CART

(0) items

Research Methods In Criminal Justice And Criminology,9780205447398
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Research Methods In Criminal Justice And Criminology

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205447398

ISBN10:
0205447392
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $127.80

Buy Used Textbook

(Recommended)
Usually Ships in 2-3 Business Days
U9780205447398
$89.46

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $0.01
See Prices

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2006.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to inclue any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

Related Products


  • Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
    Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
  • Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
    Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
  • Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
    Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
  • Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology
    Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology




Summary

Classic in its field, this best-selling text teaches general research methods using standard and contemporary examples of both qualitative and quantitative research in criminal justice and criminology. The author uses criminological and criminal justice studies to illustrate research methods, so readers can become familiar with examples of research in the field as well as learn fundamental research skills.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Introduction to Criminal Justice Research Methods: Theory and Method
1(32)
Scientific Research in Criminal Justice
2(1)
Common Sense and Nonsense
3(2)
Why Study Research Methods in Criminal Justice?
5(1)
The Emergence of Science and Criminal Justice
6(2)
The Probabilistic Nature of Science
8(1)
Proper Conduct of Critical Inquiry
8(1)
Approaches to Theory and Method in Criminal Justice
9(1)
Pure Versus Applied Research
10(6)
Exhibit 1.1: The Paradigm Shift in Policing
11(2)
Exhibit 1.2: The Project on Human Development
13(2)
Exhibit 1.3: Crime Analysis: Applied Criminal Justice Research
15(1)
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
16(1)
Researchese: The Language of Research
17(3)
Concepts
18(1)
Operationalization
18(1)
Variables
18(1)
Dependent and Independent Variables
19(1)
Theories/Hypotheses
20(1)
Examples of the Research Process
20(2)
Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders
21(1)
General Steps in Empirical Research in Criminal Justice
22(1)
Problem Formulation: Selection of Research Problem
22(3)
Exhibit 1.4: Feminist Perspectives and Research Methods
24(1)
Problem Formulation: Specification of Research Problem
25(1)
Summary
25(7)
Exhibit 1.5: The World Wide Web (WWW)
27(5)
Key Concepts
32(1)
Review Questions
32(1)
Useful Web Sites
32(1)
Ethics in Criminal Justice Research
33(43)
Ethical Horror Stories
34(8)
Biomedical Examples
34(2)
Social Science Examples
36(1)
Exhibit 2.1: AIDS Research in Africa and Asia: Is It Ethical?
37(4)
Researcher Fraud and Plagiarism
41(1)
Exhibit 2.2: Legendary Research Scams
42(1)
The Researcher's Role
42(2)
Research Targets in Criminal Justice
44(1)
Ethics and Professionalism
45(1)
Ethics in Criminal Justice Research
46(9)
History of Federal Regulation of Research
46(3)
The Belmont Report
49(1)
Institutional Review Boards
50(1)
Research Activities Exempt from HHS Review
50(5)
National Institute of Justice's Human Subject Protection Requirements
55(1)
Confidentiality of Criminal Justice Research
55(5)
