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Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131189287

ISBN10:
013118928X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/11/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $142.00

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    Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology




Summary

Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology3e is about how to do research and investigate various types of research questions that arise in criminology and criminal justice. A complete discussion of research ethicsincluding ethical issues relating to the Nuremberg Code, research sponsorship, rights of human subjects and deception - helps readers understand their ethical responsibilities as researchers.This book explores the entire criminal justices and criminology research process from beginning to end including: sampling procedures; data collection techniques; measurement, validity and reliability issues; the role of ethics in the research process; and writing and documenting research papers.Presents a practical guide for conducting research in criminal justice and criminology careers.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
The Research Enterprise in Criminal Justice and Criminology
1(64)
Chapter Objectives
1(1)
Introduction
1(4)
Overview of the Research Process
5(1)
The Research Enterprise
5(1)
Steps to Conduct Research in Criminal Justice
5(13)
Problem Formulation
6(3)
Research Design
9(1)
Data Collection Methods
9(4)
Analysis of Data
13(1)
Presentation of Findings
13(1)
Conclusions
14(4)
Pure and Applied Research
18(1)
Some Basic Assumptions about Criminal Justice and Criminology
19(5)
Why Do Research?
24(1)
The Emergence of Science and Criminal Justice
25(4)
The Probability Nature of Science
26(2)
Objectivity in Scientific Research
28(1)
Functions of Research
29(4)
Exploratory Functions
29(1)
Descriptive Functions
30(1)
Experimental Functions
31(2)
Evaluation Research
33(5)
Theory Defined
38(4)
Assumptions, Propositions, and Definitions
38(2)
Explanation and Prediction
40(2)
Types of Theory
42(11)
Deductive Theory
42(2)
Inductive Theory
44(1)
Grounded Theory
45(6)
Axiomatic Theory
51(2)
Variables and Theory
53(4)
Independent Variables
54(1)
Dependent Variables
54(2)
Discrete Variables
56(1)
Continuous Variables
57(1)
Casual Relations between Variables
57(1)
The Complementarity of Theory and Research
58(2)
Hypotheses and Theory: A Preliminary View
58(2)
The Value of Theory
60(1)
Atheoretical Evaluations
60(1)
The Value of Research
61(1)
Summary
61(2)
Questions for Review
63(2)
Frames of Reference and Problem Formulation
65(34)
Chapter Outline
65(1)
Chapter Objectives
65(1)
Introduction
66(1)
What Are Frames of Reference?
67(4)
Choosing a Frame of Reference
69(1)
Values and Frames of Reference
69(1)
Are Frames of Reference Used in All Research?
70(1)
Frames of Reference and Theory
71(1)
Deciding What to Study: Topics of Investigation for Criminal Justice and Criminology
72(4)
Reviewing the Literature
76(13)
Sources for Literature Reviews
80(3)
``Hands-On'' Research and Investigations from a Distance
83(1)
``Hands-On'' Research
83(4)
Investigations from a Distance
87(1)
The Uniform Crime Reports and the National Crime Victimization Survey
87(2)
Issues in Formulating Research Problems
89(6)
Summary
95(3)
Questions for Review
98(1)
Research Designs
99(49)
Chapter Outline
99(1)
Chapter Objectives
99(1)
Introduction
100(2)
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
102(2)
Qualitative Research
102(1)
Quantitative Research
103(1)
Research Objectives and Designs
104(7)
Exploration and Exploratory Objectives
105(1)
Description and Descriptive Objectives
106(2)
Experimentation and Experimental Objectives
108(3)
Some Conventional Research Designs
111(11)
Surveys
111(6)
Case Studies
117(4)
Comparison of Surveys and Case Studies
121(1)
Classic Experimental Design
122(8)
Experimental and Control Groups
122(2)
Equivalent Groups and Establishing Equivalence
124(4)
Pretests and Posttests
128(2)
Variations in the Classic Experimental Design
130(9)
The After-Only Design
130(1)
The Before-After Design
131(1)
True Experiments and Quasi-Experiments
132(2)
Time-Series and Multiple Time-Series Designs
134(3)
Cost-Benefit Analyses
137(2)
Internal and External Validity
139(4)
Internal Validity and Threats
139(2)
External Validity and Threats
141(2)
Summary
143(4)
Questions for Review
147(1)
Data Collection Strategies I: Sampling Techniques, Purposes, and Problems
148(55)
Chapter Outline
148(1)
Chapter Objectives
148(1)
Introduction
149(1)
What is Sampling?
150(3)
Populations and Parameters
150(1)
Samples and Statistics
151(1)
Generalizability and Representativeness
151(2)
The Decision to Sample
153(1)
Size of the Target Population
153(1)
Cost of Obtaining the Elements
154(1)
Convenience and Accessibility of the Elements
154(1)
Some Functions of Sampling
154(2)
Economizing Resources
155(1)
Manageability
155(1)
Meeting Assumptions of Statistical Tests
155(1)
