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Table of Contents
1. Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment.
Science Is a Way of Thinking.
Science and Art.
Emergence of Science.
The History of Psychology.
The Science of Psychology.
2. Research Is a Process of Inquiry.
A Process of Inquiry.
Basic Assumptions of Science.
Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs.
Conceptual Models in Science.
Inductive and Deductive Thinking.
Models and Theories in Science.
A Model of the Research Process.
3. The Starting Point: Asking Questions.
Refining Questions for Research.
Types of Variables in Research.
Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables.
4. Data and the Nature of Measurement.
Scales of Measurement.
Measuring and Controlling Variables.
The Need for Objective Measurement.
5. Statistical Analysis of Data.
Individual Differences and Statistical Procedures.
6. Field Research: I. Naturalistic Observation, Case-Study Research, and Survey Research.
The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research.
Examples of Naturalistic Observation.
Examples of Case-Study Research.
The Value of Low-Constraint Methods.
Problem Statements and Hypotheses in Naturalistic Observation and Case-Study Research.
Using Naturalistic Observation and Case-Study Methods.
Evaluating and Interpreting Data.
Limitations of Naturalistic Observation and Case-Study Methods.
7. Correlational and Differential Methods of Research.
Correlational Research Methods.
Differential Research Methods.
What Makes Differential Research Higher-Constraint Than Correlational Research?
When to Use Correlational and Differential Research.
Conducting Correlational Research.
Conducting Differential Research.
Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research.
8. Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity.
Validity and Threats to Validity.
Major Confounding Variables.
Subject and Experimenter Effects.
Validity, Control, and Constraint.
9. Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity.
Threats to Validity.
General Control Procedures.
Control Over Subject and Experimenter Effects.
Control Through Participant Selection and Assignment.
Control Through Experimental Design.
10. Control of Variance Through Experimental Design: Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs.
Experimental Designs: Testing One Independent Variable.
Statistical Analyses of Completely Randomized Designs.
Other Experimental Designs.
11. Control of Variance Through Experimental Design: Single-Variable, Correlated-Groups Designs.
12. Control of Variance through Experimental Design: Factorial Designs.
Variations of Basic Factorial Design.
ANOVA: A Postscript.
13. Field Research: II. A Second Look at Research in Natural Settings.
Conducting Field Research.
14. Final Preparations Before Data Collection.
Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures.
The Pre-Data Check.
15. Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline.
New Directions in Research Methodology.
Science: An Interaction between Empiricism and Rationalism.
Appendix A: Using the CD and Web Supplements.
Resources Available on the CD and Website.
Accessing the CD Material.
Accessing the Web Material.
Appendix B: Writing a Research Report: APA Publication Style.
Structure of a Research Article.
Writing the Research Report.
Appendix C: Conducting Library Research.
Using the Library.
How Research Materials Are Organized.
Finding the Relevant Research.
Summary of Library Research.
Appendix D: Random Numbers.
Appendix E: Computerized Statistical Analyses.
Organizing and Entering the Data.
Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows.
Appendix F: Selected Answers to Exercises.