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Research Methods For The Behavioral Sciences

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780618705917

ISBN10:
0618705910
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/16/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $132.33

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 5/16/2006.
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Summary

Appropriate for social science students, this text offers comprehensive coverage of both experimental and non-experimental methods. The author provides succinct explanations for a full range of methods, including descriptive, correlational, experimental, and quasi-experimental research designs. Practical tips and applications integrated throughout the text allow students to make real-world connections that encourage them to master the material. Full coverage of APA-style research reports is included in a separate appendix (A). A fully-annotated sample manuscript is also included. An emphasis on the process of measuring variables includes detailed coverage of reliability and construct validity integrated with measurement in descriptive and naturalistic research designs.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART ONE GETTING STARTED
1(62)
Introduction to Research
2(22)
Behavioral Research
4(1)
Everyday Science Versus Empirical Research
5(3)
Relying on Our Intuition
6(1)
Discovering the Limitations of Using Intuition
6(2)
The Scientific Method
8(1)
Values Versus Facts in Scientific Research
8(3)
Basic and Applied Research
11(1)
The Importance of Studying Research Methods
12(1)
Evaluating Research Reports
12(1)
Conducting Research
12(1)
Thinking Critically About Research
13(1)
Research Designs: Three Approaches to Studying Behavior
13(7)
Descriptive Research: Assessing the Current State of Affairs
14(2)
Correlational Research: Seeking Relationships Among Variables
16(2)
Experimental Research: Understanding the Causes of Behavior
18(1)
The Selection of an Appropriate Method
19(1)
Summary
20(1)
Key Terms
21(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
22(1)
Hands-On Experience
22(2)
Developing the Research Hypothesis
24(15)
Getting Ideas
25(3)
Solving Important Real-World Problems
26(1)
Using Observation and Intuition
26(1)
Using Existing Research
27(1)
Doing a Literature Search
28(5)
Locating Sources of Information
29(1)
Conducting the Search
30(3)
Formalizing Ideas into Research Hypotheses
33(4)
Laws
33(1)
Theories
34(1)
The Research Hypothesis
35(2)
Summary
37(1)
Key Terms
37(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
37(1)
Hands-On Experience
38(1)
Ethics in Research
39(24)
What Is Ethical Research?
40(2)
Protecting Research Participants from Physical and Psychological Harm
42(3)
Types of Threats
42(2)
The Potential for Lasting-Impact
44(1)
Providing Freedom of Choice
45(4)
Conducting Research Outside the Laboratory
45(1)
Securing Informed Consent
46(2)
Weighing Informed Consent Versus the Research Goals
48(1)
Maintaining Awareness of Power Differentials
49(1)
Avoiding Abuses of Power
49(1)
Respecting Participants' Privacy
49(1)
Honestly Describing the Nature and Use of the Research
50(4)
When Deception Is Necessary
51(1)
Simulation Studies: An Alternative to Deception
51(1)
The Consequences of Deception
52(1)
Debriefing
52(2)
Using Animals as Research Participants
54(1)
Ensuring that Research Is Ethical
55(4)
The Institutional Review Board
57(1)
The Researcher's Own Ethics
57(1)
Correctly and Honestly Reporting Research Results
58(1)
Summary
59(1)
Key Terms
59(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
60(1)
Hands-On Experience
60(3)
PART TWO MEASURING AND DESCRIBING
63(70)
Measures
64(21)
Fundamentals of Measurement
65(5)
Operational Definition
65(1)
Converging Operations
66(1)
Conceptual and Measured Variables
67(1)
Nominal and Quantitative Variables
68(1)
Measurement Scales
69(1)
Self-Report Measures
70(8)
Free-Format Self-Report Measures
70(2)
Fixed-Format Self-Report Measures
72(5)
Reactivity as a Limitation in Self-Report Measures
77(1)
Behavioral Measures
78(3)
Nonreactive Measures
80(1)
Psychophysiological Measures
80(1)
Choosing a Measure
81(1)
Summary
82(1)
Key Terms
83(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
83(1)
Hands-On Experience
84(1)
Reliability and Validity
85(17)
Random and Systematic Error
86(2)
Reliability
88(4)
Test-Retest Reliability
88(1)
Reliability as Internal Consistency
89(3)
Interrater Reliability
92(1)
Construct Validity
92(5)
Face Validity
93(1)
Content Validity
94(1)
Convergent and Discriminant Validity
94(2)
Criterion Validity
96(1)
Improving the Reliability and Validity of Measured Variables
97(1)
Comparing Reliability and Validity
98(2)
Summary
100(1)
Key Terms