Exhibit 2.3: Codes of Research Ethics of the ACJS and the ASC
57(3)
Ethical Issues in Criminology / Criminal Justice Research
60(4)
Avoid Research That May Harm Respondents
61(1)
Honor Commitments to Respondents and Respect Reciprocity
62(1)
Exercise Objectivity and Professional Integrity in Performing and Reporting Research
62(1)
Protect Confidentiality and Privacy of Respondents
63(1)
Ethical Problems
64(8)
The Brajuha Case (Weinstein Decision)
66(1)
The Ofshe Case
67(1)
The Hutchinson Case
68(3)
Additional Ethical Concerns
71(1)
Avoiding Ethical Problems
72(1)
Summary
72(2)
Key Concepts
74(1)
Review Questions
74(1)
Useful Web Sites
74(2)
Research Design: The Experimental Model and Its Variations
76(39)
The Experimental Model
77(1)
Research Design in a Nutshell
77(1)
Causality
78(2)
Resolution of the Causality Problem
78(2)
Rival Causal Factors
80(1)
Validity
81(1)
Internal Factors: Variables Related to Internal Validity
81(4)
History
81(1)
Maturation
82(1)
Testing
83(1)
Instrumentation
83(1)
Statistical Regression
83(1)
Selection Bias
84(1)
Experimental Mortality
84(1)
Selection--Maturation Interaction
85(1)
External Factors: Variables Related to External Validity
85(2)
Testing Effects
85(1)
Selection Bias
86(1)
Reactivity or Awareness of Being Studied
86(1)
Multiple-Treatment Interference
86(1)
Related Rival Causal Factors
87(2)
Hawthorne Effect
87(1)
Halo Effect
87(1)
Post Hoc Error
87(1)
Placebo Effect
88(1)
Experimental Designs
89(1)
The Classic Experimental Design
89(2)
Some Criminal Justice Examples of the Classic Experimental Design
91(5)
Candid Camera
91(1)
Scared Straight
91(1)
Community Policing
92(2)
Exhibit 3.1: The Kansas City Gun Experiment
94(2)
Other Experimental Designs
96(1)
Posttest-Only Control Group Design
96(1)
Solomon Four-Group Design
96(1)
Preexperimental Designs
97(2)
One-Group Ex Post Facto Design
97(1)
One-Group Before-After Design
98(1)
Two-Group Ex Post Facto Design
99(1)
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs
99(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
100(5)
Exhibit 3.2: The Cycle of Violence and Victims of Child Abuse
101(1)
Time-Series Designs
101(3)
Multiple Interrupted Time-Series Designs
104(1)
Counterbalanced Designs
104(1)
Some Other Criminal Justice Examples of Variations of the Experimental Model
105(5)
The Provo and Silverlake Experiments
105(1)
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
106(1)
Exhibit 3.3: Evaluations of Shock Incarceration
107(1)
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
108(2)
The Experiment as a Data-Gathering Strategy
110(2)
Advantages of Experiments
110(1)
Disadvantages of Experiments
111(1)
Summary
112(1)
Key Concepts
113(1)
Review Questions
113(1)
Useful Web Sites
114(1)
An Introduction to Alternative Data-Gathering Strategies and the Special Case of Uniform Crime Reports
115(24)
Alternative Data-Gathering Strategies
116(1)
Social Surveys
117(1)
Participant Observation
118(1)
Life History and Case Studies
119(1)
Unobtrusive Measures
119(2)
Exhibit 4.1: Applied Research: Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
120(1)
The Special Case of Uniform Crime Reports
121(1)
The Crime Index
122(1)
Crime Rate
123(1)
Cautions in the Use of UCR Data
124(4)
Factors Affecting the UCR
124(4)
Related UCR Issues
128(2)
Exhibit 4.2: The Crime Dip
129(1)
UCR Redesign
130(6)
National Incident-Based Reporting System
130(1)
Nibrs versus UCR
131(1)
Exhibit 4.3: The National Incident-Based Reporting System (Nibrs)
132(4)
Summary
136(1)
Key Concepts
137(1)
Review Questions
137(1)
Useful Web Sites
138(1)
Sampling and Survey Research: Questionnaires
139(43)
Types of Sampling
140(11)
Probability Samples
140(6)
Nonprobability Samples
