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Research Methods In Psychology,9780534609764

Research Methods In Psychology

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780534609764

ISBN10:
0534609767
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/15/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $284.66

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Summary

Using contemporary examples from primary sources, RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY, Eighth Edition encourages students to become engaged in the basics of scientific investigation through an example-based approach. This text displays the authors' commitment to ensuring that the student has a thorough understanding of the research process from the very beginning. Highly readable, it avoids the heavy statistical tone that some introductory students find difficult to understand. Rather, it is conceptually driven to offer students a big picture view of the experimental approach to research. Empirical examples and applications are consistently used throughout to foster critical thinking skills. In many chapters, a unifying empirical example at the beginning of the chapter is cited throughout the chapter to help clarify terms or design problems. By presenting concepts with concrete examples, the text aids students in applying related ideas to their areas of research interest.

Table of Contents

PART I Basics of Scientific Psychology
1(86)
Overview of Psychological Research
2(27)
An Investigation of Reading
3(3)
Introduction and Method
3(1)
Results and Discussion
4(2)
Goals of Psychological Research
6(5)
Conducting Research
6(1)
Evaluating Research
7(4)
Sources of Research Ideas
11(2)
Observation
11(1)
Experts
11(1)
Literature Search
12(1)
Developing Testable Hypotheses
13(1)
Reviewing the Literature
14(2)
Conducting Pilot Research
16(1)
Some Pitfalls to Avoid
16(5)
Breaches of Ethical Practice
17(1)
Biased Research
17(3)
Reliability of Communication
20(1)
Finishing the Research Project
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
Key Concepts
23(1)
Exercises
23(1)
Suggested Resources
24(1)
Web Resources
24(1)
Laboratory Resource
24(1)
Psychology in Action
25(4)
Explanation in Scientific Psychology
29(27)
Making Sense of the World
30(2)
Social Loafing
30(2)
Sources of Understanding
32(2)
Fixation of Belief
32(2)
The Nature of Scientific Explanation
34(5)
Induction and Deduction
34(5)
From Theory to Hypothesis
39(9)
What Is a Theory?
41(1)
Intervening Variables
42(4)
Evaluating Theories
46(1)
Foxes and Hedgehogs Roaming Through Psychological Theory
47(1)
The Science of Psychology
48(5)
Hard Science as a Model for Experimental Psychology
49(1)
Psychology and the Real World
49(4)
Summary
53(1)
Key Concepts
53(1)
Exercises
54(1)
Suggested Resources
54(1)
Web Resource
54(1)
Psychology in Action
55(1)
Exploring the Literature of Psychology
56(31)
How to Do a Literature Search
57(3)
The Parts of an Article
60(7)
Title and Author(s)
60(1)
Abstract
60(1)
Introduction
61(1)
Method
61(1)
Results
61(6)
Discussion
67(1)
References
67(1)
Checklist for the Critical Reader
67(4)
Introduction
67(1)
Method
68(1)
Results
69(1)
Discussion
69(1)
Checklist Summary
70(1)
A Sample Journal Article
71(11)
Summary
82(1)
Key Concepts
83(1)
Exercise
83(1)
Suggested Resource
83(1)
Web Resources
84(1)
Psychology in Action
84(3)
PART II Basic Research Methods
87(100)
Observations in Psychological Research
88(22)
Descriptive Observation Methods
89(8)
Naturalistic Observations
91(4)
The Case Study
95(2)
Survey Research
97(1)
Advantages of Descriptive Observations
97(2)
Sources of Error in Descriptive Research
99(3)
Reactivity in Descriptive Research
102(4)
Summary
106(1)
Key Concepts
107(1)
Exercises
107(1)
Suggested Resources
108(1)
Web Resources
108(1)
Laboratory Resource
108(1)
Psychology in Action
108(2)
Relational Research
110(21)
Contingency Table Research
111(3)
Correlational Research
114(14)
The Correlation Coefficient
114(7)
Regression
121(1)
Complex Correlational Procedures
122(3)
Experimentation and Internal Validity
125(3)
Summary
128(1)
Key Concepts
128(1)
Exercises
128(1)
Suggested Resource
129(1)
Web Resources
129(1)
Laboratory Resources
129(1)
Psychology in Action
130(1)
Basics of Experimentation
131(32)
Experimentation: An Example
132(2)
What Is an Experiment?
134(2)
Advantages of Experimentation
136(2)
Variables in Experimentation
138(11)
Independent Variables
138(1)
Dependent Variables
139(1)
Control Variables
140(1)
Using Variables
141(1)
Naming the Variables
141(3)
More Than One Independent Variable
144(4)
More Than One Dependent Variable
148(1)
Possible Sources of Experimental Error
149(5)
Reactivity in Experimentation
149(5)
External Validity of the Research Procedure
154(5)
Participant/Subject Representativeness
154(2)
Variable Representativeness
156(1)