100(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
101(1)
Hands-On Experience
101(1)
Surveys and Sampling
102(19)
Surveys
103(3)
Interviews
103(1)
Questionnaires
104(1)
Use of Existing Survey Data
105(1)
Sampling and Generalization
106(4)
Definition of the Population
106(1)
Probability Sampling
106(3)
Sampling Bias and Nonprobability Sampling
109(1)
Summarizing the Sample Data
110(8)
Frequency Distributions
110(4)
Descriptive Statistics
114(4)
Sample Size and the Margin of Error
118(1)
Summary
119(1)
Key Terms
119(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
120(1)
Hands-On Experience
120(1)
Naturalistic Methods
121(12)
Naturalistic Research
122(1)
Observational Research
123(3)
The Unacknowledged Participant
124(1)
The Acknowledged Participant
125(1)
Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Observers
126(1)
Case Studies
126(1)
Systematic Coding Methods
127(3)
Deciding What to Observe
128(1)
Deciding How to Record Observations
128(1)
Choosing Sampling Strategies
128(2)
Archival Research
130(1)
Summary
131(1)
Key Terms
131(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
131(1)
Hands-On Experience
132(1)
PART THREE TESTING RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
133(60)
Hypothesis Testing and Inferential Statistics
134(16)
Probability and Inferential Statistics
135(2)
Sampling Distributions and Hypothesis Testing
137(4)
The Null Hypothesis
138(1)
Testing for Statistical Significance
139(2)
Reduction of Inferential Errors
141(4)
Type 1 Errors
141(1)
Type 2 Errors
142(1)
Statistical Power
143(1)
The Tradeoff Between Type 1 and Type 2 Errors
144(1)
Statistical Significance and the Effect Size
145(3)
Practical Uses of the Effect Size Statistic
146(2)
Summary
148(1)
Key Terms
148(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
148(1)
Hands-On Experience
149(1)
Correlational Research Designs
150(22)
Associations Among Quantitative Variables
151(3)
Linear Relationships
153(1)
Nonlinear Relationships
153(1)
Statistical Assessment of Relationships
154(7)
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient
154(1)
The Chi-Square Statistic
155(4)
Multiple Regression
159(2)
Correlation and Causality
161(8)
Interpreting Correlations
161(3)
Using Correlational Data to Test Causal Models
164(5)
When Correlational Designs Are Appropriate
169(1)
Summary
169(1)
Key Terms
170(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
171(1)
Hands-On Experience
171(1)
Experimental Research: One-Way Designs
172(21)
Demonstration of Causality
173(1)
Association
173(1)
Temporal Priority
174(1)
Control of Common-Causal Variables
174(1)
One-Way Experimental Designs
174(5)
The Experimental Manipulation
175(1)
Selection of the Dependent Variable
176(1)
Variety and Number of Levels
177(2)
Analysis of Variance
179(3)
Hypothesis Testing in Experimental Designs
179(1)
Between-Groups and Within-Groups Variance Estimates
180(1)
The ANOVA Summary Table
180(2)
Repeated-Measures Designs
182(4)
Advantages of Repeated-Measures Designs
183(1)
Disadvantages of Repeated-Measures Designs
183(2)
When to Use a Repeated-Measures Design
185(1)
Presentation of Experiment Results
186(1)
When Experiments Are Appropriate
187(1)
Summary
188(1)
Key Terms
189(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
189(1)
Hands-On Experience
190(3)
PART FOUR DESIGNING AND INTERPRETING RESEARCH
193(77)
Experimental Research: Factorial Designs
194(19)
Factorial Experimental Designs
195(6)
The Two-Way Design
196(1)
Main Effects
197(2)
Interactions and Simple Effects
199(1)
The ANOVA Summary Table
199(2)
Understanding Interactions
201(3)
Patterns of Observed Means
201(2)
Interpretation of Main Effects When Interactions Are Present
203(1)
More Factorial Designs
204(4)
The Three-Way Design
204(2)
Factorial Designs Using Repeated Measures
206(2)
Comparison of the Condition Means in Experimental Designs
208(2)
Pairwise Comparisons
208(1)
Complex Comparisons
209(1)
Summary
210(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
210(1)
Hands-On Experience
211(2)
Experimental Control and Internal Validity
213(25)
Threats to the Validity of Research
214(1)
Experimental Control
215(2)
Extraneous Variables
216(1)
Confounding Variables
216(1)
Control of Extraneous Variables
217(5)
Limited-Population Designs
217(1)
Before-After Designs
218(2)
Matched-Group Designs
220(1)
Standardization of Conditions
221(1)
Creation of Valid Manipulations
222(5)
Impact and Experimental Realism
222(1)
Manipulation Checks
223(2)
Confound Checks
225(1)
How to Turn Confounding Variables into Factors
225(1)
Pilot Testing
226(1)
Threats to Internal Validity
227(7)
Placebo Effects
227(1)
Demand Characteristics
228(3)
Experimenter Bias
231(1)
Random Assignment Artifacts
232(2)
Summary
234(1)
Key Terms
235(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