146(4)
Exhibit 5.1: Crime Profiling
150(1)
Sample Size
151(1)
Survey Research
152(2)
Some Guidelines for Questionnaire Construction
154(6)
Questionnaire Wording
155(4)
Pretest
159(1)
Organization of the Questionnaire
160(1)
Mail Surveys
160(1)
Advantages of Mail Surveys
161(1)
Disadvantages of Mail Surveys
162(1)
Ways of Eliminating Disadvantages in Mail Surveys
163(5)
Follow-up
163(1)
Offering Remuneration
164(1)
Attractive Format
165(1)
Sponsorship and Endorsements
165(1)
Personalization
166(1)
Shortened Format
166(1)
Good Timing
166(2)
Self-Reported Measures of Crime
168(1)
Some Problems with Self-Report Surveys
169(2)
Strengths of Self-Report Surveys
171(4)
Reliability
171(1)
Validity
172(1)
Use of Other Data
172(1)
Use of Other Observers
173(1)
Use of Polygraph
173(1)
Known-Group Validation
173(1)
Use of Lie Scales
173(1)
Measures of Internal Consistency
174(1)
Use of Interviews
174(1)
Internet Surveys
175(4)
Advantages of Internet Surveys
175(1)
Disadvantages of Internet Surveys
175(1)
Procedures in Internet Surveys
176(3)
Summary
179(1)
Key Concepts
180(1)
Review Questions
181(1)
Useful Web Sites
181(1)
Survey Research: Interviews and Telephone Surveys
182(37)
Types of Interviews
183(2)
Advantages of Interviews
185(1)
Disadvantages of Interviews
186(1)
Interviewing Aids and Variations
186(3)
Exhibit 6.1: Public Opinion Polls
187(2)
General Procedures in Interviews
189(1)
Training and Orientation Session
189(1)
Arranging the Interview
189(1)
Demeanor of Interviewer
190(1)
Administration of the Structured Interview
190(1)
Probing
191(1)
The Exit
192(1)
Recording the Interview
192(1)
Telephone Surveys
193(1)
Advantages and Prospects of Telephone Surveys
194(1)
Disadvantages of Telephone Surveys
194(1)
Computers in Survey Research
195(1)
Random Digit Dialing
196(2)
Techniques Employed in Telephone Surveys
198(1)
Victim Surveys in Criminal Justice
199(1)
National Crime Victimization Survey
200(1)
Sampling
200(1)
Panel Design
201(1)
A Comparison of UCR, NCVS, and Self-Report Data
201(3)
Some Problems in Victim Surveys
204(3)
Cost of Large Samples
204(1)
False Reports
204(1)
Mistaken Reporting
205(1)
Poor Memory
205(1)
Telescoping
205(1)
Sampling Bias
206(1)
Overreporting and Underreporting
206(1)
Interviewer Effects
206(1)
Coding Unreliability and Mechanical Error
207(1)
Problems Measuring Certain Crimes
207(1)
Benefits of Victim Surveys
207(1)
A Defense of Victim Surveys
208(1)
Controlling for Error in Victim Surveys
208(1)
Bounding
209(1)
Reverse Record Checks
209(1)
Victim Surveys: A Balanced View
209(1)
Community Crime Victimization Survey Software
210(1)
Redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey
210(5)
Exhibit 6.2: The Redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey
211(4)
Summary
215(2)
Key Concepts
217(1)
Review Questions
217(1)
Useful Web Sites
218(1)
Participant Observation and Case Studies
219(28)
A Critique of Experiments and Surveys
220(1)
Verbal Reports versus Behavior
220(1)
A Defense of Quantitative Research
221(1)
Participant Observation
222(1)
Types of Participant Observation
223(2)
Characteristics of Participant Observation
225(3)
Objectivity in Research
225(1)
``Going Native''
226(2)
General Procedures in Participant Observation
228(1)
Field Notes
228(1)
Mnemonics
228(1)
Caution in Use of Other Recording Methods
229(1)
Tips on Participant Observation
229(6)
Gaining Access
230(2)
Gatekeepers
232(1)
Announcement of Intentions
232(1)
Sampling
232(1)
Exhibit 7.1: American Skinheads: The Criminology and Control of Hate Crime
233(1)
Reciprocity and Protection of Identity
234(1)
Concern for Accuracy
235(1)
Examples of Participant Observation
235(3)
