9780323034470

Renal Physiology

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780323034470

  • ISBN10:

    0323034470

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-09-01
  • Publisher: MOSBY-YEAR BOOK INC

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

This volume in the Mosby Physiology Monograph Series explains the fundamentals of renal physiology in a clear and concise manner. It provides you with a basic understanding of normal kidney function at the cellular and molecular level. Attractively illustrated with clear 2-color diagrams, this volume also facilitates study with learning objectives, overview boxes, chapter summaries, and clinical cases with questions and explained answers. Plus, online access via STUDENT CONSULT makes this an even more powerful learning resource. Stay current with clear, accurate, and up-to-the-minute coverage of the physiology of normal renal function focusing on the needs of the student. Bridge the gap between normal function and disease with pathophysiology content throughout the book. Master the material more easily with learning objectives, overview boxes, key words and concepts, chapter summaries, and clinical cases with questions and explained answers. Understand complex concepts by examining more than 250 clear, 2-color diagrams. Apply what you've learned to real-life clinical situations using featured clinical commentaries. Includes STUDENT CONSULT access at no additional charge, enabling you to consult the book online, anywhere you go perform quick searches add your own notes and bookmarks follow Integration Links to related bonus content from other STUDENT CONSULT titles-to help you see the connections between diverse disciplines and more!

