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Research Methodology; A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners,9781412911948
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Research Methodology; A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

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Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9781412911948

ISBN10:
141291194X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/15/2005
Publisher(s):
Sage Publications Ltd
List Price: $83.84
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Summary

As with the first, the Second Edition of Research Methodology is designed specifically for students with no previous experience or knowledge of research and research methodology. New to this edition: - the paradigms of research have been expanded to present a way of thinking that helps students gain a clear idea of the different examples used in research; - material on focus groups, development of conceptual framework for unstructured interviews and greater detail on in-depth interviewing has been expanded, allowing students to discuss and analyse the differing methods of data collection;   - new material on analyzing quantitative data and separate sections for the analysis of qualitative and quantitative research. This gives a comprehensive and concise discussion of the two major research types; - the chapter on Research Methodology and Practice Evaluation contains 11 new figures and one new table for enhanced visual learning and analysis. This clear and concise text links theory with eight practical steps central to any research process. It focuses on developing research skills by providing practical examples from both qualitative and quantitative research for a balanced and comprehensive grounding in research methodology.

Table of Contents

Figures
xii
Tables
xv
Preface xvii
Research: a way of thinking
1(14)
Research: a way of examining your practice
2(2)
Applications of research
4(2)
Definitions of research
6(1)
Characteristics of research
7(1)
Types of research
8(5)
Application
9(1)
Objectives
10(2)
Inquiry mode
12(1)
Paradigms of research
13(1)
Summary
14(1)
The research process: a quick glance
15(12)
The research process: an eight-step model
16(4)
Steps in planning a research study
20(4)
Step I: formulating a research problem
20(1)
Step II: conceptualising a research design
20(2)
Step III: constructing an instrument for data collection
22(1)
Step IV: selecting a sample
23(1)
Step V: writing a research proposal
23(1)
Steps in conducting a study
24(1)
Step VI: collecting data
24(1)
Step VII: processing data
24(1)
Step VIII: writing a research report
25(1)
Summary
25(2)
Step I Formulating a research problem
27(54)
Reviewing the literature
29(10)
Place of literature review in research
30(1)
Bring clarity and focus to your research problem
30(1)
Improve your methodology
31(1)
Broaden your knowledge base in your research area
31(1)
Contextualise your findings
31(1)
Procedure for reviewing the literature
31(6)
Search for existing literature
32(3)
Review the literature selected
35(1)
Develop a theoretical framework
35(2)
Develop a conceptual framework
37(1)
Writing up the literature reviewed
37(1)
Summary
38(1)
Formulating a research problem
39(15)
The research problem
40(1)
The importance of formulating a research problem
40(1)
Sources of research problems
41(2)
Considerations in selecting a research problem
43(1)
Steps in the formulation of a research problem
44(6)
The formulation of objectives
50(1)
Establishing operational definitions
51(2)
Summary
53(1)
Identifying variables
54(18)
The definition of a variable
55(1)
The difference between a concept and a variable
56(1)
Concepts, indicators and variables
57(3)
Types of variable
60(6)
From the viewpoint of causation
60(3)
From the viewpoint of the study design
63(1)
From the viewpoint of the unit of measurement
64(2)
Types of measurement scale
66(5)
The nominal or classificatory scale
67(1)
The ordinal or ranking scale
67(1)
The interval scale
68(2)
The ratio scale
70(1)
Summary
71(1)
Constructing hypotheses
72(9)
The definition of a hypothesis
73(1)
The functions of a hypothesis
74(1)
The characteristics of a hypothesis
75(1)
Types of hypothesis
76(2)
Errors in testing a hypothesis
78(1)
Summary
79(2)
Step II Conceptualising a research design
81(34)
The research design
83(9)
The definition of a research design
84(1)
The functions of a research design
84(7)
Summary
91(1)
Selecting a study design
92(23)
Study designs based on the number of contacts
93(5)
The cross-sectional study design
93(2)
The before-and-after study design
95(2)
The longitudinal study design
97(1)
Study designs based on the reference period
98(2)
The retrospective study design
99(1)
The prospective study design
99(1)
The retrospective-prospective study design
99(1)
Study designs based on the nature of the investigation
100(8)
The experimental study designs
101(7)
Others---some commonly used study designs
108(5)
Action research
108(2)
Feminist research
110(1)
The cross-over comparative experimental design
110(1)
The replicated cross-sectional design
110(1)
Trend studies
111(1)
Cohort studies
112(1)
Panel studies
112(1)
Blind studies
113(1)
Double-blind studies
113(1)
Case studies
113(1)
Summary
113(2)
Step III Constructing an instrument for data collection
115(46)
Selecting a method of data collection
117(26)
Methods of data collection
118(1)
Collecting data using primary sources
119(22)
Observation
119(1)
Types of observation
120(1)
Problems with using observation as a method of data collection
120(1)
Situations in which observation can be made
121(1)
The recording of observation
121(2)
The interview
123(1)
Unstructured interviews
123(3)
Structured interview
126(1)
The questionnaire
126(1)
Choosing between an interview schedule and a questionnaire
126(3)
Different ways of administering a questionnaire
