites and the Landsat Sensor Systems
197(15)
NOAA Multispectral Scanner Sensors
212(6)
ORBIMAGE and NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWiFS)
218(2)
Aircraft Multispectral Scanners
220(2)
Multispectral Imaging Using Linear Arrays
222(15)
SPOT Sensor Systems
223(6)
Indian Remote Sensing Systems
229(2)
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)
231(1)
Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR)
232(1)
Very-High-Resolution Linear Array Remote Sensing Systems
233(4)
Imaging Spectrometry Using Linear and Area Arrays
237(7)
Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)
241(1)
Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager 1500
241(1)
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)
242(2)
Digital Frame Cameras Based on Area Arrays
244(5)
Small-format Digital Data Collection: Leica Geosystems Emerge Sensor
244(1)
Large-format Digital Data Collection: Z/1 Digital Modular Camera
245(1)
Large-format Digital Data Collection: Vexcel UltraCam based on Area Arrays
245(4)
Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing
249(42)
History of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing
250(2)
Thermal Infrared Radiation Properties
252(1)
Kinetic Heat, Temperature, Radiant Energy, and Radiant Flux
252(1)
Methods of Transferring Heat
253(1)
Thermal Infrared Atmospheric Windows
253(1)
Thermal Radiation Laws
254(6)
Stefan-Boltzmann Law
254(1)
Wien's Displacement Law
255(1)
Emissivity
255(2)
Kirchoff's Radiation Law
257(3)
Thermal Properties of Terrain
260(1)
Thermal Infrared Data Collection
261(13)
Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Based on Multispectral Scanners
261(10)
Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Based on Area- and Linear-Arrays
271(3)
Thermal Infrared Environmental Considerations
274(2)
Diurnal Temperature Cycle of Typical Materials
274(2)
Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Examples
276(15)
Water Pollution Monitoring: Thermal Effluent in the Savannah River
276(6)
Water Pollution Monitoring: Leaking Septic Tanks
282(1)
Thermal Infrared Residential Insulation Surveys
282(3)
Thermal Infrared Commercial/Industrial Roof Moisture Surveys
285(1)
Analysis of the Urban Heat Island Effect
286(2)
Use of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Forestry Applications
288(1)
Remote Sensing Plant Stress Degree Days
288(3)
Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing
291(44)
History of Active Microwave (RADAR) Remote Sensing
291(3)
Active Microwave System Components
294(19)
Sending and Receiving a Pulse of Microwave Energy--System Components
294(5)
Slant-Range versus Ground-Range RADAR Image Geometry
299(6)
Relief Displacement, Image Foreshortening, Layover, Shadows, and Speckle
305(3)
Synthetic Aperture Rador Systems
308(5)
RADAR Environmental Considerations
313(10)
Surface Roughness Characteristics
313(3)
Electrical Characteristics (Complex Dielectric Constant) and the Relationship with Moisture Content
316(1)
Vegetation Response to Microwave Energy
317(4)
Water Response to Microwave Energy
321(1)
Urban Structure Response to Microwave Energy
322(1)
SAR Remote Sensing from Space
323(5)
Seasat
323(1)
Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR A, SIR--B, SIR--C and Topography Mission
323(1)
RADARSAT and RADARSAT-2
324(2)
European Space Agency ERS-1 and ERS-2
326(1)
European Space Agency Envisant ASAR
326(2)
RADAR Interferometry
328(2)
Interferometric Topographic Mapping
328(1)
Interferometric Velocity Mapping
329(1)
Passive Microwave Remote Sensing
330(5)
Passive Microwave Radiometers
330(5)
LIDAR Remote Sensing
335(20)
LIDAR Principles
336(13)
LIDAR Laser and Scanning System
336(2)
LIDAR Laser Location
338(1)
LIDAR Antenna Attitude (Orientation)
339(1)
LIDAR Post-Processing of Multiple Returns
340(1)
Extraction of First, Intermediate and or Last Return DSMs
340(1)
Extraction of Bare-Earth Digital Terrain Models
341(8)
Accuracy of LIDAR Measurements
349(2)