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Kidney 1(4)
Physiology of Body Fluids
5(14)
Objectives
5(1)
Physicochemical Properties of Electrolyte Solutions
5(4)
Molarity and Equivalence
5(1)
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
6(1)
Osmolarity and Osmolality
7(1)
Tonicity
7(1)
Oncotic Pressure
8(1)
Specific Gravity
8(1)
Volumes of Body Fluid Compartments
9(1)
Composition of Body Fluid Compartments
10(1)
Fluid Exchange Between Body Fluid Compartments
11(4)
Capillary Fluid Exchange
11(2)
Cellular Fluid Exchange
13(2)
Summary
15(1)
Key Words and Concepts
15(1)
Self-Study Problems
16(3)
Structure and Function of the Kidneys
19(12)
Objectives
19(1)
Structure of the Kidneys
19(10)
Gross Anatomy
19(1)
Ultrastructure of the Nephron
20(4)
Ultrastructure of the Renal Corpuscle
24(4)
Ultrastructure of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
28(1)
Innervation of the Kidneys
28(1)
Summary
29(1)
Key Words and Concepts
29(1)
Self-Study Problems
30(1)
Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow
31(16)
Objectives
31(1)
Renal Clearance
31(3)
Glomerular Filtration Rate
32(2)
Glomerular Filtration
34(3)
Determinants of Ultrafiltrate Composition
35(1)
Dynamics of Ultrafiltration
36(1)
Renal Blood Flow
37(4)
Regulation of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate
41(4)
Sympathetic Nerves
41(1)
Angiotensin II
42(1)
Prostaglandins
42(1)
Nitric Oxide
43(1)
Endothelin
44(1)
Bradykinin
44(1)
Adenosine
44(1)
Natriuretic Peptides
44(1)
ATP
44(1)
Glucocorticoids
44(1)
Histamine
44(1)
Dopamine
44(1)
Summary
45(1)
Key Words and Concepts
46(1)
Self-Study Problems
46(1)
Renal Transport Mechanisms: NaCl and Water Reabsorption Along the Nephron
47(24)
Objectives
47(1)
General Principles of Membrane Transport
48(2)
General Principles of Transepithelial Solute and Water Transport
50(2)
NaCl, Solute, and Water Reabsorption Along the Nephron
52(12)
Proximal Tubule
52(9)
Henle's Loop
61(2)
Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct
63(1)
Regulation of NaCl and Water Reabsorption
64(5)
Summary
69(1)
Key Words and Concepts
70(1)
Self-Study Problems
70(1)
Regulation of Body Fluid Osmolality: Regulation of Water Balance
71(20)
Objectives
71(2)
Antidiuretic Hormone
73(6)
Osmotic Control of ADH Secretion
74(1)
Hemodynamic Control of ADH Secretion
75(1)
ADH Actions on the Kidneys
76(3)
Thirst
79(1)
Renal Mechanisms for Dilution and Concentration of the Urine
80(7)
Medullary Interstitium
85(1)
Vasa Recta Function
86(1)
Assessment of Renal Diluting and Concentrating Ability
87(2)
Summary
89(1)
Key Words And Concepts
89(1)
Self-Study Problems
90(1)
Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Volume and NaCl Balance
91(22)
Objectives
91(1)
Concept of Effective Circulating Volume
92(1)
Volume-Sensing Systems
93(6)
Vascular Low-Pressure Volume Sensors
94(1)
Vascular High-Pressure Volume Sensors
94(1)
Hepatic Sensors
95(1)
Central Nervous System Na+ Sensors
95(1)
Volume Sensor Signals
95(1)
Renal Sympathetic Nerves
95(1)
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
96(2)
Natriuretic Peptides
98(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone
99(1)
Control of Renal NaCl Excretion During Euvolemia
99(3)
Mechanisms for Maintaining the Delivery of Na+ to the Distal Tubule Constant
101(1)
Regulation of Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct Na+ Reabsorption
101(1)
Control of Na+ Excretion with Volume Expansion
102(2)
Control of Na+ Excretion with Volume Contraction
104(2)
Edema
106(2)
Alterations in Starling Forces
106(1)
The Role of the Kidneys
107(1)
Summary
108(1)
Key Words and Concepts
109(1)
Self-Study Problems
109(4)
Regulation of Potassium Balance
113(16)
Objectives
113(1)
Overview of K+ Homeostasis
113(2)
Regulation of Plasma [K+]
115(2)
Epinephrine
116(1)
Insulin
116(1)
Aldosterone
117(1)
Alterations of Plasma [K+]
117(1)
Acid-Base Balance
117(1)
Plasma Osmolality
117(1)
Cell Lysis
118(1)
Exercise
118(1)
K+ Excretion by the Kidneys
118(2)
Cellular Mechanisms of K+ Secretion by Principal Cells in the Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct
120(1)
Regulation of K+ Secretion by the Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct
120(4)
Plasma [K+]
120(2)
Aldosterone
122(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone
123(1)
Factors that Perturb K+ Excretion
124(4)
Flow of Tubular Fluid
124(1)
Acid-Base Balance
125(2)
Glucocorticoids
127(1)
Summary
128(1)
Key Words and Concepts
128(1)
Self-Study Problems
128(1)
Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
129(20)
Objectives
129(1)
The HCO3- Buffer System
130(1)
Overview of Acid-Base Balance
130(1)
Net Acid Excretion by the Kidneys
131(1)
HCO3- Reabsorption Along the Nephron
132(3)
Regulation of H+ Secretion
135(2)
Formation of New HCO3-
137(4)
Response to Acid-Base Disorders
141(2)
Extracellular and Intracellular Buffers
141(1)
Respiratory Compensation
142(1)
Renal Compensation
142(1)
Simple Acid-Base Disorders
143(2)
Metabolic Acidosis
143(1)
Metabolic Alkalosis
144(1)
Respiratory Acidosis
144(1)
Respiratory Alkalosis
145(1)
Analysis of Acid-Base Disorders
145(2)
Summary
147(1)
Key Words and Concepts
147(1)
Self-Study Problems
147(2)
Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis
149(14)
Objectives
149(1)
Calcium
150(5)
Overview of Ca++ Homeostasis
150(2)
Ca++ Transport along the Nephron
152(2)
Regulation of Urinary Ca++ Excretion
154(1)
Calcium-Sensing Receptor
155(1)
Phosphate
155(4)
Overview of Pi Homeostasis
156(1)
Pi Transport along the Nephron
157(1)
Regulation of Urinary Pi Excretion
157(2)
Integrative Review of Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitriol, and Calcitonin on Ca++ and Pi Homeostasis
159(2)
Summary
161(1)
Key Words and Concepts
161(1)
Self-Study Problems
161(2)
Physiology of Diuretic Action
163(12)
Objectives
163(1)
General Principles of Diuretic Action
163(2)
Sites of Action of Diuretics
164(1)
Response of Other Nephron Segments
164(1)
Adequate Delivery of Diuretics to Their Site of Action
164(1)
Volume of the Extracellular Fluid
165(1)
Diuretic Braking Phenomenon
165(1)
Mechanisms of Action of Diuretics
166(3)
Osmotic Diuretics
166(1)
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
167(1)
Loop Diuretics
167(1)
Thiazide Diuretics
168(1)
K+-Sparing Diuretics
168(1)
Aquaretics
169(1)
Effect of Diuretics on the Excretion of Water and other Solutes
169(3)
Solute-Free Water
169(1)
K+ Excretion
170(1)
HCO3- Excretion
170(1)
Ca++ and Pi Excretion
171(1)
Summary
172(1)
Key Words and Concepts
173(1)
Self-Study Problems
173(2)
Additional Reading 175(4)
Appendix A Integrative Case Studies 179(4)
Appendix B Normal Laboratory Values 183(2)
Appendix C Nephron Function 185(4)
Appendix D Answers to Self-Study Poblems 189(14)
Appendix E Answers to Integrative Case Studies 203(6)
Appendix F Review Examination 209(14)
Index 223

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