Exhibit 7.2: Islands in the Streets
237(1)
Exhibit 7.3: This Thing of Darkness: A Participant Observation Study of Idaho Christian Patriots
238(1)
Advantages of Participant Observation
238(1)
Disadvantages of Participant Observation
239(1)
Case Studies
240(1)
Life History / Oral History
241(1)
Some Examples of Case Studies
241(1)
Journalistic Field Studies
242(1)
Single-Subject Designs
242(2)
Summary
244(1)
Key Concepts
245(1)
Review Questions
245(1)
Useful Web Sites
246(1)
Unobtrusive Measures, Secondary Analysis, and the Uses of Official Statistics
247(41)
Major Types of Unobtrusive Methods
248(1)
Physical Trace Analysis
249(1)
Use of Available Data and Archives
250(17)
Secondary Analysis
251(1)
Personal Documents and Biographies
251(3)
Examples of Secondary Analysis
254(2)
Exhibit 8.1: Automated Pin Mapping: Applied Criminal Justice Research Using GIS for Crime Analysis
256(2)
Exhibit 8.2: Street Gang Crime in Chicago
258(2)
Limitations of Official Data
260(1)
Measuring Hidden Populations
261(1)
Historical and Archival Data
262(1)
Content Analysis
262(3)
Content Analysis by Computer
265(1)
Meta-Analysis
265(2)
Sources of Existing Data
267(5)
Exhibit 8.3: Applied Criminal Justice Research: Hotspot Analysis
268(3)
Exhibit 8.4: X-Files at the Federal Bureau of Investigation
271(1)
Observation
272(6)
Exhibit 8.5: National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
273(5)
Disguised Observation
278(3)
Simulations
281(2)
Advantages of Unobtrusive Measures
283(1)
Disadvantages of Unobtrusive Measures
284(1)
Summary
285(1)
Key Concepts
286(1)
Review Questions
286(1)
Useful Web Sites
286(2)
Validity, Reliability, and Triangulated Strategies
288(18)
Error in Research
288(2)
Reasons for Lack of Validation Studies in Criminal Justice
290(2)
Ways of Determining Validity
292(6)
Face Validity
292(1)
Content Validity
293(1)
Construct Validity
293(1)
Pragmatic Validity
294(1)
Convergent-Discriminant Validation / Triangulation
295(3)
Reliability
298(2)
Test-Retest
298(1)
Multiple Forms
299(1)
Split-Half Technique
299(1)
Adam (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program)
300(1)
Other Examples of Research Validation
300(3)
Exhibit 9.1: ADAM
301(2)
Summary
303(1)
Key Concepts
304(1)
Review Questions
304(1)
Useful Web Sites
304(2)
Scaling and Index Construction
306(29)
Levels of Measurement
306(3)
Scaling Procedures
309(1)
Arbitrary Scales
310(1)
The Uniform Crime Report as an Arbitrary Scale
311(1)
Attitude Scales
312(9)
Thurstone Scales
312(2)
Likert Scales
314(3)
Guttman Scales
317(4)
Other Scaling Procedures
321(4)
Q Sort
321(1)
Semantic Differential
321(1)
Other Variations
322(3)
Crime Seriousness Scales
325(2)
Sellin-Wolfgang Index
325(1)
Types of Crime Seriousness Scales
326(1)
Prediction Scales
327(4)
The Salient Factor Score
328(1)
Greenwood's ``Rand Seven-Factor Index''
329(1)
Career Criminal Programs
330(1)
Advantages of Scales
331(1)
Disadvantages of Scales
331(1)
Summary
332(1)
Key Concepts
333(1)
Review Questions
334(1)
Useful Web Sites
334(1)
Policy Analysis and Evaluation Research
335(26)
Policy Analysis
336(1)
Evaluation Research
337(2)
Policy Experiments
338(1)
Policy Analysis: The Case of the National Institute of Justice Research Program
339(2)
NIJ Mission Statement
339(1)
NIJ Research Priorities
340(1)
A Systems Model of Evaluation Research
341(2)
Types of Evaluation Research
343(3)
Will the Findings Be Used?
344(1)
Is the Project Evaluable?
344(2)
Who Can Do This Work?
346(1)
Steps in Evaluation Research
346(5)
Problem Formulation
347(1)
Design of Instruments
347(1)
Research Design
348(1)
Data Collection
349(1)
Data Analysis
350(1)
Utilization
350(1)
What Works in Criminal Justice?