Meeting the Requirements of Experiments
155(1)
Probability Sampling Plans
156(18)
Randomness
160(2)
Simple Random Sampling and Random Numbers Tables
162(6)
Stratified Random Sampling
168(3)
Area, Cluster, or Multistage Sampling
171(3)
Nonprobability Sampling Plans
174(10)
Accidental Sampling
175(1)
Systematic Sampling
176(2)
Purposive or Judgmental Sampling
178(1)
Quota Sampling
179(1)
Snowball Sampling and the Use of Informants
180(2)
Dense and Saturation Sampling
182(2)
Types of Sampling Situations
184(3)
Single-Sample Situations
184(1)
Two- and k-Sample Situations
185(1)
Independent Samples
186(1)
Related Samples
187(1)
Some Selected Sampling Problems
187(10)
Determining Sample Size
188(1)
Nonresponse and What to Do about It
188(4)
Is the Sample Representative? Uncertainty about Representativeness
192(1)
Sampling and Statistical Analysis
192(1)
Ideal and Real Sampling Considerations
193(1)
Potentates: Juveniles, Prisoners, and Permission to Sample Special Populations of Subjects
193(4)
Summary
197(4)
Questions for Review
201(2)
Data Collection Strategies II: Questionnaires
203(40)
Chapter Outline
203(1)
Chapter Objectives
203(1)
Introduction
204(1)
Questionnaires in Criminal Justice Research
205(2)
Functions of Questionnaires
207(4)
Description
207(4)
Measurement
211(1)
Types of Questionnaires
211(9)
Fixed-Response Questionnaires
211(3)
Open-Ended Questionnaires
214(1)
Combinations of Fixed-Response and Open-Ended Items
215(1)
Comparison of Fixed-Response and Open-Ended Items
216(4)
Questionnaire Administration
220(6)
Mailed Questionnaires
220(5)
Face-to-Face Questionnaire Administration
225(1)
Comparison of Mailed Questionnaires with Face-to-Face Questionnaire Administration
225(1)
Questionnaire Construction
226(5)
Selecting and Ordering the Questionnaire Items
228(3)
Response and Nonresponse: Some Considerations
231(7)
Questionnaire Length
231(1)
Questionnaire Content and Wording: Possible Sources of Bias
231(1)
Double-Barreled Questions
232(1)
The Use of Certain Key Words
232(1)
Anonymity
233(1)
Self-Reports
234(1)
Research Applications of Self-Reports
234(2)
How Do You Know Respondents Tell the Truth? The Lie Factor
236(1)
Cultural Values and Questionnaire Wording
237(1)
Other Factors
238(1)
What about Nonresponse?
239(1)
Summary
239(3)
Questions for Review
242(1)
Data Collection Strategies III: Interviews
243(52)
Chapter Outline
243(1)
Chapter Objectives
243(1)
Introduction
244(2)
Interviews as Instruments in Criminal Justice Research
246(1)
Interviews Contrasted with Questionnaires
247(1)
Types of Interviews
248(20)
Unstructured Interviews
248(3)
Structured Interviews and the Focused Interview
251(6)
In-Depth Interviews
257(8)
Telephone Interviews
265(3)
Functions of Interviewing
268(4)
Description
268(1)
Exploration
268(4)
Interview Construction
272(12)
Conducting Interviews
284(5)
Gaining Access to Organizations
284(1)
Arranging the Interview
285(1)
Training and Orientation for Interviewers
285(1)
What Makes a Good Interviewer? Personality Factors
286(1)
Dressing Appropriately
286(1)
Probing
287(1)
Videotaping or Tape-Recording Interviews
288(1)
The Use of Lie Detectors and Polygraph Tests
288(1)
Interviewing May Be Dangerous
288(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Interviews in Criminal Justice Research
289(2)
Summary
291(3)
Questions for Review
294(1)
Data Collection Strategies IV: Observational Techniques and the Use of Secondary Sources
295(39)
Chapter Outline
295(1)
Chapter Objectives
295(1)
Introduction
296(1)
What is Observation?
297(1)
Major Purposes of Observation
298(1)
Types of Observation
299(3)
Participant Observation
299(1)
Nonparticipant Observation and Unobtrusive Observation
300(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation in Criminological Research
302(4)
Impact of the Observer on the Observed
306(1)
Impact of the Observed on the Observer
307(2)
Analysis of Secondary Sources
309(12)
The Major Features of Secondary Sources
309(1)
Types of Secondary Sources
309(11)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Sources
320(1)
Content Analysis
321(5)
Some Examples of Content Analysis
321(5)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Content Analysis
326(1)
Official and Criminal Justice Agency Records
326(1)
Canned Data Sets
327(1)
Meta-Analysis
327(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Meta-Analysis
329(1)
Summary
330(3)
Questions for Review
333(1)
Measurement of Variables in Criminal Justice and Criminology
334(63)
Chapter Outline
334(1)
Chapter Objectives
334(1)
Introduction
335(2)
Measurement of Variables in Criminology and Criminal Justice
337(8)
Functions of Measurement
338(1)
Conceptualizations of Social and Psychological Phenomena
338(1)
Rendering Data Amenable to Statistical Treatment
338(1)
Assisting in Hypothesis Testing and Theory Verification
339(5)
Differentiating between People According to Properties They Possess
344(1)
Hypotheses: Operationalizing Variables
345(6)
Nominal and Operational Definitions
345(2)
Concepts
347(1)
Constructs
347(4)
Levels of Measurement
351(8)