NSSDA Horizontal and Vertical Accuracy Assessment
349(2)
Influence of Landcover, Slope, and Leaf-on/off Condition
351(1)
LIDAR-derived Vegetation Information
351(1)
LIDAR-derived Urban Information
352(3)
Remote Sensing of Vegetation
355(54)
Photosynthesis Fundamentals
355(1)
Spectral Characteristics of Vegetation
356(17)
Dominant Factors Controlling Leaf Reflectance
356(17)
Temporal Characteristics of Vegetation
373(9)
Natural Phenological Cycles
375(2)
Managed Phenological Cycles
377(5)
Vegetation Indices
382(11)
Landscape Ecology Metrics
393(3)
Landscape Indicators and Patch Metrics
393(3)
Biodiversity and GAP Analysis
396(1)
Remote Sensing of Vegetation Change
397(12)
Remote Sensing Inland Wetland Successional Changes
397(3)
Remote Sensing South African Agriculture
400(9)
Remote Sensing of Water
409(34)
Remote Sensing Surface Water Biophysical Characteristics
410(18)
Water Surface, Subsurface Volumetric, and Bottom Radiance
410(1)
Spectral Response of Water as a Function of Wavelength
411(4)
Spectral Response of Water as a Function of Organic/Inorganic Constituents
415(8)
Water Penetration and Bathymetry
423(3)
Water Surface Temperature
426(2)
Precipitation
428(3)
Visible--Infrared Techniques
429(1)
Active and Passive Microwave Techniques
430(1)
Aerosols and Clouds
431(4)
Aerosols
431(1)
Clouds
432(3)
Water Vapor
435(1)
Snow
435(2)
Snow in the Visible Spectrum
436(1)
Snow in the Middle-Infrared and Microwave Regions
436(1)
Water Quality Modeling
437(6)
An Integrated Remote Sensing and GIS Water Quality Model
437(6)
Remote Sensing the Urban Landscape
443(64)
National Spatial Data Infrastructure
444(1)
Urban Resolution Considerations
444(6)
Urban/Suburban Temporal Resolution Considerations
444(1)
Urban/Suburban Spectral Resolution Considerations
445(4)
Urban/Suburban Spatial Resolution Considerations
449(1)
Remote Sensing Land Use and Land Cover
450(6)
Land-Use/Land-Cover Classification Schemes
451(1)
Urban Land-Use/Land-Cover Classification (Levels I to IV)
452(4)
Residential Land Use
456(8)
Commercial and Services Land Use
464(15)
Industrial Land Use
479(10)
Transportation Infrastructure
489(6)
Communications and Utilities
495(1)
Urban Digital Elevation Model Creation
496(2)
Meteorological Data
498(1)
Urban Hydrology
498(2)
Critical Environmental Area Assessment
500(1)
Disaster Emergency Response
500(7)
Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and Geomorphology
507(62)
Soil Characteristics and Taxonomy
508(2)
Soil Horizons
508(1)
Soil Grain Size and Texture
509(1)
Soil Taxonomy
510(1)
Remote Sensing of Soil Properties
510(8)
Soil Texture and Moisture Content
512(3)
Soil Organic Matter and Biological Soil Crusts
515(1)
Iron Oxide
515(1)
Soil Salinity
515(1)
Surface Roughness
516(2)
Remote Sensing of Rocks and Minerals
518(3)
Imaging Spectroscopy of Rocks and Minerals
518(3)
Geology
521(8)
Lithology
522(1)
Structure
523(2)
Drainage Morphometry and Pattern
525(4)
Geomorphology
529(40)
Igneous Landforms
530(4)
Landforms Developed on Horizontal Strata
534(3)
Landforms Developed on Folded Strata
537(2)
Fault-Controlled Landforms
539(1)
Fluvial Landforms
540(9)
Karst Landforms
549(1)
Shoreline Landforms
549(7)
Glacial Landforms
556(4)
Eolian Landforms
560(9)
In Situ Reflectance Measurement
569(10)
Spectral Reflectance of a Material
570(1)
Reference Material
571(1)
Illumination Considerations
571(3)
In Situ Spectral Reflectance Measurement Using Solar Illumination
571(2)
In Situ Spectral Reflectance Measurement Using Artificial Illumination
573(1)
Soil Taxonomy
574(1)
Characteristics of the Spectroradiometer Used to Obtain In Situ Reflectance
574(5)
Spectral Region of Interest
574(2)
Spectral Resolution
576(1)
Spectral Sampling Interval
576(1)
Spectrometer Design and Data Collection Speed
576(1)
Viewing Geometry and Field of View
577(1)
Candidate Spectroradiometers
578(1)
Appendix---Sources of Remote Sensing Information 579(4)
Index 583


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