Setting Representativeness
157(2)
Summary
159(1)
Key Concepts
160(1)
Exercises
161(1)
Suggested Resource
161(1)
Web Resources
161(1)
Laboratory Resources
161(1)
Psychology in Action
162(1)
Validity and Reliability in Psychological Research
163(24)
Validity
164(5)
Predictive Validity
164(1)
Construct Validity
165(2)
External Validity
167(1)
Internal Validity
168(1)
Reliability
169(5)
Types of Reliability
170(1)
Statistical Reliability and Validity
171(1)
Sampling
172(2)
Meta-analysis
174(2)
Measurement Procedures
176(7)
Psychophysics
180(2)
Psychometrics
182(1)
Summary
183(2)
Key Concepts
185(1)
Exercises
185(1)
Suggested Resources
185(1)
Web Resources
185(1)
Psychology in Action
186(1)
PART III Advanced Research Topics
187(90)
Experimental Design
188(23)
Internal Validity in Experiments
189(4)
Executive Monkeys
189(2)
Experiments with LSD
191(2)
Experimental Design
193(8)
Between-Subjects Designs
194(2)
Within-Subjects Designs
196(5)
Control Conditions
201(2)
Mixed Designs
203(1)
Choosing an Experimental Design
203(4)
Carryover Effects
203(1)
Individual Differences
204(1)
Contrasting Between- and Within-Subjects Designs
204(1)
Design Problems
205(2)
Summary
207(1)
Key Concepts
208(1)
Exercises
208(1)
Suggested Resources
208(1)
Web Resources
209(1)
Laboratory Resources
209(1)
Psychology in Action
209(2)
Complex Design
211(23)
Factorial Designs
212(10)
A 2 X 2 Experiment in Social Psychology: The Sleeper Effect
212(5)
Patterns of Interaction
217(3)
Control in Between-Subjects Factorial Design
220(2)
Complex Within-Subjects Designs
222(4)
A Complex Within-Subjects Experiment
222(4)
Mixed Designs
226(4)
A Route Guidance Experiment
226(3)
Memory for ATIS Messages
229(1)
Summary
230(1)
Key Concepts
231(1)
Exercises
231(1)
Suggested Resource
232(1)
Web Resource
232(1)
Laboratory Resource
232(1)
Psychology in Action
232(2)
Small-n Experimentation
234(19)
Small-n Designs
235(12)
The AB Design
236(1)
The ABA or Reversal Design
237(4)
Alternating-Treatments Design
241(1)
Multiple-Baseline Design
242(4)
Changing-Criterion Design
246(1)
Clinical Psychology
247(2)
A Case Study on Dissociative Identity Disorder
247(2)
Summary
249(1)
Key Concepts
249(1)
Exercises
249(1)
Suggested Resource
250(1)
Web Resources
250(1)
Laboratory Resource
250(1)
Psychology in Action
250(3)
Quasi-Experimentation
253(24)
Internal Validity in Quasi-Experiments
254(20)
Natural Treatments
254(1)
One-Shot Case Studies
255(5)
Interrupted-Time-Series Design
260(4)
Designs Employing Subject Variables
264(2)
Matching
266(5)
Age as a Variable
271(3)
Summary
274(1)
Key Concepts
275(1)
Exercises
275(1)
Suggested Resources
276(1)
Web Resources
276(1)
Psychology in Action
276(1)
PART IV The Practice of Scientific Psychology
277(82)
Conducting Ethical Research
278(22)
Research with Human Participants
279(9)
Informed Consent and Deception
281(2)
Freedom to Withdraw
283(1)
Protection from Harm and Debriefing
284(1)
Removing Harmful Consequences
285(1)
Confidentiality
285(3)
Ethics in Research with Animals
288(4)
Arguments against Research with Animals
288(1)
Arguments for Research with Animals
289(1)
Guidelines for Use of Animals in Research
290(2)
Scientific Fraud
292(2)
Monitoring Ethical Practices
294(1)
Summary
295(1)
Key Concepts
296(1)
Exercises
296(2)
Suggested Resources
298(1)
Web Resource
298(1)
Laboratory Resource
298(1)
Psychology in Action
298(2)
Interpreting the Results of Research
300(24)
Interpreting Specific Results
301(8)
The Problem of Scale Attenuation
301(4)
Regression Artifacts
305(4)
Interpreting Patterns of Research
309(11)
Reliability and Replication
310(4)
Converging Operations
314(6)
Summary
320(1)
Key Concepts
320(1)
Exercises
321(1)
Suggested Resources
322(1)
Web Resource
322(1)
Laboratory Resource
322(1)
Psychology in Action
322(2)
Presenting Research Results
324(35)
How to Write a Research Report
325(28)
Format
325(3)
Sample Manuscript
328(22)
Style
350(3)
How to Publish an Article
353(2)
How to Give an Oral Presentation
355(2)
Content
355(1)
Style
356(1)
How to Give a Poster Presentation
357(1)
Summary
358(1)
Key Concepts
358(1)
Exercise
358(1)
Web Resources
358(1)
Statistical Appendices
359(1)
Appendix A Descriptive Statistics
360(14)
Descriptive Statistics: Telling It Like It Is
361(5)
Central Tendency
362(1)
Measures of Dispersion: Variability in Data
363(3)
The Normal Distribution
366(7)
Correlation Coefficient
369(4)
Additional Information on Descriptive Statistics
373(1)
Appendix B Inferential Statistics
374(38)
Statistical Reasoning
375(36)
Sampling
375(5)
Testing Hypotheses
380(7)
Tests for Differences Between Two Groups
387(9)
The Analysis of Variance
396(15)
Additional Information on Inferential Statistics
411(1)
Appendix C Statistical Tables
412(19)
References 431(10)
Glossary 441(10)
Name Index 451(4)
Subject Index 455


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