Nominal Level of Measurement
355(1)
Ordinal Level of Measurement
355(1)
Interval Level of Measurement
356(1)
Ratio Level of Measurement
357(2)
Types of Scaling Procedures for Measuring Variables
359(16)
Likert-Type Scales
359(11)
Thurstone Scales and Equal-Appearing Intervals
370(5)
Other Types of Scaling Procedures
375(11)
Guttman Scaling
375(5)
The Semenatic Differential
380(2)
Q-Sort
382(1)
The Sellin--Wolfgang Crime Severity Index
383(1)
The Salient Factor Score (SFS 81)
383(2)
Greenwood's Rand Seven-Factor Index
385(1)
Some Issues of Measurement
386(6)
Attitude-Action Relation
386(1)
Social Desirability as a Contaminating Factor
387(2)
Response Sets and Validity
389(1)
The Level of Measurement--Statistical Choices Relation
390(2)
Summary
392(3)
Questions for Review
395(2)
Validity and Reliability of Measures
397(43)
Chapter Outline
397(1)
Chapter Objectives
397(1)
Introduction
398(1)
Validity Defined
399(2)
Types of Validity
401(11)
Content Validity
401(4)
Pragmatic Validity
405(5)
Construct Validity
410(2)
Reliability Defined
412(1)
Why is it Important to Have Reliable Measures?
412(1)
Types of Reliability
413(12)
Internal Reliability Checks
414(8)
External Reliability Checks
422(3)
Some Functional Relationships between Validity and Reliability
425(1)
Factors that Affect Validity and Reliability
425(10)
The Instrument and Its Contents
426(1)
Environmental Factors
427(1)
Personal Factors
427(1)
Researcher Interpretations
428(1)
Testing (Pretest) Effect
429(1)
Selection Bias
429(1)
Experimental Mortality
430(1)
Hawthorne Effect
431(1)
Halo Effect
432(1)
Placebo Effect
433(1)
Diffusion of Treatment with Control and Experimental Groups
434(1)
Summary
435(3)
Questions for Review
438(2)
Data Coding, Presentation, and Description Techniques
440(37)
Chapter Outline
440(1)
Chapter Objectives
440(1)
Introduction
440(2)
Coding Variables
442(8)
Verification and Cleaning Data
450(2)
Simple Data Presentation
452(1)
Measures of Crime and Crime Rates
452(4)
Crime Rates
452(3)
Ratios
455(1)
Graphic Presentation
456(1)
Functions of Graphic Presentation
456(4)
Types of Graphic Presentation
460(3)
Pie Charts
460(1)
Bar Graphs
461(2)
Tabular Presentation and Cross-Tabulation
463(10)
Tables and How to Read Them
463(10)
Other Forms of Tabular Presentation
473(1)
Deciding How Best to Present Your Information
473(2)
Summary
475(1)
Questions for Review
476(1)
Hypothesis Testing and Theory Verification
477(29)
Chapter Outline
477(1)
Chapter Objectives
477(1)
Introduction
477(2)
Hypotheses and Theory
479(4)
Types of Hypotheses, Hypothesis Construction, and Hypothesis Sets
483(10)
Research Hypotheses
483(1)
Null Hypotheses
484(4)
Statistical Hypotheses
488(2)
Where do Hypotheses Come From?
490(3)
Hypothesis Formulation: Good, Better, and Best
493(1)
Functions of Hypotheses
493(1)
Single-Variable, Two-Variable, and K-Variable Hypotheses
494(2)
Single-Variable Hypotheses
494(1)
Two-Variable Hypotheses
494(1)
K-Variable Hypotheses
495(1)
Hypothesis Testing
496(1)
Interpreting the Results of Hypothesis Tests
497(7)
Theoretical Considerations
500(1)
Sampling Considerations
500(3)
Measurement Considerations
503(1)
Data Collection Procedures as a Consideration
503(1)
Statistical Considerations
503(1)
Participant Observation as a Consideration
503(1)
Summary
504(1)
Questions for Review
505(1)
Ethics in Research
506(49)
Chapter Outline
506(1)
Chapter Objectives
506(1)
Introduction
507(1)
Ethics Defined
507(1)
Ethical Practices in Criminal Justice Organizations Distinguished from Ethical Dilemmas in Research
508(3)
Ethics and Social Responsibility
511(2)
Ethics and Criminological Research
513(1)
Types of Ethical Problems in Research
514(17)
Plagiarism
514(2)
Fraudulent Research and Statistical Manipulation
516(1)
Research Potentially Harmful to Human Subjects
516(8)
Deception: Lying to Respondents
524(1)
Accessing Confidential Records and Information
525(4)
Sex Offenders: Sexual Histories and Stimulus--Response Experiments
529(1)
Granting Permission to Study Subordinates, Potentates, and Juveniles
530(1)
The Nuremberg Code
531(1)
Professional Associations and the Development of Ethical Standards for Research
532(8)
University Guidelines for Research Projects: The Use of Human Subjects
540(4)
Ethical Issues
544(8)
Sponsored Research and Investigator Interests: Choice or Chance?
544(2)
Rights of Human Subjects
546(3)
Informed Consent and How Personal Information Will Be Used
549(3)
Summary
552(2)
Questions for Review
554(1)
APPENDIX: WRITING PAPERS AND RESEARCH REPORTS
555(24)
Introduction
555(1)
Types of Papers and Research Reports
555(10)
Term Papers
555(2)
Reviews of the Literature
557(1)
Critical Essays and Position Papers
558(1)
Research Papers
558(1)
Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations
558(2)
A Thesis/Dissertation Proposal Outline
560(5)
Sources for References
565(10)
Legal Research in Criminal Justice
575(4)
U.S. Supreme Court Decisions
576(1)
Lower Federal Court Opinions
577(1)
State Supreme Court Decisions
578(1)
Glossary 579(26)
References 605(12)
Index 617