129(1)
The contents of the covering letter
129(1)
Advantages of a questionnaire
130(1)
Disadvantages of a questionnaire
130(1)
Advantages of the interview
131(1)
Disadvantages of the interview
131(1)
Forms of question
132(2)
Advantages and disadvantages of open-ended questions
134(1)
Advantages and disadvantages of closed-ended questions
135(1)
Considerations in formulating questions
135(2)
The construction of a research instrument
137(1)
Asking personal and sensitive questions
138(2)
The order of questions
140(1)
Prerequisites for data collection
140(1)
Collecting data using secondary sources
141(1)
Problems with using data from secondary sources
141(1)
Summary
142(1)
Collecting data using attitudinal scales
143(9)
Functions of attitudinal scales
144(1)
Difficulties in developing an attitudinal scale
145(1)
Types of attitudinal scale
145(6)
The summated rating or Likert scale
145(5)
The equal-appearing interval or Thurstone scale
150(1)
The cumulative or Guttman scale
151(1)
The relationship between attitudinal and measurement scales
151(1)
Summary
151(1)
Establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument
152(9)
The concept of validity
153(1)
Types of validity
154(2)
Face and content validity
154(1)
Concurrent and predictive validity
155(1)
Construct validity
155(1)
The concept of reliability
156(1)
Factors affecting the reliability of a research instrument
157(1)
Methods of determining the reliability of an instrument
157(2)
External consistency procedures
157(1)
Internal consistency procedures
158(1)
Summary
159(2)
Step IV Selecting a sample
161(24)
Sampling
163(22)
The concept of sampling
164(1)
The concept of sampling in qualitative research
165(1)
Sampling terminology
165(1)
Principles of sampling
166(2)
Factors affecting the inferences drawn from a sample
168(1)
Aims in selecting a sample
169(1)
Types of sampling
169(12)
Random/probability sampling designs
169(8)
Non-random/non-probability sampling designs
177(3)
`Mixed' sampling designs
180(1)
The calculation of sample size
181(3)
Summary
184(1)
Step V Writing a research proposal
185(22)
Writing a research proposal
187(20)
The research proposal
188(1)
Contents of a research proposal
188(15)
Preamble/introduction
190(2)
The problem
192(1)
Objectives of the study
193(1)
Hypotheses to be tested
194(1)
Study design
195(2)
The setting
197(1)
Measurement procedures
198(1)
Ethical issues
198(1)
Sampling
198(1)
Analysis of data
199(2)
Structure of the report
201(1)
Problems and limitations
202(1)
Appendix
203(1)
Work schedule
203(2)
Summary
205(2)
Step VI Collecting data
207(10)
Considering ethical issues in data collection
209(8)
Ethics
210(1)
Stakeholders in research
211(1)
Ethical issues concerning research participants
212(2)
Collecting information
212(1)
Seeking consent
212(1)
Providing incentives
213(1)
Seeking sensitive information
213(1)
The possibility of causing harm to participants
214(1)
Maintaining confidentiality
214(1)
Ethical issues relating to the researcher
214(2)
Avoiding bias
214(1)
Provision or deprivation of a treatment
214(1)
Using inappropriate research methodology
215(1)
Incorrect reporting
215(1)
Inappropriate use of information
215(1)
Ethical issues regarding the sponsoring organisation
216(1)
Restrictions imposed by the sponsoring organisation
216(1)
The misuse of information
216(1)
Summary
216(1)
Step VII Processing data
217(46)
Processing data
219(28)
Editing data collected through structured inquiries (quantitative studies)
220(2)
Editing data collected through unstructured interviewing
222(1)
Coding data: introduction
222(2)
Coding quantitative/categorical (qualitative and quantitative) data
224(16)
Developing a code book
224(11)
Pre-testing a code book
235(1)
Coding the data
235(5)
Verifying the coded data
240(1)
Coding descriptive/quantitative data
240(1)
Developing a frame of analysis for quantitative studies
241(3)
Frequency distributions
242(1)
Cross-tabulations
242(1)
Constructing the main concepts
243(1)
Statistical procedures
243(1)
Developing a frame of analysis for qualitative studies
244(1)
Analysing data
244(1)
The role of computers in research
245(1)
The role of statistics in research
245(1)
Summary
246(1)
Displaying data
247(16)
Tables
248(4)
Structure
248(2)
Types of tables
250(1)
Types of percentages
251(1)
Graphs
252(10)
The histogram
253(2)
The bar chart
255(1)
The stacked bar chart
255(1)
The 100 per cent bar chart
255(1)
The frequency polygon
256(2)
The cumulative frequency polygon
258(1)
The stem-and-leaf display
259(1)
The pie chart
259(1)
The line diagram or trend curve
260(1)
The area chart
260(1)
The scattergram
261(1)
Summary
262(1)
Step VIII Writing a research report
263(42)
Writing a research report
265(8)
Research writing in general
266(1)
Referencing
266(1)
Writing a bibliography
267(1)
Developing an outline
267(2)
Writing about a variable
269(2)
Summary
271(2)
Research methodology and practice evaluation
273(32)
What is evaluation?
274(1)
Why evaluation?
275(2)
Intervention-development-evaluation process
277(1)
Perspectives in the classification of evaluation studies
278(2)
Types of evaluation from a focus perspective
280(12)
Evaluation for planning a program/intervention
281(2)
Process/monitoring evaluation
283(4)
Impact/outcome evaluation
287(4)
Cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness evaluation
291(1)
Types of evaluation from a philosophical perspective
292(2)
Goal-centered/objective-oriented evaluation
293(1)
Consumer-oriented/client-centred evaluation
293(1)
Improvement-oriented evaluation
293(1)
Holistic/illuminative evaluation
293(1)
Understanding an evaluation: the process
294(8)
Involving stakeholders in evaluation
302(1)
Ethics in evaluation
303(1)
Summary
304(1)
Appendix Developing a research project--a set of exercises for beginners 305(18)
References 323(4)
Index 327


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