351(4)
The Campbell Collaboration (C2)
352(1)
Exhibit 11.1: Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising
353(2)
Obstacles to Evaluation Research
355(3)
Researchers and Host Agencies
358(1)
Summary
359(1)
Key Concepts
359(1)
Review Questions
360(1)
Useful Web Sites
360(1)
Data Management: Coding, Tabulation, and Simple Data Presentation
361(37)
Variables List
362(1)
Computers
363(1)
Data Management
364(6)
Editing
364(1)
Coding
365(3)
Coder Monitoring
368(1)
Keyboard Entry
369(1)
Data Verification
370(1)
Simple Data Presentation
370(4)
Rates
372(1)
Proportions
372(1)
Percentages
373(1)
Ratios
373(1)
The Frequency Distribution
374(1)
Graphic Presentations
375(7)
Pie Charts
376(1)
Bar Graphs
376(1)
Frequency Polygons (Line Charts)
377(2)
Using SPSS for Graphs
379(1)
Crime Clocks
379(3)
Table Reading
382(1)
Why Bother with Tables?
383(1)
What to Look for in a Table
383(1)
Steps in Reading a Table
383(4)
Summary of Table 12.3
386(1)
How to Construct Tables
387(1)
Presentation of Complex Data
387(2)
General Rules for Percentaging a Table
389(3)
Improper Percentaging
391(1)
Elaboration
392(2)
Lying with Statistics
394(1)
Summary
395(1)
Key Concepts
396(1)
Review Questions
397(1)
Useful Web Sites
397(1)
Data Analysis: A User's Guide to Statistics
398(44)
Why Study Statistics?
399(1)
Using Spss for Statistics
400(1)
Types of Statistics
401(1)
Measures of Central Tendency for a Simple Distribution
401(3)
Mode
401(1)
Median
402(1)
Mean
402(2)
Measures of Dispersion
404(5)
Range
404(2)
Standard Deviation (σ)
406(3)
Standard Deviation Units (Z Scores)
409(2)
Chi-Square (X2)
411(3)
Calculation of Chi-Square
412(1)
Cautions
413(1)
Chi-Square-Based Measures of Association
414(1)
Phi Coefficient (Φ) and Phi-Square (Φ2)
414(1)
Contingency Coefficient (C)
415(1)
Cramer's V
415(1)
Nature and Types of Statistics
415(3)
Nonparametric Statistics
415(1)
Null Hypothesis
416(1)
Tests of Significance
417(1)
The t Test (Difference of Means Test)
418(2)
Types of t Tests
418(2)
Anova (Analysis of Variance)
420(3)
Calculation of Anova
421(2)
Other Measures of Relationship
423(1)
The Concept of Relationship
423(1)
Correlation Coefficient (Pearson's r)
424(3)
Interpretation of Pearson's r
424(1)
Calculation of Pearson's r
425(1)
Statistical Significance of Pearson's r
426(1)
Regression
427(1)
Ordinal Level Measures of Relationship
428(5)
Spearman's Rho (rs)
428(2)
Interpretation of Rho
430(1)
Gamma
430(3)
Multivariate Analysis
433(2)
Partial Correlation
433(1)
Multiple Correlation and Regression
434(1)
Statistical Software
435(1)
Caveat Emptor
436(1)
The Ecological Fallacy
437(1)
Summary
438(2)
Key Concepts
440(1)
Review Questions
440(1)
Useful Web Sites
440(2)
APPENDIX A How to Write the Research Report
442(5)
APPENDIX B Table of Random Numbers
447(2)
APPENDIX C Statistics: An Addendum to Chapter 13
449(8)
Measures of Central Tendency for Grouped Data
449(3)
Standard Deviations for Grouped Data
452(2)
Raw Score Approach
452(1)
Deviation Score Approach
453(1)
Calculation of Anova
454(1)
Regression Calculations
455(1)
A Test of Significance for Gamma
456(1)
APPENDIX D Answers to Pop Quizzes in Chapter 13
457(5)
APPENDIX E Normal Curve Areas
462(5)
APPENDIX F Distribution of Chi-Square (X2)
467(1)
APPENDIX G Proposal Writing and Evaluation
468(11)
Proposal Writing
468(6)
Funding Agencies
468(1)
Grantsmanship
468(1)
Basic Elements of a Proposal
469(5)
NIJ Proposal Format and Content
474(2)
Selection Criteria
475(1)
Evaluation of Research Proposals
476(3)
NIJ Evaluation of Proposals
477(2)
References 479(40)
Glossary 519(6)
Name Index 525(6)
Subject Index 531


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...