Excerpts

Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (3/e)is about how to do research and investigate various types of research questions that arise in criminology and criminal justice. Why do police officers sometimes use excessive force when subduing criminal suspects who seemingly offer no resistance to arrest? Why do youths join gangs and commit violent acts? Why do some persons become career criminals? Which types of supervision work best for those on parole? What interventions seem to work best in preventing delinquency? Why do nonwhites seem to receive harsher sentences from judges compared with whites in many jurisdictions? Does the death penalty deter persons from committing murder? Why do public defenders appear less effective in defending their clients against criminal charges in court compared with privately appointed counsel? These are just some of the endless kinds of questions criminologists and criminal justice professionals examine when they conduct research.In the social sciences, there is a broad range of research strategies, including a variety of data collection techniques and other analytical tools that exist to serve the needs of most professionals who conduct different kinds of research investigations. While certain research procedures may be relevant for one type of investigation, these same procedures may not be equally suitable for other investigations. There are many research strategies that investigators may choose to collect information to answer any issues they may choose to investigate.This book explores the entire research process from beginning to end. This exploration begins with an examination of theorizing about different kinds of research questions and why different kinds of events occur. Generally theories are designed to offer explanations for why certain events occur and make predictions about them. There are different kinds of theory that can be used by investigators who want to explain why certain events happen- Because different kinds of theory exist, researchers have choices they can make in deciding which theories are best for assisting them in answering particular research questions. This book examines different types of theory and explains the weaknesses and strengths of these theories for particular research questions.When a particular research question is raised, criminologists don't always agree on which answers to these questions seem most plausible. Every social scientist has a point of view or a frame of reference for viewing different kinds of issues or research questions. These frames of reference almost always influence one's approach taken in attempting to explain crime, delinquency, and other related events. Also, the way a problem or question is examined will suggest a particular theoretical approach. Thus, the relation between frames of reference and theories will be examined.Most criminological investigations involve studying people under different types of circumstances: police officers. judges, inmates of prisons or jails, correctional officers, juveniles, defense counsels and prosecutors, probationers or parolees, probation officers or parole officers, community corrections personnel, including volunteers and paraprofessionals, jury members, those on pretrial diversion, and others. It is beyond the resources of most investigators to study all persons about which information is sought. Therefore, only some of these persons are selected for investigation. This is called sampling. There are many types of sampling, and again, researchers have choices about which types of sampling methods they will use in any given set of circumstances. This book examines sampling procedures in great detail, including a broad discussion of sampling issues.Also, these are many ways information about research questions can be gathered. Information may be gathered by examining public documents in a library. Or persons may be interviewe


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