235(1)
Hands-On Experience
236(2)
External Validity
238(16)
Understanding External Validity
239(1)
Generalization
240(3)
Generalization Across Participants
240(2)
Generalization Across Settings
242(1)
Replications
243(4)
Exact Replications
244(1)
Conceptual Replications
244(1)
Constructive Replications
245(1)
Participant Replications
246(1)
Summarizing and Integrating Research Results
247(4)
Research Programs
247(1)
Review Papers
248(1)
Meta-Analysis
248(3)
Interpretation of Research Literatures
251(1)
Summary
251(1)
Key Terms
252(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
252(1)
Hands-On Experience
253(1)
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
254(16)
Program Evaluation Research
255(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
256(7)
Single-Group Design
256(2)
Comparison-Group Design
258(1)
Single-Group Before-After Design
259(1)
Comparison-Group Before-After Design
260(1)
Regression to the Mean as a Threat to Internal Validity
261(2)
Time-Series Designs
263(2)
Participant-Variable Designs
265(1)
Demographic Variables
265(1)
Personality Variables
265(1)
Interpretational Difficulties
266(1)
Single-Participant Designs
266(2)
Summary
268(1)
Key Terms
268(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
269(1)
Hands-On Experience
269(1)
APPENDIX A Reporting Research Results
270(48)
Communication of Scientific Knowledge
271(4)
Face-to-Face Contact
271(1)
Publication in Scientific Journals
272(3)
The Research Report
275(14)
Headings in APA Format
276(4)
Title Page
280(1)
Abstract
280(1)
Introduction
281(2)
Method
283(1)
Results
284(1)
Discussion
285(2)
References
287(1)
Footnotes and Author Notes
287(2)
Tables and Figures
289(1)
Tips on Writing the Research Report
289(1)
Summary
290(1)
Key Terms
291(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
291(1)
Hands-On Experience
292(26)
Sample Research Report
293(25)
APPENDIX B Data Preparation and Univariate Statistics
318(20)
Preparing Data for Analysis
319(7)
Collecting the Data
319(1)
Analyzing the Data
319(1)
Entering the Data into the Computer
320(2)
Checking and Cleaning the Data
322(1)
Dealing with Missing Data
323(1)
Deleting and Retaining Data
324(2)
Transforming the Data
326(1)
Conducting Statistical Analysis
326(2)
Descriptive Statistics, Parameters, and Inferential Statistics
326(1)
Statistical Notation
327(1)
Computing Descriptive Statistics
328(5)
Frequency Distributions
328(1)
Measures of Central Tendency
328(1)
Measures of Dispersion
329(2)
Computer Output
331(1)
Standard Scores
331(1)
The Standard Normal Distribution
332(1)
Working with Inferential Statistics
333(2)
Unbiased Estimators
334(1)
The Central Limit Theorem
334(1)
The Standard Error
334(1)
Confidence Intervals
335(1)
Summary
335(1)
Key Terms
336(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
336(1)
Hands-On Experience
337(1)
APPENDIX C Bivariate Statistics
338(17)
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient
339(4)
Calculating r
339(2)
Obtaining the p-value
341(2)
Contingency Tables
343(3)
The Chi-Square Test for Independence
343(1)
Kappa
344(2)
Bivariate Regression
346(2)
The Regression Equation
346(1)
The Regression Line
347(1)
Partitioning of the Sum of Squares
348(1)
One-Way Analysis of Variance
348(5)
Computation of a One-Way Between-Participants ANOVA
349(2)
The ANOVA Summary Table
351(1)
Eta
352(1)
Summary
353(1)
Key Terms
353(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
353(1)
Hands-On Experience
353(2)
APPENDIX D Multivariate Statistics
355(20)
Multiple Regression
356(4)
Regression Coefficients
357(2)
The Multiple Correlation Coefficient (R)
359(1)
Hierarchical and Stepwise Analyses
359(1)
Multiple Regression and ANOVA
359(1)
Loglinear Analysis
360(1)
Means Comparisons
361(3)
A Priori Contrast Analysis
361(2)
Post Hoc Means Comparisons
363(1)
Multivariate Statistics
364(7)
Coefficient Alpha
364(1)
Exploratory Factor Analysis
365(3)
Canonical Correlation and MANOVA
368(1)
Structural Equation Analysis
369(2)
How to Choose the Appropriate Statistical Test
371(2)
Summary
373(1)
Key Terms
373(1)
Review and Discussion Questions
374(1)
Hands-On Experience
374(1)
APPENDIX E Statistical Tables
375(20)
Statistical Table A: Random Numbers
376(2)
Selecting a Random Sample
376(1)
Selecting Orders for Random Assignment Conditions
376(2)
Statistical Table B: Distribution of z in the Standard Normal Distribution
378(4)
Statistical Table C: Critical Values of t
382(1)
Statistical Table D: Critical Values of r
383(2)
Statistical Table E: Critical Values of Chi Square
385(1)
Statistical Table F: Critical Values of F
386(8)
Statistical Table G: Statistical Power
394(1)
APPENDIX F Using Computers to Collect Data
395(3)
Glossary 398(13)
References 411(8)
Index 419


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